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Fixed-wing aircraft

Index Fixed-wing aircraft

A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. [1]

249 relations: Aéro-Club de France, Abbas ibn Firnas, Aerodynamics, Aeronautics, Air traffic control, Airbus A380, Aircraft, Aircraft engine, Aircraft flight mechanics, Aircraft pilot, Aircrew, Airfoil, Airframe, Airlift, Airliner, Airplane, Airspeed, Airspeed indicator, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Alexander Graham Bell, Alexander Lippisch, Altimeter, Aluminium alloy, American and British English spelling differences, American English, Ammunition, Amphibious aircraft, Ancient Greece, Aramid, Archytas, Aspect ratio, Atmospheric entry, Attitude indicator, Aulus Gellius, Autopilot, Aviation, Bell X-1, Benjamin Franklin, Berlin Blockade, Bermuda kite, Biplane, Bird, Blériot VIII, Blériot XI, Blitzkrieg, Boeing 707, Boeing 747, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Bow kite, Bowed kite, ..., Box kite, Brake, British English, Canard (aeronautics), Chapi-chapi, Charles Lindbergh, Cheston Lee Eshelman, China, Cockpit, Composite material, Convair B-36 Peacemaker, De Havilland Comet, Delta wing, Douglas C-47 Skytrain, Drag (physics), Eilmer of Malmesbury, Electric motor, Electricity, Elevator (aeronautics), Empennage, English Channel, Environmental impact of aviation, Europe, Experimental aircraft, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Federal Aviation Administration, Fighter aircraft, Fighter kite, Flap (aeronautics), Flight, Flight altitude record, Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft), Flight instruments, Flight management system, Float (nautical), Floatplane, Fly-by-wire, Flying ace, Flying boat, Flying wing, Focke-Achgelis Fa 330, Foil kite, Fuel efficiency, Fuselage, George Cayley, Glide bomb, Glider (aircraft), Glider (sailplane), Glider competition classes, Glider infantry, Gliding, Gloster Meteor, Ground effect (aerodynamics), Ground effect vehicle, Guglielmo Marconi, Hang gliding, Heading indicator, Heinkel He 178, Hiram Maxim, History of aviation, Horizontal situation indicator, Horten brothers, Horten H.IV, Hugo Junkers, Hull (watercraft), Hypersonic speed, Indoor kite, Inflatable single-line kite, J. W. Dunne, Jack Northrop, Japan, Jean-Marie Le Bris, Jet airliner, Jet engine, John Joseph Montgomery, Joystick, Junkers J 1, Kite, Kite aerial photography, Kiteboating, Korean War, Kurt Wintgens, Kytoon, Landing gear, Lawrence Hargrave, Lift (force), Lift (soaring), Lift-to-drag ratio, Lifting body, Lightning, Luftstreitkräfte, Luftwaffe, Malay kite, Malaysia, Man-lifting kite, Maneuvering speed, Manfred von Richthofen, Marco Polo, Messerschmitt Me 262, Microlift glider, Military glider, Model aircraft, Monoplane, Motor glider, Multiplane (aeronautics), Muna Island, Nadar, NASA, NASA Paresev, Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, Observation, Ochroma, Octave Chanute, Ornithopter, Otto Lilienthal, Paper plane, Parafoil, Paragliding, Paravane (water kite), Payload, Percy Pilcher, Polystyrene, Power kite, Powered hang glider, Powered parachute, Powered paragliding, Primary flight display, Primary glider, Propeller (aeronautics), Radar, Radial engine, Radio direction finder, Reciprocating engine, Rocket-powered aircraft, Rogallo wing, Rokkaku dako, Rotary engine, Rotorcraft, Rudder, Safety harness, Santos-Dumont 14-bis, Satellite navigation, Scale model, Seaplane, Short Stirling, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle design process, Spacecraft, Spaceplane, Speed of sound, Spirit of St. Louis, Spoiler (aeronautics), Sponson, Sport kite, Stealth aircraft, Stealth technology, Strategic bomber, Sulawesi, Supersonic speed, Swept wing, Tailless aircraft, Tailplane, Takeoff, Takeoff and landing, Tandem wing, Technology and Culture, Tether, Tethered balloon, Tetrahedral kite, Thermal, Throttle, Thrust, Thrust lever, Tractor configuration, Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, Trim tab, Triplane, Tupolev ANT-20, Tupolev Tu-104, Turn and slip indicator, Twin-boom aircraft, Two-way radio, United States Air Force, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Variable-sweep wing, Variometer, Vertical stabilizer, Water landing, Wau bulan, Weather forecasting, Weather radar, Wing, Wing configuration, World War I, World War II, Wright brothers, Wright Flyer, Wright Flyer III, Yoke (aeronautics). Expand index (199 more) »

