609 relations: A cappella, Aboriginal Australians, Acadiana, Acadians, Accordion, Acoustic guitar, Africa, African Americans, African diaspora, African popular music, African-American music, Afro-Cuban, Age of Enlightenment, Alam Lohar, Alan Lomax, Alan Stivell, Alasdair Roberts (musician), Alexandrov Ensemble, Alps, American fiddle, American Folk Festival, American folk music, American folk music revival, American Folklife Center, American Folklore Society, American popular music, Americanization, Ananda Samarakoon, Andean music, Anglo-Saxons, Animal dance, Anthology of American Folk Music, Anti-folk, Antonín Dvořák, Appalachia, Appalachian dulcimer, Appalachian Mountains, Appalachian music, Archie Fisher, Argentina, Art music, Asheville, North Carolina, Australia, Austria, Aymara people, Ballad, Baltic states, Bangladesh, Banjo, Barbara Allen (song), ..., Barrel, Bascom Lamar Lunsford, Battle, Bavaria, Béla Bartók, Bedřich Smetana, Beijing, Belarus, Bible, Binary form, Birthday, Blackfoot music, Bluegrass music, Blues, Bob Dylan, Bodleian Library, Bohemia, Bohemians (tribe), Bolero, Bolivia, Book of Judges, Boredom, Brass band, Brass instrument, Breabach, British folk revival, Brittany, Broadside ballad, Bruce Springsteen, Buddhism, Bulgarian State Television Female Vocal Choir, Bush ballad, Cajun music, Cajuns, Call and response (music), Calypso music, Cambridge, Cambridge Folk Festival, Can the Circle Be Unbroken (By and By), Canada, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian Folk Music Awards, Canadian Radio League, Canción, Cante jondo, Cape Breton fiddling, Capercaillie (band), Carl Sandburg, Carmina Burana, Carter Family, Cecil Sharp, Celtic music, Celtic music in Canada, Celts, Chaozhou, Charles Seeger, Chet Atkins, Child Ballads, Chile, Chinese culture, Chinese flutes, Choir, Christmas, Christmas carol, Chuigushou, Clannad, Clarence Ashley, Clarinet, Classical music, Clave (rhythm), Clemens Brentano, Colombia, Commercialization, Conch, Contemporary classical music, Contemporary folk music, Contradanza, Convention (norm), Copyright, Corrido, Country music, Croatia, Cuban rumba, Cueca, Cultural pluralism, Culture, Czech Republic, Dance, Dance hall, Dance music, Dave Van Ronk, Deborah, Deep Forest, Dehiwala, Denmark, Des Knaben Wunderhorn, Dick Gaughan, Dizi (instrument), Doc Watson, Dock Boggs, Dolly Parton, Don Reno, Donovan, Double bass, Drum, Dynamics (music), Earl Scruggs, Easter, Eastern Bloc, Ecuador, Edvard Grieg, Elephant, Emilis Melngailis, England, English Folk Dance and Song Society, Enrique Granados, Epic poetry, Erxian, Estonia, Ethnic group, Ethnomusicology, Exorcism, Factory, Fado, Farmworker, Feast of the Hunters' Moon, Fernando Sor, Fiddle, Fiddlin' John Carson, Field research, Film, Film score, Finland, Flamenco, Flute, Folk dance, Folk hero, Folk instrument, Folk metal, Folk music, Folk process, Folk rock, Folklore, Folklore studies, Francis James Child, Francisco Tárrega, Frank Proffitt, Franklin D. 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A cappella (Italian for "in the manner of the chapel") music is specifically group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
Acadiana, or The Heart of Acadiana (French and Cajun French: L'Acadiane), is the official name given to the French Louisiana region that is home to a large Francophone population.
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
An acoustic guitar is a guitar that produces sound acoustically by transmitting the vibration of the strings to the air—as opposed to relying on electronic amplification (see electric guitar).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.
African popular music, like African traditional music, is vast and varied.
African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of musics and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.
The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans who mostly have West African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alam Lohar (محمد عالم لوہار, ਆਲਮ ਲੋਹਾਰ; 1928 – 3 July 1979) was a prominent Punjabi folk music singer from the Punjab region of Pakistan, formerly British India.
Alan Lomax (January 31, 1915 – July 19, 2002) was an American ethnomusicologist, best known for his numerous field recordings of folk music of the 20th century.
Alan Stivell (born Alan Cochevelou on 6 January 1944) is a Breton and Celtic musician and singer, recording artist, and master of the Celtic harp.
Alasdair Roberts (born 8 August 1977) is a Scottish folk musician.
The Alexandrov Ensemble (commonly known as the Red Army Choir in the West) is an official army choir of the Russian armed forces.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
American fiddle-playing began with the early settlers who found that the small viol family instruments were portable and rugged.
The American Folk Festival is an annual folk festival held during August at Waterfront Park in Bangor, Maine.
The term American folk music encompasses numerous music genres, variously known as traditional music, traditional folk music, contemporary folk music, or roots music.
The American folk-music revival began during the 1940s and peaked in popularity in the mid-1960s.
The American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress in Washington, DC was created by Congress in 1976 "to preserve and present American Folklife".
The American Folklore Society (AFS) is the US-based professional association for folklorists, with members from the US, Canada, and around the world, which aims to encourage research, aid in disseminating that research, promote the responsible application of that research, publish various forms of publications, advocate for the continued study and teaching of folklore, etc.
American popular music has had a profound effect on music across the world.
In countries outside the United States of America, Americanization or Americanisation is the influence American culture and business have on other countries, such as their media, cuisine, business practices, popular culture, technology, or political techniques.
Egodahage George Wilfred Alwis Samarakoon (13 January 1911 – 2 April 1962) known as Ananda Samarakoon was a Sri Lankan composer and musician.
Andean music is a group of styles of music from the Andes region in South America.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Animal Dance craze was directly related with the popularity of ragtime music (improvisational melodies with syncopated beats, from African-American traditions).
