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Fluorescence microscope

Index Fluorescence microscope

A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances. [1]

73 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Actin, Alexa Fluor, Antibody, Antigen, Associated Press, Autofluorescence, Cell nucleus, Charge-coupled device, Coefficient of variation, Confocal microscopy, Correlative light-electron microscopy, DAPI, Dichroic filter, Dichroism, Diffraction-limited system, DNA, DyLight Fluor, Eric Betzig, Ernst Abbe, Excitation filter, Fluorescein, Fluorescence, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Fluorescence intermittency, Fluorescent protein, Fluorophore, Gene expression, Genetics, Green fluorescent protein, Halogen lamp, Hoechst stain, INCENP, Inorganic compound, Laser, Light-emitting diode, List of life sciences, Mammal, Mercury-vapor lamp, Microlens, Microscope, Microtubule, Nanoscopic scale, Nanostructure, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nucleic acid, Numerical aperture, Objective (optics), Optical microscope, ..., Optical sectioning, Palladin, Phalloidin, Phosphorescence, Photobleaching, Primary and secondary antibodies, Protein, Reflection (physics), RESOLFT, Scavenger (chemistry), STED microscopy, Stefan Hell, Stokes shift, Supercontinuum, The New York Times, Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope, Tubulin, Two-photon excitation microscopy, Vertico spatially modulated illumination, Wavelength, William E. Moerner, Xenon arc lamp, 4Pi microscope. Expand index (23 more) »

Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Actin

Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Alexa Fluor

The Alexa Fluor family of fluorescent dyes is a series of dyes invented by Molecular Probes, now a part of Thermo Fisher Scientific, and sold under the Invitrogen brand name.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antigen

In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Autofluorescence

Autofluorescence is the natural emission of light by biological structures such as mitochondria and lysosomes when they have absorbed light, and is used to distinguish the light originating from artificially added fluorescent markers (fluorophores).

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Coefficient of variation

In probability theory and statistics, the coefficient of variation (CV), also known as relative standard deviation (RSD), is a standardized measure of dispersion of a probability distribution or frequency distribution.

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Confocal microscopy

Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation.

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Correlative light-electron microscopy

Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) is the combination of an optical microscope - usually a fluorescence microscope - with an electron microscope.

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DAPI

DAPI, or 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, is a fluorescent stain that binds strongly to adenine–thymine rich regions in DNA.

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Dichroic filter

A dichroic filter, thin-film filter, or interference filter is a very accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors.

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Dichroism

In optics, a dichroic material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths (colours) (not to be confused with dispersion), or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts.

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Diffraction-limited system

The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DyLight Fluor

The DyLight Fluor family of fluorescent dyes are produced by Dyomics in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific.

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Eric Betzig

Robert Eric Betzig (born January 13, 1960) is an American physicist based at the Janelia Farm Research Campus in Ashburn, Virginia.

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Ernst Abbe

Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer.

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Excitation filter

An excitation filter is a high quality optical-glass filter commonly used in fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopic applications for selection of the excitation wavelength of light from a light source.

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Fluorescein

Fluorescein is a manufactured organic compound and dye.

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Fluorescence in situ hybridization

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.

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Fluorescence intermittency

Fluorescence intermittency, or blinking, is the phenomenon of random switching between ON (bright) and OFF (dark) states of the emitter under its continuous excitation.

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Fluorescent protein

Fluorescent proteins include.

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Fluorophore

A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Green fluorescent protein

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.

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Halogen lamp

A halogen lamp, also known as a tungsten halogen, quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp, is an incandescent lamp consisting of a tungsten filament sealed into a compact transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine.

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Hoechst stain

Hoechst stains are part of a family of blue fluorescent dyes used to stain DNA.

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INCENP

Inner centromere protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INCENP gene.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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List of life sciences

The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mercury-vapor lamp

A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.

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Microlens

A microlens is a small lens, generally with a diameter less than a millimetre (mm) and often as small as 10 micrometres (µm).

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Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Microtubule

Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Nanoscopic scale

The nanoscopic scale (or nanoscale) usually refers to structures with a length scale applicable to nanotechnology, usually cited as 1–100 nanometers.

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Nanostructure

A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Numerical aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.

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Objective (optics)

In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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Optical sectioning

Optical sectioning is the process by which a suitably designed microscope can produce clear images of focal planes deep within a thick sample.

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Palladin

Palladin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PALLD gene.

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Phalloidin

Phalloidin belongs to a class of toxins called phallotoxins, which are found in the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides).

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Phosphorescence

Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.

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Photobleaching

In optics, photobleaching (sometimes termed fading) is the photochemical alteration of a dye or a fluorophore molecule such that it permanently is unable to fluoresce.

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Primary and secondary antibodies

Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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RESOLFT

RESOLFT, an acronym for REversible Saturable Optical Linear Fluorescence Transitions, denotes a group of optical microscopy techniques with very high resolution.

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Scavenger (chemistry)

A scavenger in chemistry is a chemical substance added to a mixture in order to remove or de-activate impurities and unwanted reaction products, for example oxygen, to make sure that they will not cause any unfavorable reactions.

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STED microscopy

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy is one of the techniques that make up super-resolution microscopy.

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Stefan Hell

Stefan Walter Hell HonFRMS (born 23 December 1962) is a Romanian-born German physicist and one of the directors of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany.

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Stokes shift

Stokes shift is the difference (in wavelength or frequency units) between positions of the band maxima of the absorption and emission spectra (fluorescence and Raman being two examples) of the same electronic transition.

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Supercontinuum

In optics, a supercontinuum is formed when a collection of nonlinear processes act together upon a pump beam in order to cause severe spectral broadening of the original pump beam, for example using a microstructured optical fiber.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope

A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nanometers can be observed.

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Tubulin

Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

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Two-photon excitation microscopy

Two-photon excitation microscopy is a fluorescence imaging technique that allows imaging of living tissue up to about one millimeter in depth.

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Vertico spatially modulated illumination

Vertico spatially modulated illumination (Vertico-SMI) is the fastest light microscope for the 3D analysis of complete cells in the nanometer range.

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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William E. Moerner

William Esco Moerner (born June 24, 1953) is an American physical chemist and chemical physicist with current work in the biophysics and imaging of single molecules.

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Xenon arc lamp

A xenon arc lamp is a highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.

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4Pi microscope

A 4Pi microscope is a laser scanning fluorescence microscope with an improved axial resolution.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence_microscope

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