Aéro-Club de France

The Aéro-Club de France was founded as the Aéro-Club on 20 October 1898 as a society 'to encourage aerial locomotion' by Ernest Archdeacon, Léon Serpollet, Henri de la Valette, Jules Verne and his wife, André Michelin, Albert de Dion, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe, and Henry de La Vaulx.

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Abbas ibn Firnas

Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini (810–887 A.D.), also known as Abbas ibn Firnas (عباس بن فرناس), was an Andalusian polymath:Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961).

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Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.

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Air traffic control

Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.

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Airbus A380

The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.

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An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

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Aircraft engine

An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.

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Aircraft flight mechanics

Flight mechanics are relevant to fixed wing (gliders, aeroplanes) and rotary wing (helicopters) aircraft.

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Aircraft pilot

An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.

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Aircrew, also called flight crew, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight.

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An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).

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The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure.

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An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.

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An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.

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An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.

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Airspeed is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air.

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Airspeed indicator

The airspeed indicator or airspeed gauge is an instrument used in an aircraft to display the craft's airspeed, typically in knots, to the pilot.

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Alberto Santos-Dumont

Alberto Santos-Dumont (20 July 187323 July 1932, usually referred to as simply Santos-Dumont) was a Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer, one of the very few people to have contributed significantly to the development of both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft.

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Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.

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Alexander Lippisch

Alexander Martin Lippisch (November 2, 1894 – February 11, 1976) was a German aeronautical engineer, a pioneer of aerodynamics who made important contributions to the understanding of tailless aircraft, delta wings and the ground effect, and also worked in the U.S. His most famous designs are the Messerschmitt Me 163 rocket-powered interceptorReitsch, H., 1955, The Sky My Kingdom, London: Biddles Limited, Guildford and King's Lynn, and the Dornier Aerodyne.

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An altimeter or an altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.

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Aluminium alloy

Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal.

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American and British English spelling differences

Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.

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Amphibious aircraft

An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an aircraft that can take off and land on both land and water.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.

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Archytas (Ἀρχύτας; 428–347 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist.

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Aspect ratio

The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.

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Atmospheric entry

Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.

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Attitude indicator

An attitude indicator (AI), also known as gyro horizon or artificial horizon or attitude director indicator (ADI, when it has a Flight Director), is an instrument used in an aircraft to inform the pilot of the orientation of the aircraft relative to Earth's horizon.

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Aulus Gellius

Aulus Gellius (c. 125after 180 AD) was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome.

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An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of an aircraft without constant 'hands-on' control by a human operator being required.

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Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.

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Bell X-1

The Bell X-1 was a rocket engine–powered aircraft, designated originally as the XS-1, and was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics–U.S. Army Air Forces–U.S. Air Force supersonic research project built by Bell Aircraft.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Berlin Blockade

The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.

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Bermuda kite

A Bermuda kite is a kite made using traditional, geometric designs, quite colorful, and is an art form as much as a recreational tool.

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A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blériot VIII

The Blériot VIII was a French pioneer era aeroplane built by Louis Blériot, significant for its adoption of both a configuration and a control system that were to set a standard for decades to come.

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Blériot XI

The Blériot XI is a French aircraft of the pioneer era of aviation.

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Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.

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Boeing 707

The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979.

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Boeing 747

The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".

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Boeing B-52 Stratofortress

The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.

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Bow kite

Bow kites are leading edge inflatable kites that incorporate a bridle on the leading edge.

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Bowed kite

Bowed kites such as the Japanese rokkaku, and traditional versions of the more familiar "diamond" shaped kites such as the Malay or Eddy, are tensioned into a bow in order to improve their stability to the point where a tail often becomes unnecessary.

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Box kite

A box kite is a high performance kite, noted for developing relatively high lift; it is a type within the family of cellular kites.

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A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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Canard (aeronautics)

A canard is an aeronautical arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.

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Chapi-chapi is a small, two-stick kite that can be quickly constructed from cheap materials such as newspapers, broom sticks, or discarded plastic sheet.