The Anthology of American Folk Music is a six-album compilation released in 1952 by Folkways Records (catalogue FP 251, FP 252, and FP 253), comprising eighty-four American folk, blues and country music recordings that were originally issued from 1927 to 1932.
Anti-folk (sometimes antifolk or unfolk) is a music genre that arose in the 1980s in reaction to the insularity of the remnants of the 1960s folk music scene.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
The Appalachian dulcimer (many variant names; see below) is a fretted string instrument of the zither family, typically with three or four strings, originally played in the Appalachian region of the United States.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
Appalachian music is the music of the region of Appalachia in the Eastern United States.
Archie Macdonald Fisher MBE (born 23 October 1939) is a Scottish folk singer and songwriter.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The banjo is a four-, five- or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head.
"Barbara Allen" (Child 84, Roud) is a traditional Scottish ballad; it later travelled to America both orally and in print, where it became a popular folk song.
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops.
Bascom Lamar Lunsford (March 21, 1882 – September 4, 1973) was a lawyer, folklorist, and performer of traditional (folk and country) music from western North Carolina.
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Béla Viktor János Bartók (25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and an ethnomusicologist.
Bedřich Smetana (2 March 1824 – 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his country's aspirations to independent statehood.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Binary form is a musical form in two related sections, both of which are usually repeated.
A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution.
Blackfoot music is the music of the Blackfoot people (best translated in the Blackfoot language as nitsínixki – "I sing", from nínixksini – "song").
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music named after Kentucky mandolin player and songwriter Bill Monroe's band, the Bluegrass Boys 1939-96, and furthered by musicians who played with him, including 5-string banjo player Earl Scruggs and guitarist Lester Flatt, or who simply admired the high-energy instrumental and vocal music Monroe's group created, and carried it on into new bands, some of which created subgenres (Progressive Bluegrass, Newgrass, Dawg Music etc.). Bluegrass is influenced by the music of Appalachia and other styles, including gospel and jazz.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Bohemians (Behemanni) or Bohemian Slavs (Bohemos Slavos, Boemanos Sclavos), were an early Slavic tribe in Bohemia (modern Czech Republic).
Bolero is a genre of slow-tempo Latin music and its associated dance.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
In conventional usage, boredom is an emotional or psychological state experienced when an individual is left without anything in particular to do, is not interested in his or her surroundings, or feels that a day or period is dull or tedious.
A brass band is a musical ensemble generally consisting entirely of brass instruments, most often with a percussion section.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
Breabach is a Scottish folk music band formed in 2005.
The British folk revival incorporates a number of movements for the collection, preservation and performance of traditional music in the United Kingdom and related territories and countries, which had origins as early as the 18th century.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
A broadside (also known as a broadsheet) is a single sheet of inexpensive paper printed on one side, often with a ballad, rhyme, news and sometimes with woodcut illustrations.
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen (born September 23, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter and musician, known for his work with the E Street Band.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Bulgarian State Television Female Vocal Choir is an internationally renowned World Music ensemble that performs modern arrangements of traditional Bulgarian folk melodies.
The bush ballad, bush song or bush poem is a style of poetry and folk music that depicts the life, character and scenery of the Australian bush.
Cajun music (Musique cadienne), an emblematic music of Louisiana played by the Cajuns, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Acadians of Canada.
The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.
In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually written in different parts of the music, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or in response to the first.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
The Cambridge Folk Festival is an annual music festival, established in 1965, held on the site of Cherry Hinton Hall in Cherry Hinton, one of the villages subsumed by the city of Cambridge, England.
"Can the Circle Be Unbroken (By and By)" is the title of a country/folk song reworked by A. P. Carter from the hymn "Will the Circle Be Unbroken?" by Ada R. Habershon and Charles H. Gabriel.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
The Canadian Folk Music Awards are an annual music awards ceremony, presenting awards in a variety of categories for achievements in both traditional and contemporary folk music, and other roots music genres, by Canadian musicians.
The Canadian Radio League was a public pressure group led by Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt to mobilize support for the establishment of public broadcasting in Canada.
Canción ("song") is a popular genre of Latin American music, particularly in Cuba, where many of the compositions originate.
Cante jondo (Andalusian) is a vocal style in flamenco, an unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music.
Cape Breton fiddling is a regional violin style which falls within the Celtic music idiom.
Capercaillie is a Scottish folk band that was founded in the 1980s by Donald Shaw and led by Karen Matheson.
Carl August Sandburg (January 6, 1878 – July 22, 1967) was a Swedish-American poet, writer, and editor.
Carmina Burana (Latin for "Songs from Beuern"; "Beuern" is short for Benediktbeuern) is the name given to a manuscript of 254 poems and dramatic texts mostly from the 11th or 12th century, although some are from the 13th century.
The Carter Family is a traditional American folk music group that recorded between 1927 and 1956.
Cecil James Sharp (22 November 1859 – 23 June 1924) was the founding father of the folk-song revival in England in the early 20th century.
Celtic music is a broad grouping of music genres that evolved out of the folk music traditions of the Celtic people of Western Europe.
Celtic music is primarily associated with the folk traditions of Ireland, Scotland, Brittany and Wales, as well as the popular styles derived from folk culture.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Chaozhou, alternatively transliterated as Chiuchow, Chaochow, or Teochew, is a city in the eastern Guangdong province of China.
Charles Louis Seeger, Jr. (December 14, 1886 – February 7, 1979) was an American musicologist, composer, and teacher.
Chester Burton "Chet" Atkins (June 20, 1924 – June 30, 2001), known as "Mr.
The Child Ballads are 305 traditional ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, anthologized by Francis James Child during the second half of the 19th century.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
Chinese flutes come in various types.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
A Christmas carol (also called a noël, from the French word meaning "Christmas") is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the surrounding holiday season.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Han Chinese, who make up some 92% of the population of China, play heterophonic music in which the musicians play versions of a single melody line.
Clannad are an Irish family band formed in 1970 in Gweedore, County Donegal.
