436 relations: Acid, Activism, Adipose tissue, Adrenaline, Advertising, Aflatoxin, African cuisine, Agricultural policy, Agriculture, Agroecosystem, Aid, Alcoholic drink, Alkali metal, Allergen, Allergy, Anaphylaxis, Animal, Animal slaughter, Animal welfare, Anticarcinogen, Antioxidant, Apple, Arab Spring, Argentina, Artichoke, Asado, Asparagus, Bacon, Bacteria, Baguette, Baker's yeast, Bamboo, Bangladesh, Barbacoa, Barbecue grill, Barclays Investment Bank, Battle of the Atlantic, Bean, Bee, Beef, Biodiversity, Biofuel, Biotechnology, Blood, Blood as food, Blood sausage, Boiling, Bouillon (broth), Brand, Bread, ..., Brioche, Broccoli, Broth, Brown sugar, Bulk foods, Butcher, Cabbage, Caffeine, Cajun cuisine, Calcium, Canning, Canola, Carbohydrate, Carcinogen, Cardiovascular disease, Carpaccio, Carrot, Cauliflower, Cell (biology), Cereal, Ceviche, Cheese, Chef, Cherry, Chewing gum, Chicken as food, China, Chinese cuisine, Chocolate, Citrus, Climate change, Codex Alimentarius, Coevolution, Coffeehouse, Comfort food, Commodity, Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000, Common Agricultural Policy, Convection oven, Cooking, Corporate farming, Corporation, Cosmetics, Crouton, Cuisine, Cuisine of the United States, Culinary arts, Cultivar, Curing (food preservation), Cyanide, Cyanobacteria, Dairy, Dairy product, Deep frying, Dhabihah, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diarrhea, Diet and cancer, Dietary fiber, Digital Life Design, Disaccharide, Disembowelment, Documentary film, Drink, Eating, Ecology, Economies of scale, Ecosystem, Egg as food, Eggplant, Electrolyte, Energy, Environmentalism, Epinephrine autoinjector, Erosion control, Escherichia coli, Et cetera, Europe, Evolution, Excretion, Famine, Famine scales, Fast food, Fat, Fermentation in food processing, Fish, Flavor, Flax, Fleur de sel, Flood mitigation, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Bioprocess Technology, Food distribution, Food drying, Food energy, Food engineering, Food industry, Food marketing, Food politics, Food preservation, Food prices, Food processing, Food safety, Food science, Food security, Food storage, Food, Inc., Foodborne illness, France, Frederick H. Buttel, Free trade, French cuisine, French fries, Fructose, Fruit, Frying pan, Functional food, Fungus, Future food technology, G20, Gastronomy, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Genetically modified food, George W. Bush, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Gluten, Goldman Sachs, Granola, Grocery store, Groundwater recharge, Habit, Halal, Hazard analysis and critical control points, Health food, Healthy diet, Hedge fund, Helianthus, Herbalism, Heterocyclic amine, Hinduism, Hippocrates, Homo erectus, Honey, Human, Human rights, Humane Slaughter Act, Hunger, Hunter-gatherer, Hygiene, Hypotension, Immune system, Indian cuisine, Industrial crop, Industrial Revolution, Ingestion, Ingredient, Intensive farming, International Association for Food Protection, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, International Food Information Council, International Water Management Institute, Investment banking, Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Ion, Islam, Italian cuisine, Japanese cuisine, Japanese language, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Jayati Ghosh, Judaism, Jugging, Junk food, Justus von Liebig, Kashrut, Kettle corn, Kidney, Kitchen, Kombucha, Kosher salt, Kwashiorkor, Latex, Leaf vegetable, Legume, Lemon, Lentil, Lettuce, Lime (fruit), List of culinary fruits, List of root vegetables, Lists of foods, Lists of prepared foods, Local food, Logistics, Louis Pasteur, Maize, Malnutrition, Mammary gland, Marasmus, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Mass marketing, Meal, Meat, Medical emergency, Mexican cuisine, Mexico, Microbiology, Microwave oven, Milk, Mill (grinding), Mineral (nutrient), MIT Media Lab, Monde Selection, Monosodium glutamate, Morality, Morgan Stanley, Mouthfeel, Muscle, Mushroom, Mycotoxin, Narcotic, National Institutes of Health, Natural foods, Natural gas, Natural selection, Nectar, Nepalese cuisine, New Delhi, Nitrosamine, Nut (fruit), Nutrient, Nutrition facts label, Nutritional anthropology, Obesity, Office of Public Sector Information, Olivier De Schutter, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omnivore, Onion, Optimal foraging theory, Orange (fruit), Organ (anatomy), Organic farming, Organic food, Organism, Osteoporosis, Outline of food preparation, Outline of nutrition, Oven, Overseas Development Institute, Packaging and labeling, Palatability, Pan frying, Parasitism, Pea, Peanut, Pension fund, Pet food, Phosphorus, Pickled cucumber, Pickling, Plant, Poaching (cooking), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Pompeii, Population growth, Pork, Potassium, Potassium bitartrate, Potato, Pottery, Pressure cooking, Prion, Protein (nutrient), Psychoactive drug, Pumpkin, Quota share, Rancidification, Rapeseed, Rash, Rationing, Rationing