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Charles Lindbergh

Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974), nicknamed Lucky Lindy, The Lone Eagle, and Slim was an American aviator, military officer, author, inventor, explorer, and environmental activist.

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Cheston Lee Eshelman

Cheston Lee Eshelman (January 23, 1917 – November 7, 2004) was born in McKnightstown, Pennsylvania near Gettysburg, and was an American inventor, aviator, manufacturer of aircraft, boats, garden machinery and small automobiles, and founder of the Cheston L. Eshelman Company and Eshelman Motors Corporation in Baltimore and Dundalk, Maryland.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Convair B-36 Peacemaker

The Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" is a strategic bomber built by Convair and operated solely by the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1949 to 1959.

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De Havilland Comet

The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner.

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Delta wing

The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.

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Douglas C-47 Skytrain

The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota (RAF designation) is a military transport aircraft developed from the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner.

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Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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Eilmer of Malmesbury

Eilmer of Malmesbury (also known as Oliver due to a scribe's miscopying, or Elmer, or Æthelmær) was an 11th-century English Benedictine monk best known for his early attempt at a gliding flight using wings.

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Electric motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Elevator (aeronautics)

Elevators are flight control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's pitch, and therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing.

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The empennage, also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Environmental impact of aviation

The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Experimental aircraft

An experimental aircraft is an aircraft that has not yet been fully proven in flight.

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Fédération Aéronautique Internationale

The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.

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Federal Aviation Administration

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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Fighter kite

Fighter kites are kites used for the sport of kite fighting.

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Flap (aeronautics)

Flaps are a type of high-lift device used to increase the lift of an aircraft wing at a given airspeed.

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Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.

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Flight altitude record

This listing of flight altitude records are the records set for the highest aeronautical flights conducted in the atmosphere, set since the age of ballooning.

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Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft)

Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

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Flight instruments

Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, airspeed and direction.

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Flight management system

A flight management system (FMS) is a fundamental component of a modern airliner's avionics.

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Float (nautical)

Floats (also called pontoons) are airtight hollow structures, similar to pressure vessels, designed to provide buoyancy in water.

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A floatplane (float plane or pontoon plane) is a type of seaplane, with one or more slender pontoons (known as "floats") mounted under the fuselage to provide buoyancy.

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Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.

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Flying ace

A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.

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Flying boat

A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water, that usually has no type of landing gear to allow operation on land.

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Flying wing

A flying wing is a tailless fixed-wing aircraft that has no definite fuselage.

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Focke-Achgelis Fa 330

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) was a type of rotary-wing kite, known as a gyroglider or rotor kite.

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Foil kite

Foil kites are soft kites based on the design of the parafoil.

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Fuel efficiency

Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.

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The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.

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George Cayley

Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was an English engineer, inventor, and aviator.

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Glide bomb

A glide bomb or stand-off bomb is a standoff weapon with flight control surfaces to give it a flatter, gliding flight path than that of a conventional bomb without such surfaces.

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Glider (aircraft)

A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine.

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Glider (sailplane)

A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding.

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Glider competition classes

Competition classes in gliding, as in other sports, mainly exist to ensure fairness in competition.

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Glider infantry

Glider infantry (also referred to as airlanding infantry esp. in British usage) was a type of airborne infantry in which soldiers and their equipment were inserted into enemy-controlled territory via military glider rather than parachute.

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Gliding is a recreational activity and competitive air sport in which pilots fly unpowered aircraft known as gliders or sailplanes using naturally occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne.

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Gloster Meteor

The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during the Second World War.

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Ground effect (aerodynamics)

In fixed-wing aircraft, ground effect is the increased lift (force) and decreased aerodynamic drag that an aircraft's wings generate when they are close to a fixed surface.

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Ground effect vehicle

A ground-effect vehicle (GEV) is a vehicle that is designed to attain sustained flight over a level surface (usually over the sea) by making use of ground effect, the aerodynamic interaction between the wings and the surface.

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Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.

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Hang gliding

Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider.

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Heading indicator

The heading indicator (also called an HI) is a flight instrument used in an aircraft to inform the pilot of the aircraft's heading.

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Heinkel He 178

The Heinkel He 178 was the world's first aircraft to fly under turbojet power, and the first practical jet aircraft.