Clarence "Tom" Ashley (September 29, 1895 – June 2, 1967) was an American musician and singer, who played the clawhammer banjo and the guitar.
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The clave is a rhythmic pattern used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music.
Clemens Wenzeslaus Brentano (also Klemens; pseudonym: Clemens Maria Brentano;; 9 September 1778 – 28 July 1842) was a German poet and novelist, and a major figure of German Romanticism.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Commercialization or commercialisation is the process of introducing a new product or production method into commerce—making it available on the market.
Conch is a common name that is applied to a number of different medium to large-sized shells.
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.
Contemporary folk music refers to a wide variety of genres that emerged in the mid 20th century and afterwards which were associated with traditional folk music.
Contradanza (also called contradanza criolla, danza, danza criolla, or habanera) is the Spanish and Spanish-American version of the contradanse, which was an internationally popular style of music and dance in the 18th century, derived from the English country dance and adopted at the court of France.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Rumba is a secular genre of Cuban music involving dance, percussion, and song.
Cueca is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Argentina, Chile and Bolivia.
Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
Dance hall in its general meaning is a hall for dancing.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
David Kenneth Ritz "Dave" Van Ronk (June 30, 1936 – February 10, 2002) was an American folk singer.
According to the Book of Judges chapters 4 and 5, Deborah was a prophet of Yahweh the God of the Israelites, the fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel and the only female judge mentioned in the Bible, and the wife of Lapidoth.
Deep Forest is a musical group originally consisting of two French musicians, Michel Sanchez and Éric Mouquet.
Dehiwala is a suburb in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Des Knaben Wunderhorn: Alte deutsche Lieder (German; "The boy's magic horn: old German songs") is a collection of German folk poems and songs edited by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano, and published in Heidelberg, Baden.
Richard Peter Gaughan (born 17 May 1948 in Glasgow) is a Scottish musician, singer and songwriter, particularly of folk and social protest songs.
The dizi (pronounced), is a Chinese transverse flute.
Arthel Lane "Doc" Watson (March 3, 1923 – May 29, 2012) was an American guitarist, songwriter, and singer of bluegrass, folk, country, blues, and gospel music.
Moran Lee "Dock" Boggs (February 7, 1898 – February 7, 1971) was an influential old-time singer, songwriter and banjo player.
Dolly Rebecca Parton (born January 19, 1946) is an American singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, actress, author, businesswoman, and philanthropist, known primarily for her work in country music.
Donald Wesley Reno (February 21, 1926Trischka, Tony, "Don Reno", Banjo Song Book, Oak Publications, 1977 – October 16, 1984) was an American bluegrass and country musician best known as a banjo player in partnership with Red Smiley, and later with guitarist Bill Harrell.
Donovan Philips Leitch (born 10 May 1946) is a Scottish-born singer, songwriter and guitarist.
The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.
In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases.
Earl Eugene Scruggs (January 6, 1924 – March 28, 2012) was an American musician noted for popularizing a three-finger banjo picking style, now called "Scruggs style", that is a defining characteristic of bluegrass music.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 18434 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Emilis Jūlijs Melngailis (born 15 February 1874 in Igate, died 20 December 1954 in Riga, buried in Riga Forest Cemetery) was a Latvian composer, folklorist, and a master of choral songs.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Folk Dance and Song Society (EFDSS, or pronounced 'EFF-diss') was formed in 1932 when two organisations merged: the Folk-Song Society and the English Folk Dance Society.
Enrique Granados Campiña (27 July 1867 – 24 March 1916) was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
The erxian (二弦; pinyin: èrxián; literally "two string") is a Chinese bowed string instrument in the huqin family of instruments.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
Fado ("destiny, fate") is a music genre that can be traced to the 1820s in Lisbon, Portugal, but probably has much earlier origins.
A farmworker is a hired agricultural worker on a farm that works for the farmers.
Feast of the Hunters’ Moon is a weekend festival and historical reenactment held each fall on the first weekend of October since 1968, at the present-day site of Fort Ouiatenon, a replica 18th century French military and trading post near West Lafayette, Indiana.
Fernando Sor or Josep Ferran Sorts i Muntades (baptized 14 February 1778 – died 10 July 1839) was a Spanish classical guitarist and composer.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
Fiddlin' John Carson (March 23, 1868 – December 11, 1949) was an American old-time fiddler and singer who recorded what is widely considered to be the first country music song featuring vocals and lyrics.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film soundtrack, film music, or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region.
A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero – real, fictional or mythological – with the sole salient characteristic being the imprinting of his or her name, personality and deeds in the popular consciousness of a people.
A folk instrument is a musical instrument that developed among common people and usually does not have a known inventor.
Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
In the study of folklore, the folk process is the way folk material, especially stories, music, and other art, is transformed and re-adapted in the process of its transmission from person to person and from generation to generation.
Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in Britain, is the formal academic discipline devoted to the study of folklore.
Francis James Child (February 1, 1825 – September 11, 1896) was an American scholar, educator, and folklorist, best known today for his collection of English and Scottish ballads now known as the Child Ballads.
Francisco de Asís Tárrega y Eixea (21 November 185215 December 1909) was a Spanish composer and classical guitarist of the Romantic period.
Frank Noah Proffitt (June 1, 1913 – November 24, 1965) was an Appalachian old time banjoist who preserved the song "Tom Dooley" in the form we know it today and was a key figure in inspiring musicians of the 1960s and 1970s to play the traditional five-string banjo.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
A free reed aerophone is a musical instrument that produces sound as air flows past a vibrating reed in a frame.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.
A geometric shape is the geometric information which remains when location, scale, orientation and reflection are removed from the description of a geometric object.
Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A gong (from Malay: gong;; ra; គង - Kong; ฆ้อง Khong; cồng chiêng) is an East and Southeast Asian musical percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat, circular metal disc which is hit with a mallet.
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music.
A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Greek Australians (Ελληνοαυστραλοί) comprise Australian citizens who have full or partial Greek heritage or people who sought asylum as refugees after the Greek Civil War or emigrated from Greece and reside in Australia.
