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Florence

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. [1]

482 relations: A Room with a View (1985 film), ACF Fiorentina, Adriana Seroni, Age of Discovery, Albania, Albanians, Albizzi, Alconétar Bridge, Alexander Agricola, Allies of World War II, Amerigo Vespucci, Andrea Pisano, Anna Sarfatti, Antipasto, Antonio Meucci, Antonio Squarcialupi, Aqueduct (water supply), Arcetri, Arch, Arequipa, Armani, Arno, Arno (department), Arnolfo di Cambio, Article (grammar), Assessor (Italy), Association football, Athens, Aureliano Brandolini, Australia, Austria, Avignon Papacy, Badia Fiorentina, Baldassarre Bonaiuti, Bargello, Baroque architecture, Bartolomeo Ammannati, Battlement, BBC, Bell tower, Benvenuto Cellini, Bernardo Rossellino, Bethlehem, Biblioteca Riccardiana, Birth rate, Black Death, Boboli Gardens, Bolzano, Bonfire of the vanities, Borgo San Lorenzo, ..., Boulevard, Brancacci Chapel, Brazil, Budapest, Bulgari, Byzantine Empire, Caffè Giubbe Rosse, Calcio Fiorentino, Calmi Cuori Appassionati, Cannes, Cardo, Carlo Collodi, Carolingian Empire, Catherine de' Medici, Chancellor of Florence, Chanel, Charlemagne, Charles VIII of France, Chianina, Chianti, Chicago Tribune, China, Christopher Columbus, Cimabue, Ciompi Revolt, Commune, Comune, Congress of Vienna, Constantinople, Corsica, Cosimo de' Medici, Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, County, Coverciano, Cronaca fiorentina di Marchionne di Coppo Stefani, Dante Alighieri, Dario Nardella, David (Michelangelo), Death by burning, Decumanus Maximus, Defensive wall, Democratic Party (Italy), Discourses on Livy, Divine Comedy, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Dominican Order, Donatello, Double-entry bookkeeping system, Dresden, Duchy of Florence, Duchy of Lorraine, Duchy of Lucca, Edinburgh, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Emilia-Romagna, Emilio Pucci, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enrico Coveri, Eruca sativa, Estonia, Etruscan civilization, Europe, European theatre of World War II, European University Institute, Eurostat, Evangelista Torricelli, Fashion capital, Fez, Morocco, Fiesole, Figured bass, Filipinos, Filippino Lippi, Filippo Brunelleschi, Filippo Lippi, Financial services, Finland, Firenze Campo di Marte railway station, Firenze Rifredi railway station, Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station, First Crusade, First French Empire, Flanders, Florence Airport, Florence Baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence Charterhouse, Florence Nightingale, Florentine Camerata, Florentine dialect, Florentine Histories, Florentine painting, Florin, Football in Italy, Forbes, Fortezza da Basso, Foster and Partners, Fountain of Neptune, Florence, Fra Angelico, France, Francesco Casagrande, Francesco Guicciardini, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, French Army, Frescobaldi, Futurism, G.I. 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Romanesque architecture, Romanians, Rose McGowan, Rugby union, Salami, Salvador, Bahia, Salvatore Ferragamo, Salvatore Ferragamo S.p.A., San Gaetano, Florence, San Lorenzo, Florence, San Marco, Florence, San Miniato al Monte, Sandro Botticelli, Sangiovese, Santa Croce, Florence, Santa Felicita, Florence, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Trinita, Santissima Annunziata, Florence, Santo Spirito, Florence, Scandicci, Scoppio del carro, Scotland, Sculpture, Seat of local government, Seconda pratica, Secundogeniture, Serie A, Servite Order, Settignano, Siege of Florence (1529–30), Siena, Signoria of Florence, Silpa Bhirasri, Sinkhole, Sister city, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Sourdough, Spain, Stadio Artemio Franchi, State of Palestine, Stendhal syndrome, Stile antico, Subjunctive mood, Sulla, Sweden, Sydney, T-bone steak, Tallinn, Tea with Mussolini, Teatro Comunale, Florence, Teatro della Pergola, Tenuta San Guido, The Decameron, The Light in the Piazza (novel), The 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A Room with a View (1985 film)

A Room with a View is a 1985 British romance film, directed by James Ivory and produced by Ismail Merchant, of E. M. Forster's novel of the same name (1908).

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ACF Fiorentina

ACF Fiorentina S.p.A., commonly referred to as simply Fiorentina, is a professional Italian football club from Florence, Tuscany.

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Adriana Seroni

Adriana Fabbri Seroni, commonly known as Adriana Seroni (9 June 1922 – 9 April 1984) was an Italian journalist and politician of the Communist Party, member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies from 1972 to 1984.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Albania

Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Albanians

The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.

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Albizzi

The Albizzi family was a Florentine family originally based in Arezzo, who were rivals of the Medici and Alberti families.

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Alconétar Bridge

The Alconétar Bridge (Spanish: Puente de Alconétar), also known as Puente de Mantible, was a Roman segmental arch bridge in the Extremadura region, Spain.

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Alexander Agricola

Alexander Agricola (born Alexander Ackerman; 1445 or 1446 – 15 August 1506) was a Netherlandish composer of the Renaissance writing in the Franco-Flemish style.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Amerigo Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.

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Andrea Pisano

Andrea Pisano (Pontedera 12901348 Orvieto) also known as Andrea da Pontedera, was an Italian sculptor and architect.

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Anna Sarfatti

Anna Sarfatti (born 1950) is an Italian writer of children's books.

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Antipasto

Antipasto (plural antipasti) is the traditional first course of a formal Italian meal.