in the United Kingdom, Raw foodism, Regurgitation (digestion), Rendering (animal products), Restaurant, Rice, Richard Doll, Richard Peto, Right to an adequate standard of living, Right to food, Salad, Salmon, Salmonella, Salt, Salting (food), Sashimi, Saturated fat, Sautéing, Scurvy, Sea salt, Seafood, Seed, Self-service, Sesame, Shechita, Shellfish, Shopping cart, Simmering, Slaughterhouse, Slow Food, Smoking (cooking), Sodium, Sodium bicarbonate, Soil fertility, Song dynasty, Soup, Soybean, Spinach, Spirulina (dietary supplement), Staple food, Starvation, Steak tartare, Steam, Stevia, Steviol, Sucralose, Sucrose, Sugar, Supermarket, Sushi, Sustainability, Sustainable agriculture, Sweetness, Taboo, Tandoor, Taste, Tax, Thai cuisine, The World Factbook, Thyroid, Toaster, Tobacco, Tomato, Tool, Toxin, Traditional food, Umami, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Environment Programme, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Unsaturated fat, Urban agriculture, Uruguay Round, Veganism, Vegetable, Vegetable oil, Vegetarianism, Vending machine, Vinaigrette, Vinegar, Virus, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vomiting, Water supply, Western culture, Wheat, Whole food, World Bank, World Food Programme, World Health Organization, World population, World Resources Institute, World Trade Organization, World War II, Yogurt, 2007–08 world food price crisis, 2010–12 world food price crisis. 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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.
Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products, and do not usually get food imported.
Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study in agroecology, and is somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved in that unit as well as their interactions.
In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal slaughter is the killing of animals, usually referring to killing domestic livestock.
Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.
An anticarcinogen (also known as a carcinopreventive agent) is a substance that counteracts the effects of a carcinogen or inhibits the development of cancer.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)Rottenberg, A., and D. Zohary, 1996: "The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke." Genet.
Asado techniques and the social event of having or attending a barbecue in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay, where it is very popular.
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A baguette is a long, thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law).
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Barbacoa is a form of cooking meat that originated in the Caribbean with the Taíno people, from which the term “barbecue” derives.
A barbecue grill is a device that cooks food by applying heat from below.
Barclays Investment Bank (formerly known as Barclays Capital) is a British multinational investment bank under the auspices of Barclays headquartered in London.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Many cultures consume blood as food, often in combination with meat.
Blood sausages are sausages filled with blood that are cooked or dried and mixed with a filler until they are thick enough to solidify when cooled.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
Bouillon is the French word for broth, and is usually used as a synonym for it.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Brioche is a pastry of French origin that is similar to a highly enriched bread, and whose high egg and butter content (400 grams for each kilogram of flour) give it a rich and tender crumb.
Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.
Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, meat, fish, or vegetables have been simmered.
Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.
Bulk foods are food items offered in large quantities, which can be purchased in large, bulk lots or transferred from a bulk container into a smaller container for purchase.
A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat, or participate within any combination of these three tasks.
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cajun cuisine (Cuisine cadienne) is a style of cooking named for the French-speaking Acadian people deported by the British from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carpaccio is a dish of raw meat or fish (such as beef, veal, venison, salmon or tuna), thinly sliced or pounded thin and served mainly as an appetizer.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Ceviche, also cebiche, seviche or sebiche, is a seafood dish popular in the Pacific coastal regions of Latin America.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
A chef is a trained professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation, often focusing on a particular cuisine.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed.