Green Grow the Rushes, O (alternatively Ho or Oh) (also known as The Twelve Prophets, The Carol of the Twelve Numbers, The Teaching Song, The Dilly Song, or The Ten Commandments), is an English folk song (Roud #133) popular across the English-speaking world.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
Guangdong music, also known as Cantonese music (廣東音樂 "Kwongdong yam ngok",Guǎngdōng yīnyuè) is a style of traditional Chinese instrumental music from Guangzhou and surrounding areas in Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province on the southern coast of China.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
The guzheng, also known as the Chinese zither, is a Chinese plucked string instrument with a more than 2,500-year history.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The hakgediya is a type of conch shell (the shell of a large marine gastropod mollusk) which is used as a kind of trumpet in the traditional ritualistic music and religious folk art-music of Sri Lanka, which has been somewhat influenced by Indian music.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanguranketha Divisional Secretariat is a Divisional Secretariat of Nuwara Eliya District, of Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
This article discusses the influence of folk music on the work of the composer Joseph Haydn (1732–1809).
Hedy West (April 6, 1938 – July 3, 2005) was an American folksinger and songwriter.
Henry Whitter (April 6, 1892 - November 17, 1941) was an early old-time recording artist in the United States.
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.
The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.
A horn is any of a family of musical instruments made of a tube, usually made of metal and often curved in various ways, with one narrow end into which the musician blows, and a wide end from which sound emerges.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
"I'm a Man You Don't Meet Every Day"(Roud 975) is a traditional Scottish or Irish music hall song written from the point of view of a rich landowner telling the story of his day while buying drinks at a public house.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
A narrative work beginning in medias res (lit. "into the middle of things") opens in the midst of action (cf. ab ovo, ab initio).
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
Indigenous music is a term for the traditional music of the indigenous peoples of the world, that is, the music of an "original" ethnic group that inhabits any geographic region alongside more recent immigrants who may be greater in number.
Australian Indigenous music includes the music of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, who are collectively called Indigenous Australians.
Indigenous music of North America, which includes American Indian music or Native American music, is the music that is used, created or performed by Indigenous peoples of North America, including Native Americans in the United States and Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of Mexico, and other North American countries—especially traditional tribal music, such as Pueblo music and Inuit music.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
The Innu are among the First Nations of Canada.
An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a Big Band setting.
The International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM) is non-governmental organization in formal consultative relationship with UNESCO, an academic organization focused on music and.
Traditional Inuit music, the music of the Inuit, has been based on drums used in dance music as far back as can be known, and a vocal style called katajjaq (Inuit throat singing) has become of interest in Canada and abroad.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland.
Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual (29 May 186018 May 1909) was a Spanish virtuoso pianist, composer, and conductor.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jackie Leven (18 June 1950 – 14 November 2011) was a Scottish songwriter and folk musician.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jānis Cimze (3 July/21 June 1814 — 22 October/10 October 1881) was a Latvian pedagogue, collector and harmoniser of folk songs, organist, founder of Latvian choral music and initiator of professional Latvian music.
Jean Ritchie (December 8, 1922 – June 1, 2015) was an American folk music singer, songwriter, and Appalachian dulcimer player.
Jean Sibelius, born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (8 December 186520 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods.
Jeannie Robertson (1908 – 13 March 1975) was a Scottish folk singer.
Jerome John Garcia (August 1, 1942 – August 9, 1995) was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, best known for his work as the lead guitarist and as a vocalist with the band Grateful Dead, which came to prominence during the counterculture era in the 1960s.
Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (sometimes spelled Kiang-nan, literally "South of the river") is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta.
Jiangnan sizhu is a style of traditional Chinese instrumental music from the Jiangnan region of China.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
John de Silva (1857–1922) was an influential Sri Lankan playwright.
John Henry is an African American folk hero.
John Charles Hockenberry (born June 4, 1956) is an American journalist and author.
John Avery Lomax (September 23, 1867 – January 26, 1948) was an American teacher, a pioneering musicologist, and a folklorist who did much for the preservation of American folk music.
John Stanley Raymond Meredith OAM (17 January 1920 – 18 February 2001) was an Australian pioneer folklorist from Holbrook, New South Wales whose work influenced the Australian folk music revival of the 1950s.
A jug band is a band employing a jug player and a mix of conventional and homemade instruments.
Julie Fowlis (born 20 June 1978) is a Scottish folk singer and multi-instrumentalist who sings primarily in Scottish Gaelic.
Kandy (මහනුවර Mahanuwara, pronounced; கண்டி, pronounced) is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province.
Karine Polwart (born 23 December 1970) is a Scottish singer-songwriter.
Keep on the Sunny Side is a popular American song originally written in 1899 by Ada Blenkhorn (1858–1927) with music by J. Howard Entwisle (1866–1903).
Klezmer (Yiddish: כליזמר or קלעזמער (klezmer), pl.: כליזמרים (klezmorim) – instruments of music) is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe.
Kolam is a form of drawing that is drawn by using rice flour/chalk/chalk powder/rock powder often using naturally/synthetically colored powders in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and some parts of Goa, Maharashtra as well as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and a few other Asian countries.
Krišjānis Barons (October 31, 1835 in Strutele, Jaunpils parish, Latvia – March 8, 1923 in Riga) is known as the "father of the dainas" ("Dainu tēvs") thanks largely to his systematization of the Latvian folk songs and his labour in preparing their texts for publication in Latvju dainas.
The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 was the first land rush into the Unassigned Lands.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from business, work, job hunting, domestic chores, and education, as well as necessary activities such as eating and sleeping.
Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The lied (plural lieder;, plural, German for "song") is a setting of a German poem to classical music.
Liederhandschrift (manuscript of songs) is the German term for a manuscript containing lieder (songs) of the German Middle Ages, dating from the late 12th to the 15th centuries.
Lily May Ledford (March 17, 1917 – July 14, 1985) was an American clawhammer banjo and fiddle player.
Caribbean music genres are diverse.
