62 relations: Actinic keratosis, Anal cancer, Anaphylaxis, Angina pectoris, Antimetabolite, Ataxia, Bone marrow suppression, Bowen's disease, Breast cancer, Cancer, Capecitabine, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac arrhythmia, Central nervous system, Charles Heidelberger, Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema, Colorectal cancer, Cytochrome P450, Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, DNA replication, Dysmetria, Encephalopathy, Esophageal cancer, Esophagitis, Fluoroacetic acid, Folinic acid, Genetic variation, Head and neck cancer, Health system, Hiccup, Hoffmann-La Roche, Intravenous therapy, Kidney, Liver, Mucositis, Myelin, Neurotoxicity, Nucleoside, Nystagmus, Oligodendrocyte, Pancreatic cancer, Pharmaceutical drug, Photophobia, Proctitis, Pyrimidine analogue, Skin cancer, Sorivudine, Stomach cancer, Suicide inhibition, ..., Tegafur, Thymidine, Thymidine monophosphate, Thymidylate synthase, Thymidylate synthase inhibitor, Thymineless death, United States, Uracil, Ventricular tachycardia, Warfarin, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Zygosity. Expand index (12 more) » « Shrink index
Actinic keratosis (also called "solar keratosis" and "senile keratosis"; abbreviated as "AK") is a pre-cancerous patch of thick, scaly, or crusty skin.
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Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract.
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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
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Angina pectoris, commonly known as angina, is the sensation of chest pain, pressure, or squeezing, often due to ischemia of the heart muscle from obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries.
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An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.
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Ataxia (from Greek α- + -τάξις.
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Bone marrow suppression or myelotoxicity (adjective myelotoxic) or myelosuppression is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes).
Bowen's disease (BD) (also known as "squamous cell carcinoma in situ"James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.) is a neoplastic skin disease; it can be considered as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma.
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Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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Capecitabine (INN) (Xeloda, Roche) is an orally-administered chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of numerous cancers.
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Cardiac arrest, also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is a sudden stop in effective blood circulation due to the failure of the heart to contract effectively or at all.
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Cardiac arrhythmia, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
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The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charles Heidelberger (December 23, 1920 – January 18, 1983) was a cancer researcher who developed and patented an anticancer drug called 5-Fluorouracil that remains widely used against cancers of the stomach, colon and breast.
Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema (also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, or hand-foot syndrome) is reddening, swelling, numbness and desquamation (skin sloughing or peeling) on palms of the hands and soles of the feet (and, occasionally, on the knees, elbows, and elsewhere) that can occur after chemotherapy in patients with cancer.
Colorectal cancer (also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer, or bowel cancer) is the development of cancer in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
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Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) belong to the superfamily of proteins containing a heme cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
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Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is an enzyme that is involved in pyrimidine degradation.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (DPD deficiency) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder in which there is absent or significantly decreased activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of uracil and thymine.
DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.
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Dysmetria (wrong length) refers to a lack of coordination of movement typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended position with the hand, arm, leg, or eye.
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Encephalopathy means disorder or disease of the brain.
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Esophageal cancer (or oesophageal cancer) is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.
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Esophagitis (or oesophagitis) is inflammation of the esophagus.
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Fluoroacetic acid is a chemical compound with formula CH2FCOOH.
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Folinic acid (INN) or leucovorin (USAN), generally administered as calcium or sodium folinate (or leucovorin calcium/sodium), is an adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy involving the drug methotrexate.
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Genetic variation is a fact that a biological system – individual and population – is different over space.
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Head and neck cancer is cancer that starts in the lip, oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity (inside the nose), paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and larynx.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
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A hiccup (also spelled hiccough) is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute.
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Intravenous therapy (IV therapy or iv therapy in short) is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein.
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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.
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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.
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Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.
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Myelin is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon dielectric (electrically insulating) material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron.
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Neurotoxicity occurs when exposure to natural or artificial toxic substances, which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause damage to nervous tissue.
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Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.
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Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.
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Oligodendrocytes (from Greek, meaning cells with a few branches), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),.
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Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
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A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
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Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.
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Proctitis is an inflammation of the anus and the lining of the rectum, affecting only the last 6 inches of the rectum.
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Pyrimidine analogues are nucleoside analog antimetabolites which mimic the structure of metabolic pyrimidines.
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Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
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Sorivudine (INN) chemical name (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)- 1β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil, is a thymine analogue antiviral drug, marketed under trade names such as Usevir (Nippon Shoji, Eisai) and Brovavir (BMS).
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Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
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In biochemistry, suicide inhibition, also known as suicide inactivation or mechanism-based inhibition, is an irreversible form of enzyme inhibition that occurs when an enzyme binds a substrate analogue and forms an irreversible complex with it through a covalent bond during the "normal" catalysis reaction.
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Tegafur (INN, BAN, USAN) is a chemotherapeutic fluorouracil prodrug used in the treatment of cancers.
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Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.
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Thymidine monophosphate, also known as 5'-thymidylate, thymidylate, or TMP, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA.
Thymidylate synthetase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP).
Thymidylate synthase inhibitors are chemical agents which inhibit the enzyme thymidylate synthase and have potential as an anticancer chemotherapy.
Thymineless death is the phenomenon by which bacteria, yeasts and mammalian cells undergo irreversible cell death when they are starved of thymidine triphosphate (dTTP), an essential precursor for DNA replication.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
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Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of tachycardia, or a rapid heart beat that arises from improper electrical activity of the heart presenting as a rapid heart rhythm, that starts in the bottom chambers of the heart, called the ventricles.
Warfarin, also known by the brand names Coumadin among others, is an anticoagulant normally used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body, respectively.
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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines is published by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
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