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Antonio Meucci

Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci (13 April 1808 – 18 October 1889) was an Italian inventor and an associate of Giuseppe Garibaldi (a major political figure in the history of Italy).

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Antonio Squarcialupi

Antonio Squarcialupi (27 March 1416 – 6 July 1480) was an Italian organist and composer.

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Aqueduct (water supply)

An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.

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Arcetri

Arcetri is a location in Florence, Italy, positioned among the hills south of the city centre.

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Arch

An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.

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Arequipa

Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.

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Armani

Giorgio Armani S.P.A. is an Italian fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures, distributes and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors.

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Arno

The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.

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Arno (department)

Arno was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.

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Arnolfo di Cambio

Arnolfo di Cambio (c. 1240 – 1300/1310) was an Italian architect and sculptor.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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Assessor (Italy)

In Italy an assessor (in Italian language: assessore) is a member of a Giunta, the executive body in all levels of local government: regions, provinces and communes.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Aureliano Brandolini

Aureliano Brandolini (August 8, 1927 – September 5, 2008) was an Italian agronomist and development cooperation scholar.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Avignon Papacy

The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.

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Badia Fiorentina

The Badìa Fiorentina is an abbey and church now home to the Monastic Communities of Jerusalem situated on the Via del Proconsolo in the centre of Florence, Italy.

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Baldassarre Bonaiuti

Baldassarre Bonaiuti, also known as Marchionne di Coppo Stefani (1336, in Florence – 1385, in Florence), was a chronicler (historian), statesman, politician, businessman and diplomat from Florence, Italy.

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Bargello

The Bargello, also known as the Palazzo del Bargello, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, or Palazzo del Popolo (Palace of the People), is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

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Bartolomeo Ammannati

Bartolomeo Ammannati (18 June 151113 April 1592) was an Italian architect and sculptor, born at Settignano, near Florence.

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Battlement

A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bell tower

A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.

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Benvenuto Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini (3 November 150013 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry.

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Bernardo Rossellino

Bernardo di Matteo del Borra Gamberelli (1409 Settignano – 1464 Florence), better known as Bernardo Rossellino, was an Italian sculptor and architect, the elder brother of the sculptor Antonio Rossellino.

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Bethlehem

Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.

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Biblioteca Riccardiana

The Biblioteca Riccardiana (Riccardian Library) is a library in Florence, Italy.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Boboli Gardens

The Boboli Gardens (Giardino di Boboli) is a park in Florence, Italy, that is home to a collection of sculptures dating from the 16th through the 18th centuries, with some Roman antiquities.

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Bolzano

Bolzano (or; German: Bozen (formerly Botzen),; Balsan or Bulsan; Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.

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Bonfire of the vanities

A bonfire of the vanities (falò delle vanità) is a burning of objects condemned by authorities as occasions of sin.

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Borgo San Lorenzo

Borgo San Lorenzo is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about northeast of Florence.

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Boulevard

A boulevard (French, from Bolwerk – bulwark, meaning bastion), often abbreviated Blvd, is a type of large road, usually running through a city.

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Brancacci Chapel

The Brancacci Chapel (in Italian, "Cappella dei Brancacci") is a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence, central Italy.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Budapest

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Bulgari

Bulgari (stylized as BVLGARI) is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, and hotels.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Caffè Giubbe Rosse

Caffè Giubbe Rosse is a café in Piazza della Repubblica (13-14r), Florence.

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Calcio Fiorentino

Calcio fiorentino (also known as calcio storico "historic football") is an early form of football that originated in 16th-century Italy.

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Calmi Cuori Appassionati

Calmi Cuori Appassionati (aka Reisei to Jōnetsu no Aida; lit. "Between Calmness and Passion") is a 2001 Japanese movie directed by Isamu Nakae, starring Yutaka Takenouchi and Kelly Chen.

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Cannes

Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.

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Cardo

A cardo was the Latin name given to a north-south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning.

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Carlo Collodi

Carlo Lorenzini, better known by the pen name Carlo Collodi (24 November 1826 – 26 October 1890), was an Italian author and journalist, widely known for his world-renowned fairy tale novel The Adventures of Pinocchio.

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Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.

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Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de Medici (Italian: Caterina de Medici,; French: Catherine de Médicis,; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II.

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Chancellor of Florence

The Chancellor of Florence held the most important position in the bureaucracy of the Florentine Republic.

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Chanel

Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles VIII of France

Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.

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Chianina

The Chianina is an Italian breed of cattle, formerly principally a draught breed, now raised mainly for beef.

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Chianti

A Chianti wine is any wine produced in the Chianti region, in central Tuscany, Italy.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Cimabue

Cimabue (1240 – 1302),Vasari, G. Lives of the Artists.

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Ciompi Revolt

The Revolt of the Ciompi was a rebellion among unrepresented labourers which occurred in Florence, Italy from 1378 to 1382.

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Commune

A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.

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Comune

The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Corsica

Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.

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Cosimo de' Medici

Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (called 'the Elder' (Italian il Vecchio) and posthumously Father of the Fatherland (Latin pater patriae); 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici political dynasty that served as de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.

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Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death.

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County

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.

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Coverciano

Officially Centro Tecnico Sportivo Federale della FIGC, more commonly known as Coverciano and sometimes Casa Italia, is the central training ground and technical headquarters of the Italian Football Federation (Centro Tecnico Sportivo Federale della Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio), located in the Coverciano quartiere of Florence, Italy.

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Cronaca fiorentina di Marchionne di Coppo Stefani

The Cronaca fiorentina di Marchionne di Coppo Stefani written by Baldassarre Bonaiuti is considered today as one of the best works written on the Black Death in Florence in the year 1348.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Dario Nardella

Dario Nardella (born 20 November 1975, Torre del Greco) is an Italian politician who has been the Mayor of Florence since 26 May 2014.