"Classical music" and "art music" are terms that have been used to refer to music of different cultural origins and traditions.
A folk festival celebrates traditional folk crafts and folk music.
Folk music is one of the major divisions of music, now often divided into traditional folk music and contemporary folk music.
This is a list of folk musicians.
Below is a list of names and collective designations which have been applied, either currently or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians.
In music, a medley is a piece composed from parts of existing pieces, usually three, played one after another, sometimes overlapping.
The continent of Africa is commonly divided into five regions or subregions, four of which are in Sub-Saharan Africa, though some definitions may contain four (removing Central Africa) or six regions (separating the Horn of Africa into its own region).
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Loretta Lynn (née Webb; born April 14, 1932) is an American country music singer-songwriter with multiple gold albums in a career spanning almost 60 years.
Louisiana Creole people (Créoles de Louisiane, Gente de Louisiana Creole), are persons descended from the inhabitants of colonial Louisiana during the period of both French and Spanish rule.
The Lowell Folk Festival is the longest running, and second largest, free folk festival in the United States.
Ludvig Mathias Lindeman (28 November 1812 – 11 March 1887) was a Norwegian composer and organist.
Carl Joachim Friedrich Ludwig von Arnim (26 January 1781 – 21 January 1831), better known as Achim von Arnim, was a German poet, novelist, and together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism.
Johann Ludwig Uhland (26 April 1787 – 13 November 1862) was a German poet, philologist and literary historian.
Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses.
A mandolin (mandolino; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick".
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
Manuel de Falla y Matheu (23 November 187614 November 1946) was a Spanish composer.
Maraca, sometimes called rumba shaker, shac-shac, and various other names, is a rattle which appears in many genres of Caribbean and Latin music.
Charles Marius Barbeau, (March 5, 1883 – February 27, 1969), also known as C. Marius Barbeau, or more commonly simply Marius Barbeau, was a Canadian ethnographer and folklorist who is today considered a founder of Canadian anthropology. A Rhodes Scholar, he is best known for an early championing of Québecois folk culture, and for his exhaustive cataloguing of the social organization, narrative and musical traditions, and plastic arts of the Tsimshianic-speaking peoples in British Columbia (Tsimshian, Gitxsan, and Nisga'a), and other Northwest Coast peoples. He developed unconventional theories about the peopling of the Americas. Barbeau is a controversial figure as he was criticised for not representing his indigenous informants. In his anthropological work among the Tsimshian and Huron-Wyandot, for instance, Barbeau was solely looking for “authentic” stories that were without political implications. Informants were often unwilling to work with him for various reasons. It is possible that the "educated informants,” who Barbeau told his students not to work with, did not trust him to disseminate their stories.
Maud Karpeles (12 November 1885 – 1 October 1976) was a British collector of folksongs and dance teacher.
Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.
May Day is a public holiday usually celebrated on 1 May.
Mànran are a Scottish band that was established in June 2010.
Márta Sebestyén (born August 19, 1957) is a Hungarian folk vocalist, composer and actress.
Métis fiddle is the style which the Métis of Canada and Métis in the northern United States have developed to play the violin, solo and in folk ensembles.
A (German for "master singer") was a member of a German guild for lyric poetry, composition and unaccompanied art song of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.
The Meitei (also Meetei, Meithei, Manipuri) people are the majority ethnic group of Manipur, a northeastern state of India.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
Memorization is the process of committing something to memory.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments, and other related topics.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
In the armed services, a military cadence or cadence call is a traditional call-and-response work song sung by military personnel while running or marching.
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.
Minnesang ("love song") was a tradition of lyric- and song-writing in Germany that flourished in the Middle High German period.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
Mount Wutai, also known by its Chinese name Wutaishan and as is a sacred Buddhist site at the headwaters of the Qingshui in Shanxi Province, China.
A mouth organ is any free reed aerophone with one or more air chambers fitted with a free reed.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
The traditional music of Africa, given the vastness of the continent, is historically ancient, rich and diverse, with different regions and nations of Africa having many distinct musical traditions.
The Music of Albania (Muzika Shqiptare) is associated with the country of Albania and Albanian communities.
Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian countries.
Like the surrounding Balkan countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina has had a turbulent past marked by frequent foreign invasions and occupation.
Since the early 1970s, Brittany has experienced a tremendous revival of its folk music.
The music of Bulgaria refers to all forms of music associated with the country of Bulgaria, including classical, folk, popular music, and other forms.
Cornwall is a Celtic nation and an English county.
The music of Crete (Κρητική μουσική), also called kritika (κρητικά.), refers to traditional forms of Greek folk music prevalent on the island of Crete in Greece.
The music of Cuba, including its instruments, performance and dance, comprises a large set of unique traditions influenced mostly by west African and European (especially Spanish) music.
The traditional music of Galicia and Asturias, located along Spain's north-west Atlantic coast, are highly distinctive folk styles that have some similarities with the neighbouring area of Cantabria.
The music of Greece is as diverse and celebrated as its history.
The music of Latin America refers to music originating from Latin America, namely the Romance-speaking countries and territories of the Americas and the Caribbean south of the United States.
The music of Louisiana can be divided into three general regions: rural south Louisiana, home to Creole Zydeco and Old French (now known as cajun music), New Orleans, and north Louisiana.
The music of Montenegro represents a mix of the country's unique musical tradition and Western musical influences.
Newfoundland and Labrador is an Atlantic Canadian province with a folk musical heritage based on the Irish, English and Cornish traditions that were brought to its shores centuries ago.
Portuguese music includes many different styles and genres, as a result of its history.
Because it is a modern cosmopolitan society, in the present day all types of music can be found in the Canadian province of Quebec.
Romania is a European country with a multicultural music environment which includes active ethnic music scenes.
Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which remained vibrant throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music.
Music of Serbia has a variety of traditional music, which is part of the wider Balkan tradition, with its own distinctive sound and characteristics.
In the minds of many foreigners, Slovenian folk music means a form of polka that is still popular today, especially among expatriates and their descendants.
