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Index Fluorouracil

Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer. [1]

79 relations: Actinic keratosis, Allopurinol, American Journal of Clinical Oncology, Anal cancer, Anaphylaxis, Angina, Antimetabolite, Ataxia, Autopharmacology, Basal-cell carcinoma, Bone marrow suppression, Bowen's disease, Breast cancer, British Approved Name, Cancer, Capecitabine, Cardiac arrest, Cardiotoxicity, Central nervous system, Cervical cancer, Charles Heidelberger, Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema, Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, Colorectal cancer, Coronary vasospasm, Cytochrome P450, Cytopenia, Developing country, Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, DNA, DNA replication, Dysmetria, Encephalopathy, Esophageal cancer, Esophagitis, Fluoroacetic acid, Folinic acid, Genetic variation, Head and neck cancer, Health system, Heart arrhythmia, Hiccup, Hoffmann-La Roche, International nonproprietary name, Intravenous therapy, Kidney, Liver, Mucositis, Myelin, ..., National Health Service, Neurotoxicity, Neutropenia, Nucleoside, Nystagmus, Oligodendrocyte, Pancreatic cancer, Photophobia, Pregnancy, Proctitis, Pyrimidine analogue, Skin cancer, Sorivudine, Stomach cancer, Tegafur, Thrombocytopenia, Thymidine, Thymidine monophosphate, Thymidylate synthase, Thymidylate synthase inhibitor, Thymineless death, United States, United States Adopted Name, United States Pharmacopeia, Uracil, Ventricular tachycardia, Warfarin, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Zygosity. Expand index (29 more) »

Actinic keratosis

Actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-cancerous patch of thick, scaly, or crusty skin.

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Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim among others, is a medication used to decrease high blood uric acid levels.

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American Journal of Clinical Oncology

The American Journal of Clinical Oncology is a bimonthly, peer-reviewed, scientific, oncology journal, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.

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Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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Autopharmacology relates to the scientific study of the regulation of body functions by the activity of its naturally existent (or endogenous) chemical factors of the tissues.

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Basal-cell carcinoma

Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.

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Bone marrow suppression

Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes).

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Bowen's disease

Bowen's disease, also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situJames, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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British Approved Name

A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP).

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Capecitabine, sold under the brand name Xeloda among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat breast cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.

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Charles Heidelberger

Charles Heidelberger (December 23, 1920 – January 18, 1983) was a cancer researcher who developed and patented an anticancer drug called 5-Fluorouracil that remains widely used against cancers of the stomach, colon and breast.

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Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema

Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema (also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, or hand-foot syndrome) is reddening, swelling, numbness and desquamation (skin sloughing or peeling) on palms of the hands and soles of the feet (and, occasionally, on the knees, elbows, and elsewhere) that can occur after chemotherapy in patients with cancer.

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Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing

The Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing is a bimonthly peer-reviewed nursing journal covering oncology nursing.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Coronary vasospasm

Coronary vasospasm is a sudden, intense vasoconstriction of an epicardial coronary artery that causes occlusion (stoppage) or near-occlusion of the vessel.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Cytopenia is a reduction in the number of mature blood cells.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is an enzyme that is involved in pyrimidine degradation.

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Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (DPD deficiency) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder in which there is absent or significantly decreased activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of uracil and thymine.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Dysmetria (wrong length) refers to a lack of coordination of movement typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended position with the hand, arm, leg, or eye.

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Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.

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Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

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Esophagitis (or oesophagitis) is an inflammation of the esophagus.

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Fluoroacetic acid

Fluoroacetic acid is a chemical compound with formula CH2FCOOH.

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Folinic acid

Folinic acid, also known as leucovorin, is a medication used to decrease the toxic effects of methotrexate and pyrimethamine.

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Genetic variation

Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.

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Head and neck cancer

Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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A hiccup (also spelled hiccough) is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute.

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Hoffmann-La Roche


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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

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Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.

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Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

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Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.

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Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.

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Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Proctitis is an inflammation of the anus and the lining of the rectum, affecting only the last 6 inches of the rectum.

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Pyrimidine analogue

Pyrimidine analogues are nucleoside analog antimetabolites which mimic the structure of metabolic pyrimidines.

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Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

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Sorivudine (INN), is a nucleoside analogue antiviral drug, marketed under trade names such as Usevir (Nippon Shoji, Eisai) and Brovavir (BMS).

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Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.

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Tegafur (INN, BAN, USAN) is a chemotherapeutic prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) used in the treatment of cancers.

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.

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Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.

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Thymidine monophosphate

Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid (conjugate base thymidylate), deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), or deoxythymidylic acid (conjugate base deoxythymidylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA.

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Thymidylate synthase

Thymidylate synthetase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP).

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Thymidylate synthase inhibitor

Thymidylate synthase inhibitors are chemical agents which inhibit the enzyme thymidylate synthase and have potential as an anticancer chemotherapy.

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Thymineless death

Thymineless death is the phenomenon by which bacteria, yeasts and mammalian cells undergo cell death when they are starved of thymidine triphosphate (dTTP), an essential precursor for DNA replication.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Adopted Name

United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.

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United States Pharmacopeia

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.

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Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.

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Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorouracil

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