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David (Michelangelo)

David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created in marble between 1501 and 1504 by the Italian artist Michelangelo.

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Death by burning

Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion, or effects of exposure to extreme heat, has a long history as a form of capital punishment.

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Decumanus Maximus

In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum (military camp), or colonia.

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Defensive wall

A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.

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Democratic Party (Italy)

The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.

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Discourses on Livy

The Discourses on Livy (Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, literally "Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livy") is a work of political history and philosophy written in the early 16th century (c. 1517) by the Italian writer and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli, best known as the author of The Prince.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Domenico Ghirlandaio

Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Donatello

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence.

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Double-entry bookkeeping system

Double-entry bookkeeping, in accounting, is a system of bookkeeping so named because every entry to an account requires a corresponding and opposite entry to a different account.

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Dresden

Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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Duchy of Florence

The Duchy of Florence (Ducato di Firenze) was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy.

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Duchy of Lorraine

The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.

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Duchy of Lucca

The Duchy of Lucca was a small Italian state existing from 1815 to 1847.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.

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Elizabeth Barrett Browning

Elizabeth Barrett Browning (née Moulton-Barrett,; 6 March 1806 – 29 June 1861) was an English poet of the Victorian era, popular in Britain and the United States during her lifetime.

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Emilia-Romagna

Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.

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Emilio Pucci

Don Emilio Pucci, Marchese di Barsento (20 November 1914 – 29 November 1992) was a Florentine Italian fashion designer and politician.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Enrico Coveri

Enrico Coveri (1952 – 8 December 1990) was an Italian fashion designer and entrepreneur from Prato, Italy.

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Eruca sativa

Arugula or rocket (Eruca sativa; syns. E. vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., Brassica eruca L.) is an edible annual plant in the Brassicaceae family used as a leaf vegetable for its fresh peppery flavor.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Etruscan civilization

The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European theatre of World War II

The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).

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European University Institute

The European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Evangelista Torricelli

Evangelista Torricelli; 15 October 1608 – 25 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.

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Fashion capital

A fashion capital is a city which has a major influence on international fashion trends and in which the design, production and retailing of fashion products – plus events such as fashion weeks, awards and trade fairs – generate significant economic output.

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Fez, Morocco

Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.

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Fiesole

Fiesole is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, on a scenic height above Florence, northeast of that city.

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Figured bass

Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.

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Filipinos

Filipinos (Mga Pilipino) are the people who are native to, or identified with the country of the Philippines.

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Filippino Lippi

Filippino Lippi (April 1457 – April 1504) was an Italian painter working during the High Renaissance in Florence, Italy.

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Filippo Brunelleschi

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.

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Filippo Lippi

Fra' Filippo Lippi, O.Carm. (c. 1406 – 8 October 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento (15th century).

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Financial services

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Firenze Campo di Marte railway station

Firenze Campo di Marte (or, simply, Firenze Campo Marte) is the third railway station of Florence and the eighth station of Tuscany and the biggest station in south Florence.

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Firenze Rifredi railway station

Firenze Rifredi railway station, or Florence Rifredi railway station (Stazione di Firenze Rifredi), serves the city and comune of Florence, in the region of Tuscany, central Italy.

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Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station

Firenze Santa Maria Novella (in English Florence Santa Maria Novella) or Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is a terminus railway station in Florence, Italy.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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Flanders

Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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Florence Airport

Florence Airport, Peretola, Aeroporto di Firenze-Peretola and formally Amerigo Vespucci Airport, is the international airport of Florence, the capital of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Florence Baptistery

The Florence Baptistery (Battistero di San Giovanni), also known as the Baptistery of Saint John, is a religious building in Florence, Italy, and has the status of a minor basilica.

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Florence Cathedral

Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (in English "Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Flower") is the cathedral of Florence, Italy, or Il Duomo di Firenze, in Italian.

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Florence Charterhouse

Florence Charterhouse (Certosa di Firenze or Certosa del Galluzzo) is a charterhouse, or Carthusian monastery, located in the Florence suburb of Galluzzo, in central Italy.

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Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.

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Florentine Camerata

The Florentine Camerata, also known as the Camerata de' Bardi, were a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama.

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Florentine dialect

The Florentine dialect or vernacular (Dialetto fiorentino or vernacolo) is a Tuscan variety of Romance spoken in the Italian city of Florence.

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Florentine Histories

Florentine Histories (Istorie fiorentine) is a historical account by Italian Renaissance political philosopher and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, first published posthumously in 1532.

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Florentine painting

Florentine painting or the Florentine School refers to artists in, from, or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in Florence in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of Western painting.

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Florin

The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time.

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Football in Italy

Football (calcio in Italian) is the most popular sport in Italy.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Fortezza da Basso

Fortezza da Basso is a fort inserted in the fourteenth century walls of Florence.

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Foster and Partners

Foster + Partners is a British international studio for architecture and integrated design, with headquarters in London.

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Fountain of Neptune, Florence

The Fountain of Neptune (Fontana del Nettuno) is a fountain in Florence, Italy, situated on the Piazza della Signoria (Signoria square), in front of the Palazzo Vecchio.

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Fra Angelico

Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francesco Casagrande

Francesco Casagrande (born 14 September 1970 in Florence) is an Italian former professional road racing cyclist.

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Francesco Guicciardini

Francesco Guicciardini (6 March 1483 – 22 May 1540) was an Italian historian and statesman.

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Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.

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French Army

The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

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Frescobaldi

The Frescobaldi are a prominent Florentine noble family that have been involved in the political, sociological, and economic history of Tuscany since the Middle Ages.