The music of Spain has a long history.
The music of the Isle of Man reflects Celtic, Norse and other influences, including from its neighbours, Scotland, Ireland England and Wales.
The music of the Republic of Macedonia and of the Macedonians has much in common with the music of neighbouring Balkan countries, yet maintains a distinctive sound.
Music of Thrace is the music of Thrace, a region in Southeastern Europe spread over southern Bulgaria (Northern Thrace), northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey (Eastern Thrace).
The music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.
Wales has a strong and distinctive link with music.
Music of Yugoslavia was the music of Yugoslavia.
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.
A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music; it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Musical phrasing refers to the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to express an emotion or impression.
In music, there are two common meanings for tuning.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
MUSICultures is a peer-reviewed academic journal formerly published as Canadian Journal for Traditional Music/La Revue de musique folklorique canadienne (1996–2002) and Canadian Folk Music Journal (1973–1996).
Muzsikás is a Hungarian musical group playing mainly folk music of Hungary and other countries and peoples of the region.
Nanguan (also nanyin, nanyue, or nanqu) is a style of Chinese classical music originating in the southern Chinese province of Fujian, and is also now highly popular in Taiwan, particularly Lukang on west coast, as well as among Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Narrative poetry is a form of poetry that tells a story, often making the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metered verse.
The Nashville sound originated during the mid 1950s as a subgenre of American country music, replacing the chart dominance of the rough honky tonk music which was most popular in the 1940s and 1950s with "smooth strings and choruses", "sophisticated background vocals" and "smooth tempos".
The National Council for the Traditional Arts (NCTA) is a private, non-profit arts organization based in the United States that promotes the traditional arts.
The National Folk Festival is an Australian family-oriented celebration attended by over 50,000 people.
The National Folk Festival (NFF) is an itinerant folk festival in the United States.
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional of manuscript material.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Edward "Ned" Kelly (December 1854 – 11 November 1880) was an Australian bushranger, outlaw, gang leader and convicted police murderer.
Neofolk, also known as apocalyptic folk or dark folk, is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1980s as an outgrowth of post-punk and post-industrial music, blending acoustic instruments such as guitar and snare drum with elements of industrial music.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Newport Folk Festival is an American annual folk-oriented music festival in Newport, Rhode Island, which began in July 1959 as a counterpart to the previously established Newport Jazz Festival.
Nights in the Gardens of Spain (Noches en los jardines de España), G. 49, is a piece of music by the Spanish composer Manuel de Falla.
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (a; Russia was using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style. Dates in the article are taken verbatim from the source and are in the same style as the source from which they come.) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.
Nonsense verse is a form of nonsense literature usually employing strong prosodic elements like rhythm and rhyme.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nueva canción ((standard European) or (American) 'new song') is a social movement and musical genre in Iberian America and the Iberian peninsula, characterized by folk-inspired styles and socially committed lyrics.
A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century.
A nyckelharpa ("keyed fiddle", or literally "key harp", plural nyckelharpor) is a traditional Swedish musical instrument.
Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
Ola Belle Reed (August 18, 1916 – August 16, 2002) was an American folk singer, songwriter and banjo player.
Old Crow Medicine Show is an Americana string band based in Nashville, Tennessee, that has been recording since 1998.
Old-time music is a genre of North American folk music.
Olive Dame Campbell (1882–1954) was an American folklorist.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia.
Owen Sound (Canada 2016 Census population 21,341), the county seat of Grey County, is a city in the northern area of Southwestern Ontario, Canada.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pagode is a type of Brazilian country-folk traditional style of music.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Patsy Reid (born 27 May 1983 in Dundee, Scotland) is a Scottish fiddle player and singer.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five notes per octave, in contrast to the more familiar heptatonic scale that has seven notes per octave (such as the major scale and minor scale).
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
George Percy Aldridge Grainger (8 July 188220 February 1961) was an Australian-born composer, arranger and pianist.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peter Douglas Kennedy (18 November 1922 – 10 June 2006) was an English collector of folk songs in the 1950s.
Peter van der Merwe was born in Cape Town, South Africa.
The Philadelphia Folk Festival is a world-famous folk music festival held annually at Old Pool Farm in Upper Salford, Pennsylvania, in the vicinity of Philadelphia.
A photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic medium such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
The pipa is a four-stringed Chinese musical instrument, belonging to the plucked category of instruments.
Plains Indians, Interior Plains Indians or Indigenous people of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the greater Interior Plains (i.e. the Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies) in North America.
Planxty is an Irish folk music band formed in January 1972, consisting initially of Christy Moore (vocals, acoustic guitar, bodhrán), Andy Irvine (vocals, mandolin, mandola, bouzouki, hurdy-gurdy, harmonica), Dónal Lunny (bouzouki, guitars, bodhrán, keyboards), and Liam O'Flynn (uilleann pipes, tin whistle).
Playing by ear is the ability of an instrumental musician to reproduce a piece of music they have heard, without having observed another musician play it or having seen the sheet music notation.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas.
The polska (Swedish plural polskor) is a family of music and dance forms shared by the Nordic countries: called polsk in Denmark, polska in Sweden and Finland, and by several different names in Norway.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
The Port Fairy Folk Festival is a popular annual four-day music festival based in the historic fishing village of Port Fairy in Victoria, Australia.
A pow wow (also powwow or pow-wow) is a social gathering held by many different Native American communities.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Public Radio International (PRI) is an American public radio organization.
Punjabi Canadians, are Canadian citizens whose heritage originates wholly or partly in the Punjab, a region in northern South Asia, which encompasses India and Pakistan.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).
Ralph Vaughan Williams (12 October 1872– 26 August 1958) was an English composer.
A Ranz des Vaches or Kuhreihen is a simple melody traditionally played on the horn by the Swiss Alpine herdsmen as they drove their cattle to or from the pasture.
A rattle is a percussion beater that is attached to or enclosed by a percussion instrument so that motion of the instrument will cause the rattle to strike the instrument and create sound.