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Hiram Maxim

Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (5 February 1840 – 24 November 1916) was an American-born British inventor, best known as the creator of the Maxim Gun, the first portable fully automatic machine gun.

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History of aviation

The history of aviation extends for more than two thousand years, from the earliest forms of aviation such as kites and attempts at tower jumping to supersonic and hypersonic flight by powered, heavier-than-air jets.

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Horizontal situation indicator

The horizontal situation indicator (commonly called the HSI) is an aircraft flight instrument normally mounted below the artificial horizon in place of a conventional heading indicator.

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Horten brothers

Walter Horten (born 13 November 1913; died 9 December 1998 in Baden-Baden, Germany) and Reimar Horten (born 12 March 1915; died 14 March 1994 in Villa General Belgrano, Argentina), sometimes credited as the Horten Brothers, were German aircraft pilots and enthusiasts.

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Horten H.IV

The Horten H.IV was a German tailless flying wing glider in which the pilot was to lie in a prone position to reduce the frontal area, and hence drag.

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Hugo Junkers

Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 – 3 February 1935) was a German aircraft engineer and aircraft designer.

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Hull (watercraft)

The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.

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Hypersonic speed

In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.

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Indoor kite

Indoor kites are kites designed to fly in a windless environment.

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Inflatable single-line kite

The ram-air inflatable single-line kite is one of the few modern inventions in the world of kite design.

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J. W. Dunne

John William Dunne FRAeS (1875–1949) was a British soldier, aeronautical engineer and philosopher.

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Jack Northrop

John Knudsen "Jack" Northrop (November 10, 1895 – February 18, 1981) was an American aircraft industrialist and designer, who founded the Northrop Corporation in 1939.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jean-Marie Le Bris

Jean Marie Le Bris (25 March 1817 – 17 February 1872) was a French aviator, born in Concarneau, Brittany, who accomplished a glider flight in December 1856.

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Jet airliner

A jet airliner (or jetliner) is an airliner powered by jet engines (passenger jet aircraft).

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Jet engine

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

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John Joseph Montgomery

John Joseph Montgomery (February 15, 1858 – October 31, 1911) was an American inventor, physicist, engineer, and professor at Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California who is best known for his invention of controlled heavier-than-air flying machines.

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A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.

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Junkers J 1

The Junkers J 1, nicknamed the Blechesel ("Tin Donkey" or "Sheet Metal Donkey"), was an experimental monoplane aircraft developed by Junkers & Co.

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A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag.

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Kite aerial photography

Kite aerial photography (KAP) is a hobby and a type of photography.

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Kiteboating or kite boating is the act of using a kite rig as a power source to propel a boat.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Kurt Wintgens

Leutnant Kurt Wintgens (1 August 1894 – 25 September 1916) was a German World War I fighter ace.

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A kytoon or kite balloon is a tethered aircraft which obtains some of its lift dynamically as a heavier-than-air kite and the rest aerostatically as a lighter-than-air balloon.

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Landing gear

Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.

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Lawrence Hargrave

Lawrence Hargrave, MRAeS, (29 January 18506 July 1915) was an Australian engineer, explorer, astronomer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer.

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Lift (force)

A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.

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Lift (soaring)

Lift is a meteorological phenomenon used as an energy source by soaring aircraft and soaring birds.

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Lift-to-drag ratio

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the aerodynamic drag it creates by moving through the air.

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Lifting body

A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.

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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte (German Air Force)—known before October 1916 as the Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Flying Corps) or simply Die Fliegertruppe—was the World War I (1914–18) air arm of the German Army, of which it remained an integral part.

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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Malay kite

The Malay kite is a model of tailless kite.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Man-lifting kite

A man-lifting kite is a kite designed to lift a person from the ground.

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Maneuvering speed

In aviation, the maneuvering speed of an aircraft is an airspeed limitation selected by the designer of the aircraft.

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Manfred von Richthofen

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also known as the "Red Baron", was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Messerschmitt Me 262

The Messerschmitt Me 262, nicknamed Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel (German: "Storm Bird") in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft.

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Microlift glider

A Microlift glider is a recreational glider that is able to exploit microlift, which is lift weaker than a conventional glider would require to stay airborne.

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Military glider

Military gliders (an offshoot of common gliders) have been used by the military of various countries for carrying troops (glider infantry) and heavy equipment to a combat zone, mainly during the Second World War.

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Model aircraft

A model aircraft is a small sized unmanned aircraft or, in the case of a scale model, a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft.