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Futurism

Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.

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G.I. American universities

In May 1945, the U.S. Army's Information and Educational Branch was ordered to establish an overseas university campus for demobilized American service men and women in Florence, Italy.

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Gabinetto Vieusseux

The Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux, founded in 1819 by Giovan Pietro Vieusseux, a Protestant merchant from Geneva, is a library in Florence, Italy.

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Gaetano Donizetti

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Galleria dell'Accademia

The Galleria dell'Accademia di Firenze, or "Gallery of the Academy of Florence", is an art museum in Florence, Italy.

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Galluzzo

Galluzzo is part of quartiere 3 of the Italian city of Florence, Italy, located in the southern extremity of the Florentine commune.

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Garden of Archimedes

The Garden of Archimedes (Italian: Il Giardino Di Archimede) is a museum for mathematics in Florence, Italy.

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Garrison

Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.

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Gemstone

A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

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Genoa

Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giambologna

Giambologna (1529 – 13 August 1608) — born Jean Boulogne (and incorrectly known as Giovanni da Bologna or Giovanni Bologna) — was a Flemish sculptor based in Italy, celebrated for his marble and bronze statuary in a late Renaissance or Mannerist style.

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Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Gian Gastone de' Medici (Giovanni Battista Gastone; 24 May 1671 – 9 July 1737) was the seventh and last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany.

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Giardino Bardini

The Giardino Bardini is an Italian Renaissance garden in Florence, Italy.

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Gifu

is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture, Japan, and serves as the prefectural capital.

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Giorgio Antonucci

Giorgio Antonucci (Lucca, 24 February 1933 – Florence, 18 November 2017) was an Italian physician, known for his questioning of the basis of psychiatry.

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Giorgio Vasari

Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.

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Giotto

Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.

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Giotto's Campanile

Giotto's Campanile is a free-standing campanile that is part of the complex of buildings that make up Florence Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo in Florence, Italy.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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Giovanni Spadolini

Giovanni Spadolini (21 June 1925 – 4 August 1994) was a Republican Italian politician, the 44th Prime Minister of Italy, newspaper editor, journalist and a historian.

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Girolamo Mei

Girolamo Mei (27 May 1519 – July 1594) was an Italian historian and humanist, famous in music history for providing the intellectual impetus to the Florentine Camerata, which attempted to revive ancient Greek music drama.

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Girolamo Savonarola

Girolamo Savonarola (21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence.

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Giuliano de' Medici

Giuliano de' Medici (25 March 1453 – 26 April 1478) was the second son of Piero de' Medici (the Gouty) and Lucrezia Tornabuoni.

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Golden Age

The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.

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Grand Duchy of Tuscany

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.

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Great Synagogue of Florence

The Great Synagogue of Florence or Tempio Maggiore is one of the largest synagogues in South-central Europe, situated in Florence, in Italy.

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Gucci

Gucci is an Italian luxury brand of fashion and leather goods, which is owned by the French holding company Kering.

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Guccio Gucci

Guccio Gucci (26 March 1881 – 2 January 1953) was an Italian businessman and fashion designer, the founder of The Fashion House of Gucci.

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Guido Cavalcanti

Guido Cavalcanti (between 1250 and 1259 – August 1300) was an Italian poet and troubadour, as well as an intellectual influence on his best friend, Dante Alighieri.

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Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Hannibal (film)

Hannibal is a 2001 American psychological horror film directed by Ridley Scott, adapted from the novel of the same name by Thomas Harris.

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Harold Acton

Sir Harold Mario Mitchell Acton, CBE (5 July 1904 – 27 February 1994) was a British writer, scholar, and aesthete.

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Harpsichord

A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.

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Heinrich Isaac

Heinrich Isaac (c. 1450 – 26 March 1517) was a Netherlandish Renaissance composer of south Netherlandish origin.

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Henry II of France

Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.

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Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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High-speed rail

High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.

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Historic Centre of Florence

The historic centre of Florence is part of quartiere 1 of the Italian city of Florence.

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History of art

The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes.

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House of Bourbon-Parma

The House of Bourbon-Parma (Casa di Borbone di Parma) is an Italian royal and ducal family and cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, whose members once ruled as King of Etruria and as Duke of Parma and Piacenza, Guastalla, and Lucca.

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House of Lorraine

The House of Lorraine (Haus Lothringen) originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz.

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House of Medici

The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

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Hugh, Margrave of Tuscany

Hugh (Ugo, Hugo; 953/4 – 21 December 1001), called the Great, was the Margrave of Tuscany from 969 until his death, and the Duke of Spoleto and Margrave of Camerino from 989 to 996 (as "Hugh II").

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Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.

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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Il Canzoniere

Il Canzoniere (Song Book), also known as the Rime Sparse (Scattered Rhymes), but originally titled Rerum vulgarium fragmenta (Fragments of common things, that is Fragments composed in vernacular), is a collection of poems by the Italian humanist, poet, and writer Petrarch.

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Inferno (2016 film)

Inferno is a 2016 American mystery thriller film directed by Ron Howard and written by David Koepp, based on the 2013 novel of the same name by Dan Brown.

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Invention of the telephone

The invention of the telephone was the culmination of work done by many individuals, and involved an array of lawsuits founded upon the patent claims of several individuals and numerous companies.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Isfahan

Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italian fashion

Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside others such as France, United States and United Kingdom.

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Italian Football Federation

The Italian Football Federation (Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio; FIGC), also known as Federcalcio, is the governing body of football in Italy and is a founding member of UEFA and a member of FIFA.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italian National Institute of Statistics

The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.

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Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.

