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The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates. [1]

205 relations: Acanthodii, Acoela, Acoelomorpha, Aedes aegypti, Amino acid, Animal, Annelid, Anus, Arthropod, Asexual reproduction, Australoplana, Baltic amber, Basal (phylogenetics), Bilateria, Biochemistry, Biological membrane, Biological pest control, Bivalvia, Bladder cancer, Blood, Botanical garden, Bothrioplana, Brain, Budding, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carter Center, Catenulida, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Cestoda, Cestodaria, Chordate, Chronic condition, Cilium, Circulatory system, Clamp (zoology), Cloning, Cnidaria, Cnidocyte, Coelom, Cognitive development, Collagen, Colloblast, Concentration, Connective tissue, Copepod, Coprolite, Crustacean, Ctenophora, ..., Culex pipiens, Dehydration, Deuterostome, Devonian, Diffusion, Digenea, Diphyllobothrium, DNA, Drug resistance, Earthworm, Ecdysozoa, Elasmobranchii, Endoderm, Enzyme, Eocene, Epilepsy, Epithelium, Evolution, Excretory system, Fecampiida, Feces, Fertilizer, Fish farming, Flagellum, Flame cell, Flatworm, Flounder, Ganglion, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastropoda, Gastrotrich, Genus, Girardia, Gnathifera (clade), Greek language, Gull, Haptor, Hermaphrodite, Holdfast, Host (biology), Human digestive system, Immune system, Instar, Internal fertilization, Introduced species, Invertebrate, Irrigation, Jellyfish, La Plata, Larva, Latin, Laundry, Lecithoepitheliata, Lissachatina fulica, Livestock, Lophotrochozoa, Lung, Macrostomorpha, Malaria, Manure, Megaloblastic anemia, Mesenchyme, Metabolism, Metagonimus, Metamorphosis, Micropalaeosoma, Microvillus, Molecular phylogenetics, Mollusca, Monogenea, Monophyly, Monopisthocotylea, Morphology (biology), Mortality rate, Mosquito-borne disease, Mucus, Mummy, Muscle, Nematode, Nemertodermatida, Neodermata, Nephridiopore, Nephridium, Nerve net, Nervous system, Neurocysticercosis, New Zealand flatworm, Organ (anatomy), Organic farming, Osmoregulation, Oxygen, Paraphyly, Parasitism, PBS, Penis fencing, Permian, Pharynx, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Placodermi, Planarian, Plankton, Plant litter, Platydemus manokwari, Platytrochozoa, Platyzoa, Pollution, Polycladida, Polyphyly, Prolecithophora, Proseriata, Protein, Protostome, Pseudobiceros bedfordi, Public health, Regenerative medicine, Respiratory system, Rhabditophora, Rhabdocoela, Rhomboid, RNA, Salad, Schistosoma, Schistosomiasis, Seafood, Segmentation (biology), Sewage sludge, Sexual intercourse, Simple eye in invertebrates, Sister group, Skeleton, Snail, Spiralia, Statocyst, Stem cell, Strobilation, Sucker (zoology), Symbiosis, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Syncytium, Taenia (cestode), Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Teleost, Today (U.S. TV program), Trematoda, Trematode life cycle stages, Trepaxonemata, Tricladida, Turbellaria, Vacuole, Vertebrate, Vitamin B12, Xenoturbella. Expand index (155 more) »


Acanthodii or acanthodians (sometimes called spiny sharks) is a paraphyletic class of extinct teleostome fish, sharing features with both bony fish and cartilaginous fish.

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The Acoela or acoels are a class of small and simple invertebrates in the phylum Xenacoelomorpha which resemble flatworms.

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Acoelomorpha is a subphylum of very simple and small soft-bodied animals with planula-like features which live in marine or brackish waters.

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Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika fever, Mayaro and yellow fever viruses, and other disease agents.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Australoplana is a genus of land planarians from Australia and New Zealand.

