93 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Acute toxicity, Alkaline earth metal, Aluminium fluoride, Aluminium smelting, Base (chemistry), Beryllium fluoride, Bifluoride, Biochemistry, Bromide, Calcium chloride, Calcium gluconate, Calcium hydroxide, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemical formula, Chloride, Congressional Research Service, Conjugate acid, Dental fluorosis, Dietary Reference Intake, Drinking water, Enzyme inhibitor, European Food Safety Authority, Extreme ultraviolet, Fluoride selective electrode, Fluoride therapy, Fluorine, Fluorine deficiency, Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fluorite, Fluorocarbon, Fresh water, Gastrointestinal tract, Groundwater, Hexafluorophosphate, Hexafluoroplatinate, Hexafluorosilicic acid, Human tooth development, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydroxide, Inorganic chemistry, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodide, Ion, Lewis acids and bases, Litre, Median lethal dose, Micronutrient, ..., Monatomic ion, National Academy of Medicine, Nazism, Nitrile, Nucleophile, Oral hygiene, Organofluorine chemistry, Osteoporosis, Phosphatase, Phosphate, PolitiFact, Preferred IUPAC name, Protic solvent, Proton, Rain, Reagent, Saline water, Salt, Serine, Skeletal fluorosis, Sodium chloride, Sodium fluoride, Sodium fluorosilicate, Sodium monofluorophosphate, Solvation, Standard electrode potential, Sulfur hexafluoride, Surface water, Tampa Bay Times, Tanzania, Tetrafluoroberyllate, Tetrafluoroborate, Tetrafluoromethane, The BMJ, Threonine, Tooth decay, Toothpaste, Transition state, Triflate, Trivial name, Water fluoridation, Water fluoridation controversy, Weak base. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short period of time (usually less than 24 hours).
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Aluminium fluoride (AlF3) is an inorganic compound used primarily in the production of aluminium.
Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from its oxide, alumina, generally by the Hall-Héroult process.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beryllium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BeF2.
Bifluoride is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula HF (also written −).
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Calcium gluconate is a mineral supplement and medication.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Dental fluorosis (also termed mottled enamel) is an extremely common disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) or high-energy ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning wavelengths from 124 nm down to 10 nm, and therefore (by the Planck–Einstein equation) having photons with energies from 10 eV up to 124 eV (corresponding to 124 nm to 10 nm respectively).
A fluoride selective electrode is a type of ion selective electrode sensitive to the concentration of the fluoride ion.
Fluoride therapy is the use of fluoride for medical purposes.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fluoride or fluorine deficiency is a disorder which may cause increased dental caries (or tooth decay, is the breakdown of dental tissues by the acidic products released by the "bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates.") and possibly osteoporosis (a bone disorder which leads to a decrease in bone mass, and an increase in bone fragility), due to a lack of fluoride in the diet.
Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fluorine NMR or 19F NMR) is an analytical technique used to detect and identify fluorine-containing compounds.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Hexafluorophosphate is an anion with chemical formula of.
A hexafluoroplatinate is a chemical compound which contains the hexafluoroplatinate (PtF6−) anion.
Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.
Tooth development or odontogenesis is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
A monatomic ion is an ion consisting of exactly one atom.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing and cleaning between the teeth.
Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of the organofluorines, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
PolitiFact.com is a blog operated by the editorial board of theTampa Bay Times, in which reporters and editors from the Times and affiliated media seek to fact-check statements by members of Congress, the White House, lobbyists, and interest groups.
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC nomenclature.
In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.
Sodium fluorosilicate is a compound with the chemical formula Na2.
Sodium monofluorophosphate, commonly abbreviated MFP, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na2PO3F.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tetrafluoroberyllate or orthofluoroberyllate BeF42− is an anion containing beryllium and fluorine.
Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF4−.
Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride, is the simplest fluorocarbon (CF4).
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.
Triflate, also known by the systematic name trifluoromethanesulfonate, is a functional group with the formula CF3SO3−.
In chemistry, a trivial name is a nonsystematic name for a chemical substance.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
The water fluoridation controversy arises from political, moral, ethical, economic, and safety concerns regarding the fluoridation of public water supplies.
In chemistry, a weak base is a base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.