222 relations: Agriculture, Amazon River, Aquifer, Arid, Arroyo (creek), Atmospheric pressure, Automated airport weather station, Banqiao Dam, Barrier island, Beach nourishment, Beaver, Bed load, Best practice, Biodiversity, Biomass, Brisbane, Built environment, Bundaberg, Bunding, Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, Channel (geography), Check valve, Chicago flood, Chicago Loop, China, Cholera, Christianity, Civil engineering, Climate change, Cloudburst, Coastal management, Cold drop, Computer simulation, Concrete, Cryptosporidium, Culvert, Cut and fill, Dam, Death, Debris, Deity, Detention basin, Divine retribution, Drainage basin, Drowning, Dutch language, Earthquake, Ecosystem, Electricity generation, Emergency management, ..., Endorheic basin, Engineering design process, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Erosion, Erosion control, Estuary, European Union, Extratropical cyclone, Extreme value theory, Fecal coliform, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Fishery, Flash flood, Flash flood guidance system, Flood alert, Flood control in the Netherlands, Flood forecasting, Flood insurance, Flood myth, Flood pulse concept, Flood risk assessment, Flood wall, Flood warning, Floodplain, Floods Directive, Floods in Australia, Floods in the Netherlands, Ganges, Genesis flood narrative, German language, Germanic languages, Giardia, Glacier, Green infrastructure, Groundwater, Hanoi, HEC-RAS, Hubert Chanson, Hydroelectricity, Hydrograph, Hydrology, Hydropower, Ice jam, Impervious surface, Indonesia, Indus River, Infiltration (hydrology), International Rescue Corps, Islam, Judaism, Kilometre, Lahar, Lake, Land-use planning, Landslide, Latin, Levee, Lifesaving, List of domesticated animals, List of floods, Lists of floods in the United States, Meander, Misgurnus, Monsoon, Muddy flood, Mudflow, Mythology, NASA, National Flood Insurance Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Nîmes, Netherlands, New England, New Orleans, Nile, North Vietnam, Nutrient, Ocean, Old English, One-dimensional space, Outburst flood, Permeable paving, Phreatic zone, Ponding, Power transmission, Precipitation, Precipitation types, Property, Public health, Quantitative precipitation forecast, Queensland, Rail transport, Rainwater tank, Real-time data, Red River Delta, Regression analysis, Rescue, Reservoir, Respiratory system, Return period, Riparian zone, River, Rockhampton, Saint Lawrence Seaway, Sandbag, Search and rescue, Seawall, Sediment, Semi-arid climate, Sewerage, SMS (hydrology software), Snowmelt, Software, Soil, Soil fertility, Spawn (biology), St. Felix's flood, Storm drain, Storm surge, Storm tides of the North Sea, Stormwater, Stream, Streamflow, Sump pump, Surface runoff, Sustainable drainage system, Swift water rescue, Taunton, Massachusetts, Texas State University, Thunderstorm, Tide, Tigris–Euphrates river system, Time of concentration, Training (meteorology), Tropical cyclone, Tsunami, Two-dimensional space, Types of volcanic eruptions, Typhoid fever, Typhoon Nina (1975), UNESCO, Unintended consequences, United States, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Department of the Interior, United States Forest Service, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Publishing Office, Vaison-la-Romaine, Washington, D.C., Washout (erosion), Water, Water table, Water treatment, Waterborne diseases, Waterway, Weather forecasting, Weather radar, Weather spotting, Weir, Wetland, Wind, World Meteorological Organization, Yangtze, Yellow River, 100-year flood, 1887 Yellow River flood, 1931 China floods, 1938 Yellow River flood, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 2010–11 Queensland floods. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
An arroyo ("brook"), also called a wash, is a dry creek, stream bed or gulch that temporarily or seasonally fills and flows after sufficient rain.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Automated airport weather stations are automated sensor suites which are designed to serve aviation and meteorological observing needs for safe and efficient aviation operations, weather forecasting and climatology.
The Banqiao Reservoir Dam is a dam on the River Ru in Zhumadian City, Henan province, China.
Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast.
Beach nourishment (also referred to as beach renourishment, beach replenishment, or sand replenishment) describes a process by which sediment, usually sand, lost through longshore drift or erosion is replaced from other sources.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
The term bed load or bedload describes particles in a flowing fluid (usually water) that are transported along the bed.
