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Index Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. [1]

234 relations: Active laser medium, Aequorea victoria, Agarose gel electrophoresis, Amazon rainforest, Amphibian, Andersonite, Animal testing, Anthracene, Aphotic zone, Aristostomias, Atomic electron transition, Atomic line filter, Aurora, Autofluorescence, Autunite, Banknote, Benzene, Bernardino de Sahagún, Biological pigment, Bioluminescence, Biosensor, Blacklight, Blacklight paint, Boltzmann distribution, Budgerigar, Calcite, Camouflage, Carapace, Cell sorting, Cephalopod, Chemiluminescence, Chlorophyll, Chromatography detector, Chromatophore, Chromium, Circadian rhythm, Clinohedrite, Collectable, Colocalization, Compact fluorescent lamp, Cornea, Cortisol, Credit card, Crustacean, David Brewster, Daylight, Diamond, Dinoflagellate, DNA, Dye, ..., Dye laser, Dye tracing, Dysprosium, Edmond Becquerel, Edward Daniel Clarke, Electrokinetic phenomena, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Emerald, Esperite, Ethidium bromide, Europium, Excited state, Exponential decay, Eysenhardtia polystachya, Förster resonance energy transfer, Fiber, Fibrin, Fight-or-flight response, Fingerprint, Flatfish, Flow cytometry, Fluorescein, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, Fluorescence image-guided surgery, Fluorescence microscope, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy, Fluorescent glucose biosensor, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorescent multilayer card, Fluorescent Multilayer Disc, Fluorescent penetrant inspection, Fluorescent tag, Fluorite, Fluorometer, Fluorophore, Forensic science, Franck–Condon principle, Frequency, Gamma, Gamma ray, Gemology, Gemstone, Glass, Glow stick, Green fluorescent protein, Greeneye, Ground state, Heat, Hermann von Helmholtz, High-intensity discharge lamp, High-performance liquid chromatography, High-visibility clothing, Highlighter, Hyalite, Hydrocarbon exploration, Hydrozoa, Incandescence, Infrared, Infusion, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Intersystem crossing, Intravascular fluorescence, Irradiation, Jablonski diagram, Jellyfish, John Herschel, Kasha's rule, Lanthanide, Laser-induced fluorescence, Latin, LED lamp, Lens (anatomy), Light, Light-emitting diode, Lighting, Lignum nephriticum, List of light sources, Luminescence, Lymph, Manganese, Mantis shrimp, Mating, Mössbauer effect, Medicine, Melanin, Mercury (element), Microbial art, Microfluidics, Mineral, Mineralogy, Molybdenum, Monochromator, Nanosecond, Nanostructure, Nicolás Monardes, Ninhydrin, OLED, Optical coherence tomography, Osamu Shimomura, Oxygen, Pachystomias microdon, Parrot, Petroleum, Phosphor, Phosphor thermometry, Phosphorescence, Photic zone, Photon, Photophore, Photosynthesis, Photosynthesis system, Pigment, Planck constant, Plumage, Polka-dot tree frog, Pollinator, Polyp, Postage stamp, Powellite, Protein, Pterocarpus indicus, Pyranine, Quantum yield, Quenching (fluorescence), Quinine, Radiance, Rate equation, René Just Haüy, Riboflavin, Ruby, Rule of thumb, Sanger sequencing, Scheelite, Scintillation (physics), Scintillation counter, Scorpaenidae, Semiconductor, Shark, Signage, Singlet state, Siphonophorae, Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet, Spectrofluorometer, Spectroscopy, Spectrum, Sphalerite, Spontaneous emission, Stilbene, Stokes shift, Stomiidae, Sulfuric acid, Swallowtail butterfly, SYBR Green I, Synodontidae, Tax, Tentacle, Terbium, Thin-layer chromatography, Tissue (biology), Toluene, Tonic water, Toxicity, Tree of life, Triplet state, Tungsten, Two-photon absorption, Ultraviolet, Uranium, Uranium glass, Uranyl, Vibronic spectroscopy, Wavelength, Willemite, William Edwin Safford, Wollastonite, Wrasse, X-ray, X-ray fluorescence, Zircon, Zooid, 1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one, 1939 New York World's Fair. Expand index (184 more) »

Active laser medium

The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.

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Aequorea victoria

Aequorea victoria, also sometimes called the crystal jelly, is a bioluminescent hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusa, that is found off the west coast of North America.

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Agarose gel electrophoresis

Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of macromolecules such as DNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose, one of the two main components of agar.

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Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Andersonite, Na2Ca(UO2)(CO3)3·6H2O, or hydrated sodium calcium uranyl carbonate is a rare uranium carbonate mineral that was first described in 1948.

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Animal testing

Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.

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Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings.

