116 relations: AB magnitude, Abuse of notation, Applied mathematics, Boltzmann constant, Cambridge University Press, Circulation (fluid dynamics), Concentration, Constitutive equation, Cross section (geometry), Cross section (physics), Curl (mathematics), Curve, Darcy's law, Differential calculus, Dimensional analysis, Divergence, Divergence theorem, Dot product, Eddy covariance, Edwin N. Lightfoot, Electric charge, Electric displacement field, Electric field, Electric flux, Electric generator, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electromotive force, Energy, Energy flux, Explosively pumped flux compression generator, Faraday's law of induction, Fast Flux Test Facility, Fick's laws of diffusion, Fluid dynamics, Flux footprint, Flux pinning, Fundamental theorem of calculus, Gauss's law, Gradient, Heat, Heat flux, Heat transfer, Incompressible flow, Inductor, Infinitesimal, Inner product space, Inverse-square law, Isaac Newton, Isobaric process, ..., Isothermal process, James Clerk Maxwell, Jansky, Joseph Fourier, Latent heat, Latin, Line element, Line integral, Luminous flux, Magnetic field, Magnetic flux, Magnetic flux quantum, Magnitude (astronomy), Mass, Mass flux, Mass transfer, McGraw-Hill Education, Mean free path, Method of Fluxions, Mole (unit), Momentum, Nabla symbol, Neutron flux, Norm (mathematics), Normal (geometry), Orientability, Photon, Physical quantity, Physics, Power (physics), Poynting vector, Poynting's theorem, Probability amplitude, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Radiant exposure, Radiant flux, Radiative flux, Rapid single flux quantum, Relative direction, Right-hand rule, Scalar (physics), Scalar field, Sound power, Square metre, Stellar classification, Stokes' theorem, Surface (mathematics), Surface (topology), Surface integral, Tesla (unit), Thermal conduction, Thermodynamic temperature, Time, Transport phenomena, Unit vector, Vacuum permittivity, Vector area, Vector field, Viscosity, Volume, Volume element, Volumetric flow rate, Volumetric flux, Watt, Weather vane. Expand index (66 more) » « Shrink index
The AB magnitude system is an astronomical magnitude system.
In mathematics, abuse of notation occurs when an author uses a mathematical notation in a way that is not formally correct but that seems likely to simplify the exposition or suggest the correct intuition (while being unlikely to introduce errors or cause confusion).
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
In fluid dynamics, circulation is the line integral around a closed curve of the velocity field.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
In physics and engineering, a constitutive equation or constitutive relation is a relation between two physical quantities (especially kinetic quantities as related to kinematic quantities) that is specific to a material or substance, and approximates the response of that material to external stimuli, usually as applied fields or forces.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space.
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.
Darcy's law is an equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium.
In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.
In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.
In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that produces a scalar field, giving the quantity of a vector field's source at each point.
In vector calculus, the divergence theorem, also known as Gauss's theorem or Ostrogradsky's theorem, reprinted in is a result that relates the flow (that is, flux) of a vector field through a surface to the behavior of the vector field inside the surface.
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.
The eddy covariance (also known as eddy correlation and eddy flux) technique is a key atmospheric measurement technique to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers.
Edwin Niblock Lightfoot Jr. (September 25, 1925 – October 2, 2017) was an American chemical engineer and Hilldale Professor Emeritus in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In electromagnetism, electric flux is the measure of flow of the electric field through a given area.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface.
An explosively pumped flux compression generator (EPFCG) is a device used to generate a high-power electromagnetic pulse by compressing magnetic flux using high explosive.
Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction.
The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 MW thermal, liquid sodium cooled, nuclear test reactor owned by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Flux footprint (also known as atmospheric flux footprint or footprint) is an upwind area where the atmospheric flux measured by an instrument is generated.
Flux pinning is the phenomenon where a superconductor is pinned in space above a magnet.
The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of differentiating a function with the concept of integrating a function.
In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric flow) refers to a flow in which the material density is constant within a fluid parcel—an infinitesimal volume that moves with the flow velocity.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them.
In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP.
An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
The jansky (symbol Jy) is a non-SI unit of spectral flux density, or spectral irradiance, used especially in radio astronomy.
Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.
Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In geometry, the line element or length element can be informally thought of as a line segment associated with an infinitesimal displacement vector in a metric space.
In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve.
In photometry, luminous flux or luminous power is the measure of the perceived power of light.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.
The magnetic flux, represented by the symbol, threading some contour or loop is defined as the magnetic field multiplied by the loop area, i.e..
In astronomy, magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics and engineering, mass flux is the rate of mass flow per unit area, perfectly overlapping with the momentum density, the momentum per unit volume.
Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.
Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
∇ The nabla symbol The nabla is a triangular symbol like an inverted Greek delta:Indeed, it is called anadelta (ανάδελτα) in Modern Greek.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.
In mathematics, orientability is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space that measures whether it is possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal vector at every point.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
In physics, the Poynting vector represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) of an electromagnetic field.
In electrodynamics, Poynting's theorem is a statement of conservation of energy for the electromagnetic field, in the form of a partial differential equation, due to the British physicist John Henry Poynting.
In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
In radiometry, radiant exposure or fluence is the radiant energy received by a surface per unit area, or equivalently the irradiance of a surface, integrated over time of irradiation, and spectral exposure or is the radiant exposure per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
Radiative flux, also known as radiative flux density or radiation flux, is the amount of power radiated through a given area, in the form of photons or other elementary particles, typically measured in W/m2.
In electronics, rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) is a digital electronic device that uses superconducting devices, namely Josephson junctions, to process digital signals.
The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.
In mathematics and physics, the right-hand rule is a common mnemonic for understanding orientation conventions for the vector cross product in three dimensions.
A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.
In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space.
Sound power or acoustic power is the rate at which sound energy is emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time.
The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (Unicode character). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
In vector calculus, and more generally differential geometry, Stokes' theorem (also called the generalized Stokes theorem or the Stokes–Cartan theorem) is a statement about the integration of differential forms on manifolds, which both simplifies and generalizes several theorems from vector calculus.
In mathematics, a surface is a generalization of a plane which needs not be flat, that is, the curvature is not necessarily zero.
In topology and differential geometry, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold, and, as such, may be an "abstract surface" not embedded in any Euclidean space.
In mathematics, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to integration over surfaces.
The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In engineering, physics and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems.
In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.
The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.
In 3-dimensional geometry, for a finite planar surface of scalar area and unit normal, the vector area is defined as the unit normal scaled by the area: For an orientable surface composed of a set of flat facet areas, the vector area of the surface is given by where is the unit normal vector to the area.
In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
In mathematics, a volume element provides a means for integrating a function with respect to volume in various coordinate systems such as spherical coordinates and cylindrical coordinates.
In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol (sometimes). The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second).
In fluid dynamics, the volumetric flux is the rate of volume flow across a unit area (m3·s−1·m−2).
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument for showing the direction of the wind.