A ravanahatha (variant names: ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron, ravana hasta veena) is an ancient bowed, stringed instrument, used in India, Sri Lanka and surrounding areas.
American Regionalism is an American realist modern art movement that included paintings, murals, lithographs, and illustrations depicting realistic scenes of rural and small-town America primarily in the Midwest and Deep South.
Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.
Richard Middleton FBA is Emeritus Professor of Music at Newcastle University in Newcastle upon Tyne.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
Robert Winslow Gordon (September 2, 1888 – March 26, 1961) was educated at Harvard.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
Robyn Stapleton is a Scottish singer who performs traditional songs in English, Scots, and Gaelic.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Rock en español (Spanish-language rock) is a term used widely in the English-speaking world to refer any kind of rock music featuring Spanish vocals.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
Romani music (often referred to as Gypsy or Gipsy music, which is considered a derogatory term) is the music of the Romani people, who have their origins in northern India, but today live mostly in Europe.
A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors.
Roscoe Holcomb, (born Roscoe Halcomb September 5, 1912 – died February 1, 1981) was an American singer, banjo player, and guitarist from Daisy, Kentucky.
The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of around 250,000 references to nearly 25,000 songs collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world.
Roy Claxton Acuff (September 15, 1903 – November 23, 1992) was an American country music singer, fiddler, and promoter.
Runrig are a Scottish Celtic rock group formed in Skye, in 1973 under the name 'The Run Rig Dance Band'.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian Red is the stage name of Lourdes Hernández, a Spanish indie and folk singer-songwriter.
The Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould (28 January 1834 – 2 January 1924) of Lew Trenchard in Devon, England, was an Anglican priest, hagiographer, antiquarian, novelist, folk song collector and eclectic scholar.
Sacred Harp singing is a tradition of sacred choral music that originated in New England and was later perpetuated and carried on in the American South of the United States.
Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.
Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.
Séamus Ennis (Séamas Mac Aonghusa; 5 May 1919 – 5 October 1982) was an Irish musician, singer and Irish music collector.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Schlager music ("hit(s)") is a style of popular music which is generally a catchy instrumental accompaniment to vocal pieces of pop music with easy to understand, happy-go-lucky and often sentimental lyrics.
Schrammelmusik is a style of Viennese folk music originating in the late nineteenth century and still performed in present-day Austria.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels.
In music, a section is a complete, but not independent, musical idea.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
A shackle, also known as a gyve, is a U-shaped piece of metal secured with a clevis pin or bolt across the opening, or a hinged metal loop secured with a quick-release locking pin mechanism.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shantou, formerly romanized as Swatow and sometimes known as Santow, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong, China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of.
Shape notes are a music notation designed to facilitate congregational and community singing.
Sheep shearing is the process by which the woollen fleece of a sheep is cut off.
The sheng (also spelt as cheng in Encyclopædia Britannica) is a Chinese mouth-blown free reed instrument consisting of vertical pipes.
Shrillness is a word used to describe the quality of sounds that have a high-pitched, strident, raucous, screeching or harsh character, such as those produced by a trumpet or piccolo, but it can also be used to describe a widely recognised and puzzling phenomenon whereby certain sounds are perceived as psychologically painful or aversive to a degree that cannot be accounted for simply in terms of frequency content or loudness.
Silly Wizard was a Scottish folk band that began forming in Edinburgh in 1970.
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write, compose, and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Sinhalese New Year, generally known as Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද) in Sri Lanka, is a Sri Lankan holiday that celebrates the traditional New Year of the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka.
Skipinnish is a traditional Scottish band from the Gàidhealtachd, singing primarily in English.
Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Soca music (also defined by Lord Shorty, its inventor, as the "Soul Of Calypso") is a genre of music that originated within a marginalized subculture in Trinidad and Tobago in the early 1970s, and developed into a range of styles by the 1980s and later.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Somali Americans are Americans of Somali ancestry.
Son cubano is a genre of music and dance that originated in the highlands of eastern Cuba during the late 19th century.
A song book is a book containing lyrics and notes for songs.
Songcatcher is a 2000 drama film directed by Maggie Greenwald.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
Southern gospel music is a genre of Christian music.
Southern Spaces is a peer-reviewed open-access academic journal that publishes articles, photo essays and images, presentations, and short videos about real and imagined spaces and places of the Southern United States and their connections to the wider world.
Sowing is the process of planting.
In media, a spin-off (or spinoff) is a radio program, television program, video game, film, or any narrative work, derived from already existing works that focus on more details and different aspects from the original work (e.g. particular topics, characters or events).
Spirituals (or Negro spirituals) are generally Christian songs that were created by African Americans.
In Australian history, a squatter was typically a man, either a free settler or ex-convict, who occupied a large tract of Crown land in order to graze livestock.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lanka has been having many types of drums in use from ancient times, and reference to these are found in some of the classical literature e.g. "Pujawaliya", "Thupawansaya", "Dalada Siritha" etc.
Steel guitar is a type of guitar or the method of playing the instrument.
Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826January 13, 1864), known as "the father of American music", was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music.
Stickball is a street game related to baseball, usually formed as a pick-up game played in large cities in the Northeastern United States, especially New York City and Philadelphia.
The Stomp Dance (Caddo: Kaki?tihánnakah) is performed by various Eastern Woodland tribes and Native American communities, including the Muscogee, Yuchi, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Delaware, Miami, Caddo, Tuscarora, Ottawa, Quapaw, Peoria, Shawnee, Seminole,Conlon, Paula.
Styria (Štajerska), also Slovenian Styria (Slovenska Štajerska) or Lower Styria (Spodnja Štajerska; Untersteiermark), is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria.
Sub-Saharan African music traditions exhibit so many common features that they may in some respects be thought of as constituting a single musical system.
A suite, in Western classical music and jazz, is an ordered set of instrumental or orchestral/concert band pieces.
Summerfolk is an annual folk music and craft festival held in Owen Sound, Ontario during the third weekend in August (August 20–23 in 2015).