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Italian Renaissance painting

Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political areas.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Italy national football team

The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Johannes Ghiselin

Johannes Ghiselin (Verbonnet) (fl. 1491–1507) was a Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active in France, Italy and in the Low Countries.

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John Argyropoulos

John Argyropoulos (Ἰωάννης Ἀργυρόπουλος Ioannis Argyropoulos; Giovanni Argiropulo; surname also spelt Argyropulus, or Argyropulos, or Argyropulo; c. 1415 – 26 June 1487) was a lecturer, philosopher and humanist, one of the émigré Greek scholars who pioneered the revival of Classical learning in 15th-century Italy.

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John the Baptist

John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Kassel

Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Kingdom of Etruria

The Kingdom of Etruria (Regno di Etruria) was a kingdom between 1801 and 1807 which made up a large part of modern Tuscany.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

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Kingdom of the Lombards

The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.

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Kraków

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Kuwait City

Kuwait City (مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait.

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Kyoto

, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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La Specola

The Museum of Zoology and Natural History, best known as La Specola, is an eclectic natural history museum in Florence, central Italy, located next to the Pitti Palace.

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Lampredotto

Lampredotto is a typical Florentine dish, made from the fourth and final stomach of a cow, the abomasum.

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Lapo Gianni

Lapo Gianni (died after 1328) was an Italian poet who lived in Florence in the 13th-14th centuries.

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Larger urban zone

The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Legnaia

Legnaia is a rione (historical district) in Florence, Italy.

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Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Leonardo Pieraccioni

Leonardo Pieraccioni (born 17 February 1965) is an Italian film director, actor, comedian and screenwriter.

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Lisa del Giocondo

Lisa del Giocondo (née Gherardini; June 15, 1479 – July 15, 1542), also known as Lisa Gherardini, Lisa di Antonio Maria (or Antonmaria) Gherardini and Mona Lisa, was an Italian noblewoman, member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscany in Italy.

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List of historic states of Italy

Italy, up until the Italian unification in 1860, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities.

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List of mayors of Florence

The Mayor of Florence is an elected politician who, along with Florence’s City Council of 36 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Florence.

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List of rulers of Tuscany

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

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List of squares in Florence

This is a list of the principal squares of Florence in Italy.

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Loggia dei Lanzi

The Loggia dei Lanzi, also called the Loggia della Signoria, is a building on a corner of the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy, adjoining the Uffizi Gallery.

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Lombards

The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Lorenzo de' Medici

Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.

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Lorenzo Ghiberti

Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.

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Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

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Lucca

Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Lucia di Lammermoor

Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico (tragic opera) in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti.

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Machiavellianism

Machiavellianism is "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct".

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Madrigal

A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras.

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Malmö

Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.

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Mantua

Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Marble sculpture

Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble.

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March of Tuscany

The March of Tuscany (Marca di Tuscia) was a frontier march of the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.

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Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.

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Marie de' Medici

Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.

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Marino Marini (sculptor)

Marino Marini (27 February 1901 – 6 August 1980) was an Italian sculptor.

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Masaccio

Masaccio (December 21, 1401 – summer 1428), born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist who is regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance.

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Masolino da Panicale

Masolino da Panicale (nickname of Tommaso di Cristoforo Fini; c. 1383 – c. 1447) was an Italian painter.

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Matteo Renzi

Matteo Renzi (born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from February 2014 until December 2016.

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Mausoleum

A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.

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Mauthausen

Mauthausen is a small market town in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.

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Medici Chapel

The Medici Chapels (Cappelle medicee) are two structures at the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, and built as extensions to Brunelleschi's 15th-century church, with the purpose of celebrating the Medici family, patrons of the church and Grand Dukes of Tuscany.

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Medieval architecture

Medieval architecture is architecture common in the Middle Ages.

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Medieval commune

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mercantilism

Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).

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Mercato Centrale (Florence)

The Mercato Centrale (Central Market in English), or Mercato di San Lorenzo in Florence is located between via dell'Ariento, via Sant'Antonino, via Panicale and Piazza del Mercato Centrale.

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Metropolitan City of Florence

The Metropolitan City of Florence (Città Metropolitana di Firenze) is a metropolitan city in the Tuscany region, Italy.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

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Michelozzo

Michelozzo di Bartolomeo Michelozzi (1396–1472) was an Italian architect and sculptor.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mike Francis

Michele Francesco Puccioni (April 26, 1961 – January 30, 2009), better known under his stage name Mike Francis, was an Italian singer and composer, born in Florence, Italy.

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Military camp

A military camp or bivouac (see Bivouac shelter) is a semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an army.

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.

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Mona Lisa

The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".

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Monody

In poetry, the term monody has become specialized to refer to a poem in which one person laments another's death.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Museo dell'Opera del Duomo (Florence)

The Museo dell'Opera del Duomo (Museum of the Works of the Cathedral) in Florence, Italy is a museum containing many of the original works of art created for the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral (Duomo) of Florence.

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Museo Galileo

Museo Galileo, the former Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza (Institute and Museum of the History of Science) is located in Florence, Italy, in Piazza dei Giudici, along the River Arno and close to the Uffizi Gallery.

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Nanjing

Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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National Archaeological Museum (Florence)

The National Archaeological Museum of Florence (Italian – Museo archeologico nazionale di Firenze) is an archaeological museum in Florence, Italy.

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National Research Council (Italy)

The Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) or National Research Council, is the largest research council in Italy.

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Nazareth

Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.

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Ningbo

Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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Odoacer

Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).

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Ognissanti, Florence

The chiesa di San Salvatore di Ognissanti or more simply chiesa di Ognissanti ("Church of All Saints"), is a Franciscan church located on the piazza of the same name in central Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Open city

In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.

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Opera house

An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.