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Aphotic zone

The aphotic zone (aphotic from Greek prefix ἀ- + φῶς "without light") is the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight.

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Aristostomtias is a genus of barbeled dragonfishes native to the ocean depths in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans.

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Atomic electron transition

Atomic electron transition is a change of an electron from one energy level to another within an atom or artificial atom.

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Atomic line filter

An atomic line filter (ALF) is an advanced optical band-pass filter used in the physical sciences for filtering electromagnetic radiation with precision, accuracy, and minimal signal strength loss.

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An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Autofluorescence is the natural emission of light by biological structures such as mitochondria and lysosomes when they have absorbed light, and is used to distinguish the light originating from artificially added fluorescent markers (fluorophores).

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Autunite (hydrated calcium uranyl phosphate) with formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2·10-12H2O is a yellow - greenish fluorescent mineral with a hardness of 2 -. Autunite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and often occurs as tabular square crystals.

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A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Bernardino de Sahagún

Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).

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Biological pigment

Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.

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Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

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A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.

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A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.

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Blacklight paint

Black light paint or black light fluorescent paint is luminous paint that glows under a black light.

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Boltzmann distribution

In statistical mechanics and mathematics, a Boltzmann distribution (also called Gibbs distribution Translated by J.B. Sykes and M.J. Kearsley. See section 28) is a probability distribution, probability measure, or frequency distribution of particles in a system over various possible states.

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The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), also known as the common parakeet or shell parakeet and usually informally nicknamed the budgie, is a small, long-tailed, seed-eating parrot.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises.

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Cell sorting

Cell sorting is a method used to separate cells isolated from an organism's tissues according to their type.

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A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.

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Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

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Chromatography detector

A chromatography detector is a device used in gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) to detect components of the mixture being eluted off the chromatography column.

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Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Clinohedrite is a rare silicate mineral.

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A collectable (collectible or collector's item) is any object regarded as being of value or interest to a collector (not necessarily monetarily valuable or antique).

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In fluorescence microscopy, colocalization refers to observation of the spatial overlap between two (or more) different fluorescent labels, each having a separate emission wavelength, to see if the different "targets" are located in the same area of the cell or very near to one another.

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Compact fluorescent lamp

A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb; some types fit into light fixtures designed for incandescent bulbs.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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David Brewster

Sir David Brewster KH PRSE FRS FSA(Scot) FSSA MICE (11 December 178110 February 1868) was a British scientist, inventor, author, and academic administrator.

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Daylight, or the light of day, is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight during the daytime.

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Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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Dye laser

A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution.

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Dye tracing

Dye tracing is tracking and tracing various flows using dye added to the liquid in question.

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Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.

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Edmond Becquerel

Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (24 March 1820 – 11 May 1891), known as Edmond Becquerel, was a French physicist who studied the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics.

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Edward Daniel Clarke

Edward Daniel Clarke (5 June 1769 – 9 March 1822) was an English clergyman, naturalist, mineralogist, and traveller.

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Electrokinetic phenomena

Electrokinetic phenomena are a family of several different effects that occur in heterogeneous fluids, or in porous bodies filled with fluid, or in a fast flow over a flat surface.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.

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Esperite is a rare complex calcium lead zinc silicate (PbCa3Zn4(SiO4)4) related to beryllonite and trimerite that used to be called calcium larsenite.

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Ethidium bromide

Ethidium bromide is an intercalating agent commonly used as a fluorescent tag (nucleic acid stain) in molecular biology laboratories for techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis.

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Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.

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Excited state

In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).

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Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

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Eysenhardtia polystachya

Eysenhardtia polystachya or kidneywood tree is a tree from Mexico, growing along forest edges and water courses at elevations of 150–3000 m.

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Förster resonance energy transfer

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).

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Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

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Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a fibrous, non-globular protein involved in the clotting of blood.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

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A flatfish is a member of the order Pleuronectiformes of ray-finned demersal fishes, also called the Heterosomata, sometimes classified as a suborder of Perciformes.

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Flow cytometry

In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.

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Fluorescein is a manufactured organic compound and dye.

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Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a correlation analysis of fluctuation of the fluorescence intensity.

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Fluorescence image-guided surgery

Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS), (also called 'Fluorescence image-guided surgery', or in the specific case of tumor resection, 'fluorescence guided resection') is a medical imaging technique used to detect fluorescently labelled structures during surgery.

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Fluorescence microscope

A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.

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Fluorescence spectroscopy

Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorometry or spectrofluorometry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyzes fluorescence from a sample.

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Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy

Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy or FLIM is an imaging technique for producing an image based on the differences in the exponential decay rate of the fluorescence from a fluorescent sample.