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Baltic amber

The Baltic region is home to the largest known deposit of amber, called Baltic amber or succinite.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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Biological pest control

Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.

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Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.

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Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Botanical garden

A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.

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Bothrioplana is a genus of freshwater flatworms, the sole genus in the family Bothrioplanidae and order Bothrioplanida.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carter Center

The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

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Catenulida is an order of flatworms in the classical classification, or a class of flatworms in a phylogenetic approach.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.

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Cestodaria is one of two subclasses of the class Cestoda.

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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clamp (zoology)

Clamps are the main attachment structure of the Polyopisthocotylean monogeneans.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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A cnidocyte (also known as a cnidoblast or nematocyte) is an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.

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The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.

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Cognitive development

Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Colloblasts are a cell type found in ctenophores.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.

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Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.

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A coprolite is fossilized feces.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.

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Culex pipiens

Culex pipiens (the common house mosquito or northern house mosquito) is a species of blood-feeding mosquito of the family Culicidae.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek) are any members of a superphylum of animals.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Digenea (Gr. Dis – double, Genos – race) is a class of trematodes in the Platyhelminthes phylum, consisting of parasitic flatworms (known as flukes) with a syncytial tegument and, usually, two suckers, one ventral and one oral.

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Diphyllobothrium is a genus of tapeworms which can cause diphyllobothriasis in humans through consumption of raw or undercooked fish.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Drug resistance

Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.

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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla.

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Elasmobranchii is a subclass of Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fish, including the sharks (superorder Selachii) and the rays, skates, and sawfish (superorder Batoidea).

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Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Excretory system

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body.

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Fecampiida is an order of flatworms in the class Rhabditophora.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fish farming

Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, usually for food.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Flame cell

A flame cell is a specialized excretory cell found in the simplest freshwater invertebrates, including flatworms (except the turbellarian order Acoela), rotifers and nemerteans; these are the simplest animals to have a dedicated excretory system.

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The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.

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Flounders are a group of flatfish species.

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A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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The gastrotrichs (phylum Gastrotricha), commonly referred to as hairybacks, are a group of microscopic (0.06-3.0 mm), worm-like, pseudocoelomate animals, and are widely distributed and abundant in freshwater and marine environments.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Girardia is a genus of freshwater triclad worm belonging to the Dugesiidae family.

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Gnathifera (clade)

Gnathifera is an assemblage of phyla of platyzoans comprising the rotifers (Bdelloidea, Monogononta, Seisonidae), acanthocephalans, and gnathostomulids.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.

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The haptor is the attachment organ of the monogeneans, a group of parasitic Platyhelminthes.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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A holdfast is a root-like structure that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, such as seaweed, other sessile algae, stalked crinoids, benthic cnidarians, and sponges, to the substrate.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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An instar (from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached.

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Internal fertilization

Internal fertilization is the union of an egg cell with a sperm during sexual reproduction inside the body of a parent.

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Introduced species

An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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La Plata

La Plata is the capital city of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles.

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The Lecithoepitheliata are an order of rhabditophoran flatworms.

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Lissachatina fulica

Lissachatina fulica is a species of large land snail that belong in the family Achatinidae.

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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Macrostomorpha is a clade of free living flatworms ranked either as class or subclass in the group Rhabditophora.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

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Megaloblastic anemia

Megaloblastic anemia (or megaloblastic anaemia) is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production.

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Mesenchyme, in vertebrate embryology, is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the development of the embryo.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metagonimus is a genus of trematodes, or fluke worms, in the family Heterophyidae.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Micropalaeosoma balticus (formerly Palaeosoma balticus) is an extinct, fossil turbellarian flatworm known from Baltic amber of Kaliningrad, Russia, that lived approximately 40 million years ago.

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Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Monogeneans are a group of ectoparasites commonly found on the skin, gills, or fins of fish.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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The Monopisthocotylea are a subclass of parasitic flatworms in the class Monogenea.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Mosquito-borne disease

Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Nemertodermatida is a class of Acoela, comprising about ten species of millimetre-sized 'tubellariform', mostly interstitial worms.