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Ordinances of Justice

The Ordinances of Justice were a series of statutory laws enacted in the Republic of Florence of northern Italy between the years 1293 and 1295.

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Oriana Fallaci

Oriana Fallaci (29 June 1929 - 15 September 2006) was an Italian journalist, author, and political interviewer.

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Ornellaia (wine)

Ornellaia is an Italian wine producer in the DOC Bolgheri in Toscana, known as a producer of Super Tuscan wine.

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Orsanmichele

Orsanmichele (or "Kitchen Garden of St. Michael", from the contraction in Tuscan dialect of the Italian word orto) is a church in the Italian city of Florence.

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Orto Botanico di Firenze

The Orto Botanico di Firenze (2.3 hectares), also known as the Giardino dei Semplici, the "Garden of simples", is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Florence.

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Ostrogothic Kingdom

The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.

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Ostrogoths

The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).

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Outline of Florence

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Florence: Florence – capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Overseas Chinese

No description.

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Palazzo Antinori

Palazzo Antinori is a Renaissance palace located at the north end of Via de' Tornabuoni, where it makes an odd corner with Via dei Pecori, Via del Trebbio, and converts into Via dei Rondinelli, in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Palazzo Davanzati

Palazzo Davanzati is a palace in Florence, Italy.

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Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali, Florence

The Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali is a building in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy.

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Palazzo Medici Riccardi

The Palazzo Medici, also called the Palazzo Medici Riccardi after the later family that acquired and expanded it, is a Renaissance palace located in Florence, Italy.

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Palazzo Pitti

The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy.

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Palazzo Rucellai

Palazzo Rucellai is a palatial fifteenth-century townhouse on the Via della Vigna Nuova in Florence, Italy.

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Palazzo Spini Feroni

Palazzo Spini Ferroni is a large Gothic palace located along Via de' Tornabuoni at the corner of Piazza Santa Trinita, in central Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Palazzo Strozzi

Palazzo Strozzi is a palace in Florence, Italy.

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Palazzo Vecchio

The Palazzo Vecchio ("Old Palace") is the town hall of Florence, Italy.

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Pantheon, Rome

The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.

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Panzanella

Panzanella or panmolle is a Tuscan chopped salad of bread and tomatoes that is popular in the summer.

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Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli

Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (1397 – 10 May 1482) was an Italian astrologer,, pp.

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Paolo Uccello

Paolo Uccello (1397 – 10 December 1475), born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art.

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Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.

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Pappa al pomodoro

Pappa al pomodoro is a thick Tuscan bread soup typically prepared with fresh tomatoes, bread, olive oil, garlic, basil, and various other fresh ingredients.

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Parco delle Cascine

The Parco delle Cascine (Cascine Park) is a monumental and historical park in the city of Florence.

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Parmigiano-Reggiano

Parmigiano-Reggiano is an Italian hard, granular cheese.

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Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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Pazzi conspiracy

The Pazzi conspiracy (italic) was a plot by members of the Pazzi family and others to displace the de' Medici family as rulers of Renaissance Florence.

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Pâté

Pâté is a mixture of cooked ground meat and fat minced into a spreadable paste.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Petrarch

Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Piazza Cesare Beccaria

Piazza Cesare Beccaria is a square of Florence located on the viali di Circonvallazione, the boulevard along the route of the former walls of Florence.

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Piazza del Duomo, Florence

Piazza del Duomo (English: "Cathedral Square") is located in the heart of the historic center of Florence, (Tuscany - Italy).

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Piazza della Libertà, Florence

Piazza della Libertà is the northernmost point of the historic centre of Florence.

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Piazza della Repubblica, Florence

Piazza della Repubblica (Republic Square) is a city square in Florence, Italy.

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Piazza della Signoria

Piazza della Signoria is an L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy.

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Piazza Santa Croce

Piazza Santa Croce is one of the main plazas or squares located in the central neighborhood of Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Piazza Santa Trinita

The Piazza Santa Trinita is a triangular square in Florence, Tuscany, Italy, named after the church of Santa Trinita on the west side of the square.

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Piero di Cosimo de' Medici

Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (the Gouty), (Italian: Piero "il Gottoso") (1416 – 2 December 1469) was the de facto ruler of Florence from 1464 to 1469, during the Italian Renaissance.

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Piero the Unfortunate

Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici (15 February 1472 – 28 December 1503), called Piero the Unfortunate, was the gran maestro of Florence from 1492 until his exile in 1494.

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Piombino

Piombino is an Italian town and comune of about 35,000 inhabitants in the province of Livorno (Tuscany).

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Pisa

Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Pisa International Airport

Pisa International Airport (Aeroporto Internazionale di Pisa), also named Galileo Galilei Airport is an airport located in Pisa, Italy.

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Poggio Imperiale

Poggio Imperiale is a town and comune in the province of Foggia in the Apulia region of southeast Italy.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Ponte Santa Trinita

The Ponte Santa Trìnita (Italian for Holy Trinity Bridge, named for the ancient church in the nearest stretch of via de' Tornabuoni) is a Renaissance bridge in Florence, Italy, spanning the Arno.

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Ponte Vecchio

The Ponte Vecchio ("Old Bridge") is a medieval stone closed-spandrel segmental arch bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy, noted for still having shops built along it, as was once common.

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Pope

The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Alexander VI

Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.

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Pope Clement VII

Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.

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Pope Julius II

Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".

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Pope Leo X

Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.

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Populares

The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).

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Porto-Vecchio

Porto-Vecchio (Portivechju) is a commune in the Corse-du-Sud department of France on the island of Corsica.

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Prada

Prada S.p.A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in leather handbags, travel accessories, shoes, ready-to-wear, perfumes and other fashion accessories, founded in 1913 by Mario Prada.