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Fluorescent glucose biosensor

Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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Fluorescent multilayer card

The Fluorescent Multilayer Card (FMC) is a hypothetical memory card technology that applies the same 3D optical data storage mechanism as the Fluorescent Multilayer Disc.

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Fluorescent Multilayer Disc

Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD) is an optical disc format developed by Constellation 3D that uses fluorescent, rather than reflective materials to store data.

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Fluorescent penetrant inspection

Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is a type of dye penetrant inspection in which a fluorescent dye is applied to the surface of a non-porous material in order to detect defects that may compromise the integrity or quality of the part in question.

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Fluorescent tag

In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid.

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Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

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A fluorometer or fluorimeter is a device used to measure parameters of fluorescence: its intensity and wavelength distribution of emission spectrum after excitation by a certain spectrum of light.

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A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Franck–Condon principle

The Franck–Condon principle is a rule in spectroscopy and quantum chemistry that explains the intensity of vibronic transitions.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.

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A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glow stick

A glow stick is a self-contained, short-term light-source.

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Green fluorescent protein

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.

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Greeneyes are deep-sea aulopiform marine fishes in the small family Chlorophthalmidae.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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High-intensity discharge lamp

High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.

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High-performance liquid chromatography

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.

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High-visibility clothing

High-visibility (HV) clothing, a type of personal protective equipment (PPE), is any clothing worn that has highly reflective properties or a colour that is easily discernible from any background.

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A highlighter is a type of writing device used to draw attention to sections of text by marking them with a vivid, translucent colour.

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Hyalite is a form of opal with a glassy and clear appearance which may exhibit an internal play of colors if natural inclusions are present.

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Hydrocarbon exploration

Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.

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Hydrozoa (hydrozoans, from ancient Greek ὕδρα, hydra, "sea serpent" and ζῷον, zoon, "animal") are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in salt water.

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Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping).

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Intersystem crossing

Intersystem crossing (ISC) is a radiationless process involving a transition between the two electronic states with different states spin multiplicity.

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Intravascular fluorescence

Intravascular fluorescence is a catheter-based molecular imaging technique that uses near-infrared fluorescence to detect artery wall autofluorescence (NIRAF) or fluorescence generated by molecular agents injected intravenously (NIRF).

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Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.

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Jablonski diagram

In molecular spectroscopy, a Jablonski diagram is a diagram that illustrates the electronic states of a molecule and the transitions between them.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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John Herschel

Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.

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Kasha's rule

Kasha's rule is a principle in the photochemistry of electronically excited molecules.

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The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

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Laser-induced fluorescence

Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-stimulated fluorescence (LSF) is a spectroscopic method in which an atom or molecule is excited to a higher energy level by the absorption of laser light followed by spontaneous emission of light.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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LED lamp

A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.

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Lignum nephriticum

Lignum nephriticum (Latin for "kidney wood") is a traditional diuretic that was derived from the wood of two tree species, the narra (Pterocarpus indicus) and the Mexican kidneywood (Eysenhardtia polystachya). The wood is capable of turning the color of water it comes in contact with into beautiful opalescent hues that change depending on light and angle, the earliest known record of the phenomenon of fluorescence.

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List of light sources

This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.

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Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.

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Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.

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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Mantis shrimp

Mantis shrimps, or stomatopods, are marine crustaceans of the order Stomatopoda.

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In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.

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Mössbauer effect

The Mössbauer effect, or recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence, is a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Microbial art

Microbial art, agar art, or germ art is artwork created by culturing microorganisms in certain patterns.

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Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale at which capillary penetration governs mass transport.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input.

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A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10 seconds.

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A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures.

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Nicolás Monardes

Nicolás Bautista Monardes (1493 – 10 October 1588) was a Spanish physician and botanist.

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Ninhydrin (2,2-dihydroxyindane-1,3-dione) is a chemical used to detect ammonia or primary and secondary amines.

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An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.

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Optical coherence tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that uses coherent light to capture micrometer-resolution, two- and three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue).

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Osamu Shimomura

is a Japanese organic chemist and marine biologist, and Professor Emeritus at Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts and Boston University School of Medicine.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pachystomias microdon

Pachystomias microdon, the smalltooth dragonfish, is a species of barbeled dragonfish found in the oceans at depths of from.

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Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

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Phosphor thermometry

Phosphor thermometry is an optical method for surface temperature measurement.

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Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.

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Photic zone

The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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A photophore is a glandular organ that appears as luminous spots on various marine animals, including fish and cephalopods.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Photosynthesis system

Photosynthesis systems are electronic scientific instruments designed for non-destructive measurement of photosynthetic rates in the field.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Plumage ("feather") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers.

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Polka-dot tree frog

The polka-dot tree frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) is a frog species in the family Hylidae found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

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A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.

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A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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Postage stamp

A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.