A best practice is a method or technique that has been generally accepted as superior to any alternatives because it produces results that are superior to those achieved by other means or because it has become a standard way of doing things, e.g., a standard way of complying with legal or ethical requirements.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia.
In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.
Bundaberg is a city near the south-east coast of Queensland, Australia, situated on the Burnett River.
Bunding, also called a bund wall, is a constructed retaining wall around storage "where potentially polluting substances are handled, processed or stored, for the purposes of containing any unintended escape of material from that area until such time as a remedial action can be taken." Guidance Note on Storage and Transfer of Materials for Scheduled Activities page 7.
The Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, commonly abbreviated to Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, draws together all of Australia and New Zealand's fire and emergency service authorities, land management agencies, as well as non-government organisations and leading experts across a range of scientific fields to explore the causes, consequences and mitigation of natural disasters.
In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait.
A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve, reflux valve, retention valve or one-way valve is a valve that normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction.
The Chicago flood occurred on April 13, 1992, when the damaged wall of a utility tunnel beneath the Chicago River opened into a breach which flooded basements and underground facilities throughout the Chicago Loop with an estimated of water.
The Loop is the central business district or downtown area of Chicago, Illinois.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation in a short period of time, sometimes accompanied by hail and thunder, that is capable of creating flood conditions.
Coastal management is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.
The cold drop (gota fría) is a weather phenomenon often occurring in the Spanish autumn.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.
A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side.
In earthmoving, cut and fill is the process of constructing a railway, road or canal whereby the amount of material from cuts roughly matches the amount of fill needed to make nearby embankments, so minimizing the amount of construction labor.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Debris or débris is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, discarded, or as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier etc.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
A detention basin or retarding basin is an excavated area installed on, or adjacent to, tributaries of rivers, streams, lakes or bays to protect against flooding and, in some cases, downstream erosion by storing water for a limited period of time.
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
The engineering design process is a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth.
Extreme value theory or extreme value analysis (EVA) is a branch of statistics dealing with the extreme deviations from the median of probability distributions.
A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, initially created by Presidential Reorganization Plan No.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.
The flash flood guidance system (FFGS) was designed and developed by the Hydrologic Research Center a non-profit public-benefit corporation located in of San Diego, CA, US, for use by meteorological and hydrologic forecasters throughout the world.
Flood alerts are issued by weather agencies to alert residents that flood conditions are a possibility.
'''Flood control''' is an important issue for the Netherlands, as about two thirds of its area is vulnerable to flooding, while the country is among the most densely populated on Earth.
Flood forecasting is the use of forecasted precipitation and streamflow data in rainfall-runoff and streamflow routing models to forecast flow rates and water levels for periods ranging from a few hours to days ahead, depending on the size of the watershed or river basin.
Flood insurance denotes the specific insurance coverage against property loss from flooding.
A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution.
The flood pulse concept is a theory that the annual flood pulse is the most important aspect and the most biologically productive feature of a river's ecosystem.
A flood risk assessment (FRA) is an assessment of the risk of flooding from all flooding mechanisms, the identification of flood mitigation measures and should provide advice on actions to be taken before and during a flood.
A flood wall (or floodwall) is a primarily vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the waters of a river or other waterway which may rise to unusual levels during seasonal or extreme weather events.
A Flood warning is closely linked to the task of flood forecasting.
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
The Floods Directive (Directive 2007/60/EC) is legislation in the European Parliament on the assessment and management of flood risks.
This is a list of notable recorded floods that have occurred in the country of Australia.
This is a chronological list of sea-floods that have occurred in the Netherlands.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Green Infrastructure or blue-green infrastructure is a network providing the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
HEC-RAS is a computer program that models the hydraulics of water flow through natural rivers and other channels.
Hubert Chanson (born 1 November 1961) is a professor in hydraulic engineering and applied fluid mechanics in the School of Civil Engineering at the University of Queensland since 1990.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
A hydrograph is a graph showing the rate of flow (discharge) versus time past a specific point in a river, channel, or conduit carrying flow.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Ice jams occur on rivers when floating ice accumulates at a natural or man-made feature that impedes its progress downstream.
Impervious surfaces are mainly artificial structures—such as pavements (roads, sidewalks, driveways and parking lots, as well as industrial areas such as airports, ports and logistics and distribution centres, all of which use considerable paved areas) that are covered by impenetrable materials such as asphalt, concrete, brick, stone—and rooftops.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
The International Rescue Corps is a volunteer organisation involved in disaster rescue, based in Grangemouth, Scotland.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
A lahar (from wlahar) is a violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
In urban planning, land-use planning seeks to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lifesaving is the act involving rescue, resuscitation and first aid.