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Comfort food is food that provides a nostalgic or sentimental value to someone, and may be characterized by its high caloric nature, high carbohydrate level, or simple preparation.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
The Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 (CFMA) is United States federal legislation that officially ensured modernized regulation of financial products known as over-the-counter derivatives.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
A convection oven (also known as a fan-assisted oven or simply a fan oven) is an oven that has fans to circulate air around food.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
Corporate farming is a term used to describe companies that own or influence farms and agricultural practices on a large scale.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
A crouton is a piece of sautéed or rebaked bread, often cubed and seasoned, that is used to add texture and flavor to salads—notably the Caesar salad—as an accompaniment to soups and stews, or eaten as a snack food.
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.
The cuisine of the United States reflects its history.
Culinary arts, in which culinary means "related to cooking", are the arts of preparation, cooking and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Curing is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt, nitrates, nitrites,.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.
In Islamic law (or zabiha, ذَبِيْحَة, 'slaughter'(noun)) is the prescribed method of ritual slaughter of all lawful halal animals.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dietary factors are recognized as having a significant effect on the risk of cancers, with different dietary elements both increasing and reducing risk.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Digital Life Design (DLD) is a global conference network, organized by the Munich based DLD Media, a company of Burda Digital.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Disembowelment or evisceration is the removal of some or all of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (the bowels, or viscera), usually through a horizontal incision made across the abdominal area.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
An epinephrine autoinjector is a medical device for injecting a measured dose or doses of epinephrine (adrenaline) by means of autoinjector technology.
Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Et cetera (in English), abbreviated to etc., etc, &c., or &c, is a Latin expression that is used in English to mean "and other similar things", or "and so forth".
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Famine scales are the ways in which degrees of food security are measured, from situations in which an entire population has adequate food to full-scale famine.
Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
Fleur de sel ("flower of salt" in French) or flor de sal (also "" in Portuguese, Spanish and Catalan) is a salt that forms as a thin, delicate crust on the surface of seawater as it evaporates.
In environmental engineering, the flood mitigation involves the management and control of flood water movement, such as redirecting flood run-off through the use of floodwalls and flood gates, rather than trying to prevent floods altogether.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food and Bioprocess Technology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Food distribution is a process in which a general population is supplied with food.
Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or desiccated).
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
Food engineering is a multidisciplinary field which combines microbiology, applied physical sciences, chemistry and engineering for food and related industries.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Food marketing brings together the food producer and the consumer through a chain of marketing activities.
Food politics are the political aspects of the production, control, regulation, inspection, distribution and consumption of food.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
Food prices refer to the (averaged) price level for food in particular countries or regions or on a global scale.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Food storage allows food to be eaten for some time (typically weeks to months) after harvest rather than solely immediately.
Food, Inc. is a 2008 American documentary film directed by filmmaker Robert Kenner.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frederick Howard Buttel (October 15, 1948, Freeport, Illinois – January 14, 2005, Madison, Wisconsin) was the William H. Sewell Professor of Rural Sociology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.
French fries (North American English), chips (British and Commonwealth English), finger chips (Indian English), or French-fried potatoes are ''batonnet'' or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A frying pan, frypan, or skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying, searing, and browning foods.
A functional food is a food given an additional function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
New food technologies can offer solutions to malnutrition.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, the art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, the cooking styles of particular regions, and the science of good eating.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Granola is a breakfast food and snack food consisting of rolled oats, nuts, honey or other sweeteners such as brown sugar, and sometimes puffed rice, that is usually baked until it is crisp, toasted and golden brown.
A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that primarily sells food.
Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, or HACCP, is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level.
Health food is food marketed to provide human health effects beyond a normal healthy diet required for human nutrition.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited individuals or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets, often with complex portfolio-construction and risk-management techniques.
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Heterocyclic amines, also sometime referred to as HCAs, are chemical compounds containing at least one heterocyclic ring, which by definition has atoms of at least two different elements, as well as at least one amine (nitrogen-containing) group.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The Humane Slaughter Act, or the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act (P.L. 85-765; 7 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.) is a United States federal law designed to decrease suffering of livestock during slaughter.
In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent.
An industrial crop, also called a non-food crop, is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture (in a general sense).
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
The International Association for Food Protection (IAFP), founded in 1911, is a non-profit association of food safety professionals based in Des Moines, Iowa.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 3 January 1976.
Founded in 1985, the International Food Information Council (IFIC) is a nonprofit organization supported by the food, beverage, and agricultural industries.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian cuisine is food typical from Italy.
Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) is a public central university located in New Delhi, India.
