123 relations: A New Theory of the Earth, Aboriginal Australians, Adrienne Mayor, Aegean Sea, Alan Millard, Americas, Ancient Greek flood myths, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Antediluvian, Assyriology, Atlantis, Atra-Hasis, Avatar, Aztlán, Babylon, Before Present, Bergelmir, Black Sea, Black Sea deluge hypothesis, Bochica, Book of Genesis, Burckle Crater, Cañari, Cantre'r Gwaelod, Chicxulub crater, Chinese mythology, Civilization, Comet, Creation myth, Crete, Culture hero, Deity, Deucalion, Discover (magazine), Divine retribution, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Enki, Epic of Gilgamesh, Everyman's Library, Finnish flood myth, Flood, Fossil, Genesis flood narrative, Geology, George Smith (Assyriologist), Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh flood myth, Great Flood (China), Greek mythology, Hero's journey, ..., Hindu mythology, Hinduism, History of Athens, Hypothesis, Immanuel Velikovsky, Indian Ocean, Israel, James B. Pritchard, Jemdet Nasr, John Martin (painter), K'iche' people, Karun, Kish (Sumer), Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Lagash, Lake Agassiz, Lake-burst, Last glacial period, Lemuria (continent), List of flood myths, Lyonesse, Matsya, Maya peoples, Mediterranean Sea, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican flood myths, Mesopotamia, Meteoroid, Minoan eruption, Mount Parnassus, Muisca, Mycenae, Mythology, Nanabozho, Natural history, Nineveh, Noah, Noah's Ark, Norse mythology, Ojibwe, Older Peron, Paleontology, Persian Gulf, Plato, Prometheus, Puranas, Pyrrha, Rainbows in mythology, Rijksmuseum, Shatapatha Brahmana, Shraddhadeva Manu, Shuruppak, South America, Sumerian King List, Tanakh, Thebes, Greece, Thomas Burnet, Timaeus (dialogue), Timaeus of Locri, Tsunami, University of Exeter, Ur, Uruk, Utnapishtim, Viracocha, Vishnu, Western Hemisphere, William Whiston, Yahweh, Yale University, Ys, Ziusudra, 5.9 kiloyear event. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
A New Theory of the Earth was a book written by William Whiston, in which he presented a description of the divine creation of the Earth and a posited global flood.
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
Adrienne Mayor (born 1946) is a historian of ancient science and a classical folklorist.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Alan Ralph Millard (born 1 December 1937) is Rankin Professor Emeritus of Hebrew and Ancient Semitic languages, and Honorary Senior Fellow (Ancient Near East), at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology (SACE) in the University of Liverpool.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Greek mythology describes three floods, the flood of Ogyges, the flood of Deucalion, and the flood of Dardanus.
Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament edited by James B. Pritchard (1st ed. 1950, 2nd ed.1955, 3rd ed. 1969 is an anthology of important historical, legal, mythological, liturgical, and secular texts from the ancient Near East. William W. Hallo, writing in the Journal of the American Oriental Society in 1970, described it as "a modern classic ever since its first appearance in 1950", because "for the first time it assembled some of the most significant Ancient Near Eastern texts in authoritative, generously annotated English translations based on the accumulated insight of several generations of scholarship scattered". It is conventional to cite the work as ANET. ANEP refers to a companion volume Ancient Near Eastern Pictures Relating to the Old Testament (1st ed. 1954, 2nd ed. 1969), featuring 882 black and white designs and photos. An additional volume of supplementary texts and pictures was published in 1969 as "The Ancient Near East: Supplementary Texts and Pictures Relating to the Old Testament". An abridgement of ANET and ANEP was published in a single volume in 1958 as "The Ancient Near East, Volume I: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures" with a 2nd edition published in 1965. A second anthology of supplementary material was published in 1975 as "Ancient Near East, Volume 2: A New Anthology of Texts and Pictures".
The Antediluvian (alternatively Pre-Diluvian or Pre-Flood, or even Tertiary) period (meaning "before the deluge") is the time period referred to in the Bible between the fall of humans and the Noachian Deluge (the Genesis Flood) in the biblical cosmology.
Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of not just Assyria, but the entirety of ancient Mesopotamia (a region encompassing what is today modern Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and north western and south western Iran) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing.
Atlantis (Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens", the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic.
Atra-Hasis ("exceedingly wise") is the protagonist of an 18th-century BC Akkadian epic recorded in various versions on clay tablets.
An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.
Aztlán (from Aztlān) is the ancestral home of the Aztec peoples.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
In Norse mythology, Bergelmir (Old Norse "Mountain Yeller" or "Bear Yeller") is a frost giant, the son of giant Þrúðgelmir and the grandson of Ymir (who was called Aurgelmir among giants), the first frost giant, according to stanza 29 of the poem Vafthrudnismal from the Poetic Edda: According to the Gylfaginning section of the Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson, Bergelmir and his wife alone among the giants were the only survivors of the enormous deluge of blood which flowed from Ymir's wounds when he was killed by Odin and his brothers Vili and Vé.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized catastrophic rise in the level of the Black Sea circa 5600 BCE from waters from the Mediterranean Sea breaching a sill in the Bosphorus strait.
Bochica (also alluded to as Nemquetaha, Nemqueteba and Sadigua) is a figure in the religion of the Muisca, who inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense during the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombia.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Burckle Crater is an undersea feature hypothesized to be an impact crater by the Holocene Impact Working Group.
The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar in Ecuador.
Cantre'r Gwaelod, also known as Cantref Gwaelod or Cantref y Gwaelod (The Lowland Hundred), is a legendary ancient sunken kingdom said to have occupied a tract of fertile land lying between Ramsey Island and Bardsey Island in what is now Cardigan Bay to the west of Wales.
The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Deucalion (Δευκαλίων) was the son of Prometheus; ancient sources name his mother as Clymene, Hesione, or Pronoia.
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Everyman's Library is a series of reprinted classic literature currently published in hardback by Random House.
In the Kalevala rune entitled "Haava" (The Wound, section 8), Väinämöinen attempts a heroic feat that results in a gushing wound, the blood from which covers the entire earth.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis).
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
George Smith (Chelsea, London 26 March 184019 August 1876), was a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest-known written works of literature.
Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.
The Gilgamesh flood myth is a flood myth in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
The Great Flood of Gun-Yu, also known as the Gun-Yu myth,Yang, 74 was a major flood event in ancient China that allegedly continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
In narratology and comparative mythology, the monomyth, or the hero's journey, is the common template of a broad category of tales that involve a hero who goes on an adventure, and in a decisive crisis wins a victory, and then comes home changed or transformed.
Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Immanuel Velikovsky (p; 17 November 1979) was a Russian independent scholar best known as the author of a number of controversial books reinterpreting the events of ancient history, in particular the US bestseller Worlds in Collision published in 1950.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
James Bennett Pritchard (October 4, 1909 – January 1, 1997) was an American archeologist whose work explicated the interrelationships of the religions of ancient Palestine, Canaan, Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon.
Jemdet Nasr (جمدة نصر) is a tell or settlement mound in Babil Governorate (Iraq) that is best known as the eponymous type site for the Jemdet Nasr period (3100–2900 BC).
John Martin (19 July 1789 – 17 February 1854) was an English Romantic painter, engraver and illustrator.
K'iche' (pronounced; previous Spanish spelling: Quiché) are indigenous peoples of the Americas and are one of the Maya peoples.
The Kārūn (کارون) is Iran's most effluent and only navigable river.
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe are one of six federally recognized bands of Ojibwe people located in present-day Wisconsin.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Lake Agassiz was a very large glacial lake in central North America.
A lake-burst (tomaidm) is a phenomenon referred to in Irish mythology, in which a previously non-existent lake comes into being, often when a grave is being dug.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Lemuria is the name of a "lost land" located either in the Indian or the Pacific Ocean, as postulated by a now-discredited 19th century scientific theory.
Flood myths are common across a wide range of cultures, extending back into Bronze Age and Neolithic prehistory.
Lyonesse is a country in Arthurian legend, particularly in the story of Tristan and Iseult.