This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.
This is a list of major floods.
Floods in the United States is split into three articles.
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.
Misgurnus is a genus of loaches from Europe and Asia.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
A muddy flood is produced by an accumulation of run-off over agricultural land.
A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow" of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) is a program created by the Congress of the United States in 1968 through the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-448).
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can specify a location in n-dimensional space.
In geomorphology, an outburst flood, which is a type of megaflood, is a high-magnitude, low-frequency catastrophic flood involving the sudden release of water.
Permeable paving is a method of paving vehicle and pedestrian pathways that allows for infiltration of fluids.
The phreatic zone, or zone of saturation, is the area in an aquifer, below the water table, in which relatively all pores and fractures are saturated with water.
Ponding is the (typically) unwanted pooling of water, typically on a flat roof or roadway.
Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful work.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
In meteorology, "precipitation types" can include the character or phase of the precipitation which is falling to ground level.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
The quantitative precipitation forecast (abbreviated QPF) is the expected amount of melted precipitation accumulated over a specified time period over a specified area.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
A rainwater tank (sometimes called a rain barrel in North America in reference to smaller tanks, or a water butt in the UK) is a water tank used to collect and store rain water runoff, typically from rooftops via pipes.
Real-time data (RTD) is information that is delivered immediately after collection.
The Red River Delta (Đồng Bằng Sông Hồng, or Châu Thổ Sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Binh River in northern Vietnam.
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.
Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
A return period, also known as a recurrence interval (sometimes repeat interval) is an estimate of the likelihood of an event, such as an earthquake, flood, landslide, or a river discharge flow to occur.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Region, Queensland, Australia.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as the western end of Lake Superior.
A sandbag is a bag or sack made of hessian (burlap), polypropylene or other sturdy materials that is filled with sand or soil and used for such purposes as flood control, military fortification in trenches and bunkers, shielding glass windows in war zones, ballast, counterweight, and in other applications requiring mobile fortification, such as adding improvised additional protection to armoured vehicles or tanks.
Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.
A seawall (or sea wall) is a form of coastal defence constructed where the sea, and associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.
SMS (Surface-water Modeling System) is a complete program for building and simulating surface water models.
In hydrology, snowmelt is surface runoff produced from melting snow.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.
A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
A storm tide is a tide with a high flood period caused by a storm.
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.
Streamflow, or channel runoff, is the flow of water in streams, rivers, and other channels, and is a major element of the water cycle.
A sump pump is a pump used to remove water that has accumulated in a water-collecting sump basin, commonly found in the basements of homes.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
A sustainable drainage system (SuDs,, Sharma, D., 2008 SuDS, SUDSScottish Government. Planning Services (2001). Planning Advice Note 61. 2001-07-27.) is designed to reduce the potential impact of new and existing developments with respect to surface water drainage discharges.
Swift water rescue (also called "white water rescue") is a subset of technical rescue dealing in white water river conditions.
Taunton is a city in Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States.
Texas State University is a public research university located in San Marcos, Texas, United States.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia.
Time of concentration is a concept used in hydrology to measure the response of a watershed to a rain event.
In meteorology, training denotes repeated areas of rain, typically associated with thunderstorms, that move over the same region in a relatively short period of time.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhoon Nina, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Bebeng, was the fourth-deadliest tropical cyclone on record.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
Vaison-la-Romaine (Latin: Vasio Vocontiorum) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.The French archaeologist and hellenist Henri Metzger (1912–2007) died here.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A washout is the sudden erosion of soft soil or other support surfaces by a gush of water, usually occurring during a heavy downpour of rain (a flash flood) or other stream flooding.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.
Weather spotting is observing weather for the purpose of reporting to a larger group or organization.
A weir or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
A one-hundred-year flood is a flood event that has a 1% probability of occurring in any given year.
The 1887 Yellow River flood was a devastating flood on the Yellow River (Huang He) in China.
The 1931 China floods or the 1931 Yangzi-Huai River floods were a series of devastating floods that occurred in the Republic of China.
The 1938 Yellow River flood (literally "Huayuankou embankment breach incident") was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of Japanese forces.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
A series of floods hit Queensland, Australia, beginning in November 2010.
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