The suona, also called laba or haidi, is a Chinese sorna (double-reeded horn).
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish folk music is a genre of music based largely on folkloric collection work that began in the early 19th century in Sweden.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
A table is an item of furniture with a flat top and one or more legs, used as a surface for working at, eating from or on which to place things.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Táncház (literally "dance house") is a "casual" Hungarian folk dance event (as opposed to stage performances).
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The American Songbag is an anthology of American folksongs compiled by the poet Carl Sandburg and published by Harcourt, Brace and Company in 1927.
The Boys of the Lough is a Scottish-Irish Celtic music band active since the 1970s.
"The bush" is a term used for rural, undeveloped land or country areas in certain countries.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.
The Chieftains are a traditional Irish band formed in Dublin in 1963, by Paddy Moloney, Sean Potts and Michael Tubridy.
The Clancy Brothers were an influential Irish folk group, which initially developed as a part of the American folk music revival.
The Corries were a Scottish folk group that emerged from the Scottish folk revival of the early 1960s.
The Corrs are an Irish band that combine pop rock with traditional Irish themes within their music.
The Dubliners were an Irish folk band founded in Dublin in 1962 as The Ronnie Drew Ballad Group after its founding member; they subsequently renamed themselves The Dubliners.
The English Patient is a 1996 American romantic war drama film directed by Anthony Minghella from his own script based on the novel of the same name by Michael Ondaatje and produced by Saul Zaentz.
The Irish Rovers is a group of Irish musicians, half of whom now live in Canada.
"The Mary Ellen Carter" is a song written and first recorded by Stan Rogers, intended as an inspirational shanty about triumphing over great odds.
The Pogues were an Irish-British Celtic punk band formed in 1982 and fronted by Shane MacGowan.
The Recording Academy (formerly the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences or NARAS) is a U.S. organization of musicians, producers, recording engineers, and other recording professionals.
The Silencers are a Scottish rock band formed in London in 1986 by Jimme O'Neill and Cha Burns, two ex-members of the post-punk outfit Fingerprintz.
The Takeaway is a morning radio news program co-created and co-produced by Public Radio International and WNYC.
The Voice of the People is an anthology of folk songs produced by Topic Records containing recordings of traditional singers and musicians from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thomas Percy (13 April 1729 – 30 September 1811) was Bishop of Dromore, County Down, Ireland.
Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
A tragedy is an event of great loss, usually of human life.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Trova is one of the great roots of the Cuban musical tree.
A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker, teamster or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a lorry driver, or driver in Ireland, the United Kingdom, India, Nepal and Pakistan) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).
In folk music a tune-family is, "a seeming multiplicity of melodies," reducible, "to a small number of 'models' or sets." One can think of the models or sets as deep structures.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Upper Carniola (Gorenjska; Alta Carniola; Oberkrain) is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region.
Vaudeville is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment.
The völkisch movement (völkische Bewegung, "folkish movement") was the German interpretation of a populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the "organic", i.e.: a "naturally grown community in unity", characterised by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper) for the entire population during a period from the late 19th century up until the Nazi era.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vernacular music is ordinary, everyday music such as popular and folk music.
Videotape is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sound in addition.
The viola caipira, often simply viola, (Portuguese for country guitar) is a Brazilian ten-string guitar with five courses of strings arranged in pairs.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
Viper is an unincorporated community in Perry County, Kentucky, United States.
In music theory, voicing refers to either of the two closely related concepts of.
Volksmusik (German: literally, "people's music" or as a Germanic connotative translation, "folk's music") is the common umbrella designation of a number of related styles of traditional folk music from the Alpine regions of Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Slovenia and South Tyrol (Italy).
Volkstümliche Musik (German for "folksy/traditional/popular music") is a modern popular derivation of the traditional Volksmusik genre of German-speaking countries in general and their Alpine regions in particular.
The voyageurs (travelers) were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years.
"The Wabash Cannon Ball" was a fast express train line on the Wabash, St.
The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in time, performed primarily in closed position.
"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's best-known bush ballad, and has been described as the country's "unofficial national anthem".
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage.
Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.
Western music is a form of country and hillbilly music composed by and about the people who settled and worked throughout the Western United States and Western Canada.
Western swing music is a subgenre of American country music that originated in the late 1920s in the West and South among the region's Western string bands.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The Wienerlied (German, literally: Viennese song, pl. Wienerlieder) or Weanaliad (viennese, pl. Weanaliada) is a song genre which has its roots in Vienna, the capital of Austria.
"Wildwood Flower" (or "The Wildwood Flower") is an American song, best known through performances and recordings by the Carter Family.
William John Thoms (16 November 1803 – 15 August 1885) was a British writer credited with coining the term "folklore" in 1846.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Wolfstone are a Scottish musical group founded in 1989, who play Celtic rock.
The Woodford Folk Festival is an annual music and cultural festival held near the semi-rural town of Woodford, 72 km north of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American singer-songwriter, one of the most significant figures in American folk music; his songs, including social justice songs, such as "This Land Is Your Land", have inspired several generations both politically and musically.
A work song is a piece of music closely connected to a form of work, either sung while conducting a task (usually to coordinate timing) or a song linked to a task which might be a connected narrative, description, or protest song.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World music (also called global music or international music) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The xiao (pronounced) is a Chinese vertical end-blown flute.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yayue was originally a form of classical music and dance performed at the royal court in ancient China.
The yunluo (simplified: 云锣; traditional: 雲鑼 pinyin: yúnluó,; literally "cloud gongs" or "cloud of gongs"), is a traditional Chinese musical instrument.
Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well as dance.
Zouk is a fast jump-up carnival beat originating from the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, popularized by the French Antillean band Kassav' in the 1980s.
Zydeco (or, Zarico) is a music genre that evolved in southwest Louisiana by French Creole speakers which blends blues, rhythm and blues, and music indigenous to the Louisiana Creoles and the Native people of Louisiana.
The 1891 shearers' strike is one of Australia's earliest and most important industrial disputes.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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