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A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes.

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Motor glider

A motor glider is a fixed-wing aircraft that can be flown with or without engine power.

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Multiplane (aeronautics)

In aviation, a multiplane is a fixed-wing aircraft-configuration featuring multiple wing planes.

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Muna Island

Muna (Pulau Muna) is an island in the Southeast Sulawesi province of Indonesia with an area of.

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Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (6 April 1820 – 20 March 1910), known by the pseudonym Nadar, was a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist (or, more accurately, proponent of manned flight).

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Paresev

The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was an experimental NASA glider aircraft based upon the kite-parachute studies by NASA engineer Francis Rogallo.

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Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit

The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy penetration strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two.

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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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Ochroma is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae, containing the sole species Ochroma pyramidale, commonly known as the balsa tree.

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Octave Chanute

Octave Chanute (February 18, 1832, Paris – November 23, 1910, Chicago, Illinois) was a French-American civil engineer and aviation pioneer, born in France.

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An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos "bird" and pteron "wing") is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings.

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Otto Lilienthal

Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the flying man.

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Paper plane

A paper plane, paper aeroplane (UK), paper airplane (US), paper glider, paper dart or dart is a toy aircraft, usually a glider made out of folded paper or paperboard.

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A parafoil is a nonrigid (textile) airfoil with an aerodynamic cell structure which is inflated by the wind.

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Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure.

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Paravane (water kite)

The paravane is a towed winged (hydrofoiled) underwater object—a water kite.

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Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight.

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Percy Pilcher

Percy Sinclair Pilcher (16 January 1866 – 2 October 1899) was a British inventor and pioneer aviator who was his country's foremost experimenter in unpowered flight at the end of the nineteenth century.

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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Power kite

A power kite or traction kite is a large kite designed to provide significant pull to the user.

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Powered hang glider

A foot-launched powered hang glider (FLPHG), also called powered harness, nanolight, or hangmotor, is a powered hang glider harness with a motor and propeller in pusher configuration.

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Powered parachute

A powered parachute, often abbreviated PPC, and also called a motorised parachute or paraplane, is a type of aircraft that consists of a parachute with a motor and wheels.

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Powered paragliding

Powered paragliding, also known as paramotoring or PPG, is a form of ultralight aviation where the pilot wears a motor on his back (a paramotor) which provides enough thrust to take off using a paraglider.

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Primary flight display

A primary flight display or PFD is a modern aircraft instrument dedicated to flight information.

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Primary glider

Primary gliders are a category of aircraft that enjoyed worldwide popularity during the 1920s and 1930s as people strove for simple and inexpensive ways to learn to fly.

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Propeller (aeronautics)

An aircraft propeller, or airscrew,Beaumont, R.A.; Aeronautical Engineering, Odhams, 1942, Chapter 13, "Airscrews".

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Radial engine

The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel.

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Radio direction finder

A radio direction finder (RDF) is a device for finding the direction, or ''bearing'', to a radio source.

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Reciprocating engine

A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.

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Rocket-powered aircraft

A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.

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Rogallo wing

The Rogallo wing is a flexible type of airfoil.

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Rokkaku dako

The Rokkaku dako (六角凧) is a traditional six-sided Japanese fighter kite.

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Rotary engine

The rotary engine was an early type of internal combustion engine, usually designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit.

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A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast.

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A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).

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Safety harness

A safety harness is a form of protective equipment designed to protect a person, animal, or object from injury or damage.

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Santos-Dumont 14-bis

The 14-bis (Quatorze-bis), also known as Oiseau de proie ("bird of prey" in French), was a pioneer era canard biplane designed and built by Brazilian aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Scale model

A scale model is most generally a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved.

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A seaplane is a powered fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing (alighting) on water.

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Short Stirling

The Short Stirling was a British four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Space Shuttle design process

Even before the Project Apollo moon landing in 1969, NASA began studies of space shuttle designs as early as October 1968.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.

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Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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Spirit of St. Louis

The Spirit of St.

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Spoiler (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, a spoiler (sometimes called a lift spoiler or lift dumper) is a device intended to intentionally reduce the lift component of an airfoil in a controlled way.

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Sponsons are projections extending from the sides of land vehicles, aircraft or watercraft, to provide protection, stability, storage locations, mounting points, or equipment housing.