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Prato

Prato is a city and comune in Tuscany, Italy, the capital of the Province of Prato.

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Precipitation types

In meteorology, "precipitation types" can include the character or phase of the precipitation which is falling to ground level.

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Prefectures in France

A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.

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Prior

Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.

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Prosciutto

Prosciutto (Pronunciation of "Prosciutto". Cambridge dictionaries online.) is an Italian dry-cured ham that is usually thinly sliced and served uncooked; this style is called prosciutto crudo in Italian (or simply crudo) and is distinguished from cooked ham, prosciutto cotto.

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Proto-language

A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.

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Providence, Rhode Island

Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.

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Puebla

Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Raphael

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.

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Regions of Italy

The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.

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Reims

Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance Revival architecture

Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a broad designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.

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Republic of Florence

The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.

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Resistance movement

A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

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Rhode Island

Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.

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Ribollita

Ribollita is a famous Tuscan bread soup, a hearty potage made with bread and vegetables.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Riga City Council

Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.

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RN Florentia

Rari Nantes Florentia is an Italian water polo club from Florence.

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Robert Browning

Robert Browning (7 May 1812 – 12 December 1889) was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets.

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Robert Lowell

Robert Traill Spence Lowell IV (March 1, 1917 – September 12, 1977) was an American poet.

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Roberto Benigni

Roberto Remigio Benigni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (born 27 October 1952) is an Italian actor, comedian, screenwriter and director.

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Roberto Cavalli

Roberto Cavalli (born 15 November 1940) is an Italian fashion designer and inventor.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Romanians

The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Rose McGowan

Rose Arianna McGowan (born September 5, 1973) is an American activist, former actress, author, model, and singer.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Salami

Salami (singular salame) is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.

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Salvador, Bahia

Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.

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Salvatore Ferragamo

Salvatore Ferragamo (5 June 1898 – 7 August 1960) was an Italian shoe designer and the founder of luxury goods high-end retailer Salvatore Ferragamo S.p.A..

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Salvatore Ferragamo S.p.A.

Salvatore Ferragamo S.p.A. is an Italian luxury goods company, with headquarters in Florence, Italy.

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San Gaetano, Florence

San Gaetano, also known as Santi Michele e Gaetano, is a Baroque church in Florence, Italy, located on the Piazza Antinori.

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San Lorenzo, Florence

The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district, and the burial place of all the principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III.

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San Marco, Florence

San Marco is the name of a religious complex in Florence, Italy.

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San Miniato al Monte

San Miniato al Monte (St. Minias on the Mountain) is a basilica in Florence, central Italy, standing atop one of the highest points in the city.

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Sandro Botticelli

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Sangiovese

Sangiovese is a red Italian wine grape variety that derives its name from the Latin sanguis Jovis, "the blood of Jupiter".

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Santa Croce, Florence

The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Santa Felicita, Florence

Santa Felicità (Church of St Felicity) is a Roman Catholic church in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy, probably the oldest in the city after San Lorenzo.

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Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

Santa Maria del Carmine is a church of the Carmelite Order, in the Oltrarno district of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy.

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Santa Maria Novella

Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, situated just across from the main railway station named after it.

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Santa Trinita

Santa Trinita (Italian for "Holy Trinity") is a Roman Catholic church located in front of the Piazza of the same name, traversed by Via de' Tornabuoni, in central Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Santissima Annunziata, Florence

The Basilica della Santissima Annunziata (Basilica of the Most Holy Annunciation) is a Renaissance-style, Roman Catholic minor basilica in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Santo Spirito, Florence

The Basilica di Santo Spirito ("Basilica of the Holy Spirit") is a church in Florence, Italy.

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Scandicci

Scandicci is a comune (municipality) of c. 50,000 inhabitants in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about southwest of Florence.

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Scoppio del carro

The Scoppio del Carro ("Explosion of the Cart") is a folk tradition of Florence, Italy.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Sculpture

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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Seat of local government

In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.

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Seconda pratica

Seconda pratica, Italian for "second practice", is the counterpart to prima pratica and is more commonly referred to as Stile moderno.

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Secundogeniture

A secundogeniture (from secundus "following, second," and genitus "born") was a dependent territory given to a younger son of a princely house and his descendants, creating a cadet branch.

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Serie A

Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia.

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Servite Order

The Servite Order is one of the five original Catholic mendicant orders.

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Settignano

Settignano is a frazione on a hillside northeast of Florence, Italy, with views that have attracted American expatriates for generations.

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Siege of Florence (1529–30)

The Siege of Florence took place from 24 October 1529 to 10 August 1530, at the end of the War of the League of Cognac.

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Siena

Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.

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Signoria of Florence

The Signoria was the government of medieval and renaissance Florence.

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Silpa Bhirasri

Silpa Bhirasri (ศิลป์ พีระศรี), born Corrado Feroci (15 September 1892 – 14 May 1962) was an Tuscan-born Thai sculptor.

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Sinkhole

A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Sistine Chapel ceiling

The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art.

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Sourdough

Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Stadio Artemio Franchi

The Stadio Artemio Franchi is a football stadium in Florence, Italy.

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State of Palestine

Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

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Stendhal syndrome

Stendhal syndrome, Stendhal's syndrome, hyperkulturemia, or Florence syndrome is a psychosomatic disorder that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, fainting, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to an experience of great personal significance, particularly viewing art.

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Stile antico

Stile antico (literally "ancient style"), is a term describing a manner of musical composition from the sixteenth century onwards that was historically conscious, as opposed to stile moderno, which adhered to more modern trends.

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Subjunctive mood

The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.

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Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Sydney

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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T-bone steak

The T-bone and porterhouse are steaks of beef cut from the short loin (called the sirloin in Commonwealth countries and Ireland).