Matsya (मत्स्य, lit. fish), is the fish avatar in the ten primary avatars of Hindu god Vishnu.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
A large number of Mesoamerican flood myths have been documented in written form or passed down through in oral tradition.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption, Santorini eruption, or Late Bronze Age eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of, Dated to the mid-second millennium BCE, the eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history.
Mount Parnassus (Παρνασσός, Parnassos) is a mountain of limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside.
The Muisca are an indigenous group of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia, that formed the Muisca Confederation before the Spanish conquest.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
In Anishinaabe ''aadizookaan'' (traditional storytelling), particularly among the Ojibwe, Nanabozho also known as Nanabush is a spirit, and figures prominently in their storytelling, including the story of the world's creation.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
Noah's Ark (תיבת נח; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) by which God spares Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
The Older Peron was the name for a period identified in 1961 as an episode of a global sea-level (i.e. eustatic) high-stand during the Holocene Epoch.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
In Greek mythology, Pyrrha (Πύρρα) was the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora and wife of Deucalion of whom she had three sons, Hellen, Amphictyon, Orestheus; and three daughters Protogeneia, Pandora II and Thyia.
The rainbow, a natural phenomenon noted for its beauty and mystical appearance, has been a favorite component of mythology throughout history.
The Rijksmuseum (National Museum) is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam.
The Shatapatha Brahmana (IAST:, "Brāhmaṇa of one hundred parts") is a prose text describing Vedic rituals, history and mythology associated with the Śukla Yajurveda.
In Hindu mythology, Shraddhadeva Manu (Sanskrit manuśraddhādeva) is the current Manu and the progenitor of the current humanity (manvantara).
Shuruppak (𒋢𒆳𒊒𒆠, "the healing place"), modern Tell Fara, was an ancient Sumerian city situated about 55 kilometres (35 mi) south of Nippur on the banks of the Euphrates in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Sumerian King List is an ancient stone tablet originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of the kingship.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Thomas Burnet (c. 1635? – 27 September 1715) was an English theologian and writer on cosmogony.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
Timaeus of Locri (Tímaios ho Lokrós; Timaeus Locrus) is a character in two of Plato's dialogues, Timaeus and Critias.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
Utnapishtim or Utanapishtim (𒌓𒍣) is a character in the Epic of Gilgamesh who is tasked by Enki (Ea) to abandon his worldly possessions and create a giant ship to be called Preserver of Life.
Viracocha is the great creator deity in the pre-Inca and Inca mythology in the Andes region of South America.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
William Whiston (9 December 1667 – 22 August 1752) was an English theologian, historian, and mathematician, a leading figure in the popularisation of the ideas of Isaac Newton.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Ys (pronounced), also spelled Is or Kêr-Is in Breton (kêr is the Breton word for "city", see caer), and Ville d'Ys in French, is a mythical city that was built on the coast of Brittany and later swallowed by the ocean.
Ziusudra (𒍣𒌓𒋤𒁺 Ziudsuřa(k) "life of long days"; Xisuthros) or Zin-Suddu (𒍣𒅔𒋤𒁺) of Shuruppak (c. 2900 BC) is listed in the WB-62 Sumerian king list recension as the last king of Sumer prior to the a great flood.
A satellite image of the Sahara. The Congolese rainforests lie to its south. The 5.9-kiloyear event was one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene.
Deluge (mythology), Deluge Myth, Deluge myth, Deluge mythologies, Deluge mythology, Deluge mythos, Deluge myths, Diluvian, Diluvianism, Flood (Mythology), Flood (mythology), Flood Myth, Flood legend, Flood legends, Flood mythologies, Flood mythology, Flood mythos, Flood myths, Flood narrative, Flood stories, Flood story, Floods (mythology), Global flood, Great Deluge, Great Flood, Great Flood of Noah, Great flood, Great floods, Near Eastern flood legends, Ogygian deluge, Sinnflut, Sumerian floods, The Great Deluge, The Great Flood, The Worldwide Flood, Universal Flood Myth, Universal flood, World Flood.