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Sport kite

A sport kite, also commonly known as a stunt kite, is a kite that can be maneuvered in the air.

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Stealth aircraft

Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.

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Stealth technology

Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles and satellites to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.

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Strategic bomber

A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.

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Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.

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Supersonic speed

Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).

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Swept wing

A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.

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Tailless aircraft

A tailless aircraft has no tail assembly and no other horizontal surface besides its main wing.

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A tailplane, also known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes.

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Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle or an animal goes from the ground to flying in the air.

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Takeoff and landing

Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.

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Tandem wing

QAC Quickie Q2 A tandem wing aircraft has two main wings, with one located forward and the other to the rear.

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Technology and Culture

Technology and Culture is a quarterly academic journal founded in 1959.

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A tether is a cord, fixture, or flexible attachment that anchors something movable to a reference point which may be fixed or moving.

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Tethered balloon

A tethered, moored or captive balloon is a balloon that is restrained by one or more tethers attached to the ground and so it cannot float freely.

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Tetrahedral kite

A tetrahedral kite is a multicelled rigid box kite composed of tetrahedrally shaped cells to create a kind of tetrahedral truss.

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A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.

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A throttle is the mechanism by which fluid flow is managed by the constriction or obstruction.

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Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

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Thrust lever

Thrust levers or power levers are found in the cockpit of aircraft, and are used by the pilot, copilot, or autopilot to control the thrust output of the aircraft's engines.

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Tractor configuration

An aircraft constructed with a tractor configuration has the engine mounted with the airscrew in front of it so that the aircraft is "pulled" through the air, as opposed to the pusher configuration, in which the airscrew is behind and propels the aircraft forward.

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Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown

British aviators John Alcock and Arthur Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight in June 1919.

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Trim tab

Trim tabs are small surfaces connected to the trailing edge of a larger control surface on a boat or aircraft, used to control the trim of the controls, i.e. to counteract hydro- or aerodynamic forces and stabilise the boat or aircraft in a particular desired attitude without the need for the operator to constantly apply a control force.

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A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three vertical stacked wing planes.

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Tupolev ANT-20

The Tupolev ANT-20 Maksim Gorki (Туполев АНТ-20 "Максим Горький") was a Soviet eight-engine aircraft, the largest of the 1930s.

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Tupolev Tu-104

The Tupolev Tu-104 (NATO reporting name: Camel) was a twinjet medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner.

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Turn and slip indicator

In aviation, the turn and slip indicator (T/S, a.k.a. turn and bank indicator) and the turn coordinator (TC) variant are essentially two aircraft flight instruments in one device.

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Twin-boom aircraft

A twin-boom aircraft is characterised by two longitudinal booms (extended nacelle-like bodies) fixed to its main wing on either side of its centre line.

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Two-way radio

A two-way radio is a radio that can do both transmit and receive a signal (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Variable-sweep wing

A variable-sweep wing, colloquially known as a "swing wing", is an airplane wing, or set of wings, that may be swept back and then returned to its original position during flight.

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A variometer – also known as a rate of climb and descent indicator (RCDI), rate-of-climb indicator, vertical speed indicator (VSI), or vertical velocity indicator (VVI) – is one of the flight instruments in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the rate of descent or climb.

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Vertical stabilizer

The vertical stabilizers, vertical stabilisers, or fins, of aircraft, missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability.

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Water landing

A water landing is, in the broadest sense, a landing on a body of water.

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Wau bulan

Wau bulan (Jawi: واو بولن) is an intricately designed Malaysian moon-kite (normally with floral motifs) that is traditionally flown by men in the Malaysian state of Kelantan.

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Weather forecasting

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.

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Weather radar

Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.

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A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.

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Wing configuration

The wing configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft (including both gliders and powered aeroplanes or airplanes) is its arrangement of lifting and related surfaces.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wright brothers

The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane.

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Wright Flyer

The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I or 1903 Flyer) was the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft.

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Wright Flyer III

The Wright Flyer III was the third powered aircraft by the Wright Brothers, built during the winter of 1904-05.

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Yoke (aeronautics)

A yoke, alternatively known as a control wheel is a device used for piloting some fixed-wing aircraft.

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Aircraft structures, Aircraft wings, Fixed wing, Fixed wing aircraft, Fixed wings, Fixed-wing, Fixed-winged aircraft, Fixed-wings, Winged aircraft.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed-wing_aircraft

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