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Powellite is a calcium molybdate mineral with formula CaMoO4.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pterocarpus indicus

Pterocarpus indicus (commonly known as Amboyna wood, Malay padauk, Papua New Guinea rosewood, Philippine mahogany, Andaman redwood, Burmese rosewood, narra or Pashu padauk) is a species of Pterocarpus native to southeastern Asia, northern Australasia, and the western Pacific Ocean islands, in Cambodia, southernmost China, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Ryukyu Islands, the Solomon Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.

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Pyranine is a hydrophilic, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye from the group of chemicals known as arylsulfonates.

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Quantum yield

The quantum yield (Φ) of a radiation-induced process is the number of times a specific event occurs per photon absorbed by the system.

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Quenching (fluorescence)

Quenching refers to any process which decreases the fluorescence intensity of a given substance.

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Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.

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In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a given surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area.

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Rate equation

The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders).

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René Just Haüy

René Just Haüy FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French priest and mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame.

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Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).

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Rule of thumb

The English phrase rule of thumb refers to a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable for every situation.

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Sanger sequencing

Sanger sequencing is a method of DNA sequencing first commercialized by Applied Biosystems, based on the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides by DNA polymerase during in vitro DNA replication.

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Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4.

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Scintillation (physics)

Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle (an electron, an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon).

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Scintillation counter

A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.

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Scorpaenidae (also known as the scorpionfish) are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Signage is the design or use of signs and symbols to communicate a message to a specific group, usually for the purpose of marketing or a kind of advocacy.

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Singlet state

In quantum mechanics, a singlet state usually refers to a system in which all electrons are paired.

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The Siphonophorae or Siphonophora, the siphonophores, are an order of the hydrozoans, a class of marine animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria.

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Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet

Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, (13 August 1819 – 1 February 1903), was an Irish physicist and mathematician.

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A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

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Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.

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Spontaneous emission

Spontaneous emission is the process in which a quantum mechanical system (such as an atom, molecule or subatomic particle) transitions from an excited energy state to a lower energy state (e.g., its ground state) and emits a quantum in the form of a photon.

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Stilbene may refer to one of the two stereoisomers of 1,2-diphenylethene.

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Stokes shift

Stokes shift is the difference (in wavelength or frequency units) between positions of the band maxima of the absorption and emission spectra (fluorescence and Raman being two examples) of the same electronic transition.

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Stomiidae is a family of deep-sea ray-finned fish, including the barbeled dragonfishes.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Swallowtail butterfly

Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies in the family Papilionidae, and include over 550 species.

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SYBR Green I

SYBR Green I (SG) is an asymmetrical cyanine dye used as a nucleic acid stain in molecular biology.

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Synodontidae or lizardfishes(or typical lizardfish to distinguish them from the Bathysauridae and Pseudotrichonotidae) are benthic (bottom-dwelling) marine and estuarine bony fishes that comprise the aulopiform fish family, a diverse order of marine ray-finned fish consisting of some 15 extant and several prehistoric families.

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A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

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Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.

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Thin-layer chromatography

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Tonic water

Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated soft drink in which quinine is dissolved.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Tree of life

The tree of life is a widespread myth (mytheme) or archetype in the world's mythologies, related to the concept of sacred tree more generally,Giovino, Mariana (2007).

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Triplet state

In quantum mechanics, a triplet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of quantum number s.

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Two-photon absorption

Two-photon absorption (TPA) is the absorption of two photons of identical or different frequencies in order to excite a molecule from one state (usually the ground state) to a higher energy electronic state.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranium glass

Uranium glass is glass which has had uranium, usually in oxide diuranate form, added to a glass mix before melting for coloration.

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The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.

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Vibronic spectroscopy

Vibronic spectra involve simultaneous changes in the vibrational and electronic energy states of a molecule.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Willemite is a zinc silicate mineral (Zn2SiO4) and a minor ore of zinc.

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William Edwin Safford

William Edwin Safford (December 14, 1859, Chillicothe, Ohio – January 10, 1926) was an American botanist, ethnologist, and educator employed by the U.S. Navy and federal government.

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Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium.

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The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.

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A zooid or zoöid is a single animal that is part of a colonial animal.

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1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one, also known as DFO, is a chemical that is used to find fingerprints on porous surfaces.

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1939 New York World's Fair

The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, which covered the of Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair), was the second most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St.

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Biofluorescence, Biofluorescent, Delayed fluorescence, Florescence, Florescent, Flourescence, Flourescent, Fluo, Fluoresce, Fluoresced, Fluorescence of minerals, Fluorescense, Fluorescent, Fluorescent Compound, Fluorescent color, Fluorescer, Fluorescing, Fluorogenic, Neon color.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence

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