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Neodermata is a clade of rhabditophoran flatworms containing the parasitic groups Trematoda, Monogenea and Cestoda.

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A nephridiopore is part of the nephridium, an excretory organ found in many organisms, such as flatworms and annelids.

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The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.

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Nerve net

A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neurocysticercosis is a specific form of the infectious parasitic disease cysticercosis which is caused by infection with Taenia solium, a tapeworm found in pigs.

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New Zealand flatworm

The New Zealand flatworm (Arthurdendyus triangulatus) is a large land flatworm native to New Zealand.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organic farming

Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.

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Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Penis fencing

Penis fencing is a mating behavior engaged in by many species of flatworm, such as Pseudobiceros hancockanus.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Placodermi (from the Greek πλάξ.

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A planarian is one of many flatworms of the Turbellaria class.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plant litter

Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material (such as leaves, bark, needles, twigs, and cladodes) that have fallen to the ground.

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Platydemus manokwari

Platydemus manokwari, also known as the New Guinea flatworm, is a species of large predatory land flatworm.

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The Platytrochozoa are a proposed basal Spiralia clade of animals as sister of the Gnathifera.

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The paraphyletic "Platyzoa" are a group of protostome unsegmented animals proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998.

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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The Polycladida represents a highly diverse clade of free-living marine flatworms.

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A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.

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The Prolecithophora are an order consisting of an estimated 300 species of small (typically 0.2 – 12 mm, one species up to 50 mm), active, aquatic flatworms.

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Proseriata is an order of free-living flatworms in the class Rhabditophora with over 400 species described worldwide.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.

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Pseudobiceros bedfordi

Pseudobiceros bedfordi, (common names Persian carpet flatworm and Bedford's flatworm) is a species of flatworm in the family Pseudocerotidae.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Regenerative medicine

Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function".

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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Rhabditophora (from rhabdito-, rhabdite + Greek -φορος, bearer, i.e., "rhabdite bearers") is a class of flatworms.

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Rhabdocoela is an order of flatworms in the class Rhabditophora with about 1700 species described worldwide.

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Traditionally, in two-dimensional geometry, a rhomboid is a parallelogram in which adjacent sides are of unequal lengths and angles are non-right angled.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.

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Schistosoma is a genus of trematodes, commonly known as blood flukes.

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Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Segmentation (biology)

Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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Sewage sludge

Sewage sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material that is produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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The Spiralia are a morphologically diverse clade of protostome animals, including within their number the molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and other taxa.

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The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Strobilation or transverse fission is a form of asexual reproduction consisting of the spontaneous transverse segmentation of the body.

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Sucker (zoology)

A sucker in zoology refers to specialised attachment organ of an animal.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Synapomorphy and apomorphy

In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.

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A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).

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Taenia (cestode)

Taenia is a genus of tapeworms (a type of helminth) that includes some important parasites of livestock.

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Taenia saginata

Taenia saginata (synonym Taeniarhynchus saginatus), commonly known as the beef tapeworm, is a zoonotic tapeworm belonging to the order Cyclophyllidea and genus ''Taenia''.

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Taenia solium

Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae.

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The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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Today (U.S. TV program)

Today, also called The Today Show, is an American news and talk morning television show that airs on NBC.

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Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Trematode life cycle stages

Trematodes are any parasitic flatworm of the class Trematoda, especially a parasitic fluke.

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Trepaxonemata (from trepa-, spiral + axoneme) is a subclass of the Platyhelminthes or flatworms.

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Tricladida (triclads) is an order of free-living flatworms.

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The Turbellaria are one of the traditional sub-divisions of the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms), and include all the sub-groups that are not exclusively parasitic.

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A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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Xenoturbella is a genus of very simple bilaterians up to a few centimeters long.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatworm

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