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Tallinn

Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.

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Tea with Mussolini

Tea with Mussolini is a 1999 Anglo-Italian semi-autobiographical film directed by Franco Zeffirelli, scripted by John Mortimer, telling the story of a young Italian boy's upbringing by a circle of British and American women before and during the Second World War.

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Teatro Comunale, Florence

The italic is an opera house in Florence, Italy.

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Teatro della Pergola

The Teatro della Pergola is a historic opera house in Florence, Italy.

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Tenuta San Guido

Tenuta San Guido is an Italian wine producer in the DOC Bolgheri in Toscana, known as a producer of "Super Tuscan" wine.

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The Decameron

The Decameron (Italian title: "Decameron" or "Decamerone"), subtitled "Prince Galehaut" (Old Prencipe Galeotto and sometimes nicknamed "Umana commedia", "Human comedy"), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).

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The Light in the Piazza (novel)

The Light in the Piazza is a 1960 novella by Mississippi writer Elizabeth Spencer.

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The Prince

The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.

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Tirana

Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.

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Titian

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.

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Train station

A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.

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Trams in Florence

The Florence tramway network (Rete tranviaria di Firenze) is an important part of the public transport network of Florence, Italy.

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Travel + Leisure

Travel + Leisure is a travel magazine based in New York City, New York.

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Trenitalia

Trenitalia is the primary train operator in Italy.

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Tripe

Tripe is a type of edible lining from the stomachs of various farm animals.

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Turin

Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Turku

Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.

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Tuscan dialect

Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.

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Tuscan gorgia

The Tuscan gorgia (Gorgia toscana, "Tuscan throat") is a phonetic phenomenon governed by a complex of allophonic rules characteristic of the Tuscan dialects, in Tuscany, Italy, especially the central ones, with Florence traditionally viewed as the center.

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Tuscan wine

Tuscan wine (Italian Toscana) is Italian wine from the Tuscany region.

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Tuscany

Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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Uffizi

The Uffizi Gallery (italic) is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Provinces of Central Italy

The United Provinces of Central Italy, also known as Confederation of Central Italy or Government General of Central Italy, was a short-lived military government established by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.

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Valerio Profondavalle

Valerio Profondavalle, or Valerio Diependale, (born 1533 – circa 1600) was a Flemish historical painter of the Renaissance period, born in Leuven, but active in Italy.

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Valladolid

Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León.

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Vasari Corridor

The Vasari Corridor (Corridoio Vasariano) is an elevated enclosed passageway in Florence, central Italy, which connects the Palazzo Vecchio with the Palazzo Pitti.

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Veneto

Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.

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Vespa

Vespa is an Italian brand of scooter manufactured by Piaggio.

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Via Camillo Cavour

Via Camillo Cavour is one of the main roads of the northern area of the historic city centre of the Italian city of Florence.

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Via Cassia

The Via Cassia was an important Roman road striking out of the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge in the immediate vicinity of Rome and passing not far from Veii traversed Etruria.

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Via de' Tornabuoni

Via de' Tornabuoni, or Via Tornabuoni, is a street at the center of Florence, Italy, that goes from Antinori square to ponte Santa Trinita, across Santa Trinita square, characterized by the presence of fashion boutiques.

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Viali di Circonvallazione

The Viali di Circonvallazione are a series of 6-lane boulevards surrounding north part of the historic centre of Florence.

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Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.

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Villa Medici at Careggi

The Villa Medici at Careggi is a patrician villa in the hills near Florence, Tuscany, central Italy.

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Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Virgin Territory

Virgin Territory is a 2007 romantic comedy film based upon Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron.

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Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione

Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione (22 March 1837 – 28 November 1899), better known as La Castiglione, was born to an aristocratic family from La Spezia.

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Vittoria Puccini

Vittoria Puccini (born 18 November 1981 in Florence, Italy) is an Italian film and television actress.

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Voiceless glottal fricative

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

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Water polo

Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.

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William Robertson Smith

William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846 – 31 March 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.

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Wool

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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1966 flood of the Arno

The 1966 flood of the Arno (Alluvione di Firenze del 4 novembre 1966) in Florence killed 101 people and damaged or destroyed millions of masterpieces of art and rare books.

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2nd New Zealand Division

The 2nd New Zealand Division, initially the New Zealand Division, was an infantry division of the New Zealand Military Forces (New Zealand's army) during the Second World War.

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6th Armoured Division (South Africa)

The 6th South African Armoured Division was the second armoured division of the South African Army and was formed during World War II.

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2016 Florence sinkhole, Art of Florence, Capital of Tuscany, Cinema in Florence, Cinema of Florence, Climate in Florence, Climate of Florence, Commerce in Florence, Commerce of Florence, Cuisine in Florence, Cuisine of Florence, Culture in Florence, Culture of Florence, Demographics of Florence, Economy of Florence, Fashion of Florence, Fiorentia, Firenze, Firenze, Italy, Florence (Italy), Florence, Italy, Folrenz, Food and wine production of Florence, Frorence, Geography of Florence, Government of Florence, Gualfonda, Industry in Florence, Industry of Florence, Industry, commerce and services of Florence, International relations of Florence, Language in Florence, Language of Florence, Literature of Florence, Locations in Florence, Main sights of Florence, Montughi, Music in Florence, Notable people of Florence, Notable residents of Florence, Research activity in Florence, Research in Florence, Science and discovery in Florence, Services in Florence, Sport in Florence, Sport of Florence, Sports in Florence, Sports of Florence, Tourism in Florence, Transport in Florence, Transportation in Florence, UN/LOCODE:ITFLR, פירנצה.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence

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