Jayati Ghosh (born 1955) is a development economist and Professor of Economics at the Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, School of Social Sciences, at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, in New Delhi, India.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Jugging is the process of stewing whole animals, mainly game or fish, for an extended period in a tightly covered container such as a casserole or an earthenware jug.
Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kettle corn is a sweet-and-salty variety of popcorn that is typically mixed or seasoned with a light-colored refined sugar, salt, and oil.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment.
Kombucha (also tea mushroom, Manchurian mushroom, formal name: Medusomyces gisevii) is a variety of fermented, lightly effervescent sweetened black or green tea drinks commonly intended as functional beverages for their supposed health benefits.
Kosher salt, koshering salt, or kitchen salt is edible salt with a larger grain size than typical table salt and without common additives such as iodine.
Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines.
Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.
This is a categorically-organized list of foods.
This is a list of prepared foods list articles on Wikipedia.
Local food (local food movement or locavore) is a movement of people who prefer to eat foods which are grown or farmed relatively close to the places of sale and preparation.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Marasmus is a form of severe malnutrition characterized by energy deficiency.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
Mass marketing is a market strategy in which a firm decides to ignore market segment differences and appeal the whole market with one offer or one strategy, which supports the idea of broadcasting a message that will reach the largest number of people possible.
A meal is an eating occasion that takes place at a certain time and includes prepared food.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.
Mexican cuisine began about 9,000 years ago, when agricultural communities such as the Maya formed, domesticating maize, creating the standard process of corn nixtamalization, and establishing their foodways.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
The MIT Media Lab is an antidisciplinary research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, growing out of MIT's Architecture Machine Group in the School of Architecture.
Monde Selection is an annual non-competitive award open to food, drinks, and cosmetics products, created in 1961.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Morgan Stanley is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered at 1585 Broadway in the Morgan Stanley Building, Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Natural foods and all natural foods are widely used terms in food labeling and marketing with a variety of definitions, most of which are vague.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
Nepalese cuisine comprises a variety of cuisines based upon ethnicity, soil and climate relating to Nepal's cultural diversity and geography.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(–R2)–N.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries.
Nutritional anthropology is the interplay between human biology, economic systems, nutritional status and food security, and how changes in the former affect the latter.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Olivier De Schutter (born 20 July 1968) is a Belgian legal scholar specialising in economic and social rights.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
Optimal foraging theory (OFT) is a model that helps predict how an animal behaves when searching for food.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to food preparation: Food preparation – art form and applied science that includes but is not limited to cooking.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition.
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs.
Pan frying is a form of frying characterized by the use of minimal cooking oil or fat (compared to shallow frying or deep frying); typically using just enough oil to lubricate the pan.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
A pension fund, also known as a superannuation fund in some countries, is any plan, fund, or scheme which provides retirement income.
Pet food is plant or animal material intended for consumption by pets.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in the United States and Canada and a gherkin in Britain, Ireland, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Poaching is a type of moist-heat cooking technique that involves cooking by submerging food in a liquid, such as water, milk, stock or wine.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula K C4 H5 O6, is a byproduct of winemaking.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration.
A quota share is a specified number or percentage of the allotment as a whole (quota), that is prescribed to each individual entity.
Rancidity is the complete or incomplete oxidation or hydrolysis of fats and oils when exposed to air, light, moisture or by bacterial action, resulting in unpleasant taste and odor, which may be described as rancidity.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.
Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war.
Raw foodism, also known as following a raw food diet, is the dietary practice of eating only (or mostly) food that is uncooked and unprocessed.
Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.
Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, usable materials.
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll (28 October 1912 – 24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became an epidemiologist in the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science.
Sir Richard Peto (born 14 May 1943) is Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology at the University of Oxford, England.
The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food, clothing and housing at an adequate level.
The right to food, and its non variations, is a human right protecting the right for people to feed themselves in dignity, implying that sufficient food is available, that people have the means to access it, and that it adequately meets the individual's dietary needs.
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt.
Sashimi (刺身) is a Japanese delicacy consisting of very fresh raw meat or fish sliced into thin pieces.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Sautéing (in reference to tossing while cooking) is a method of cooking food that uses a small amount of oil or fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Sea salt is a less refined salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Self-service is the practice of serving oneself, usually when purchasing items.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
In Judaism, shechita (anglicized:; שחיטה;; also transliterated shehitah, shechitah, shehita) is slaughtering of certain mammals and birds for food according to kashrut.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
A shopping cart (American English) or trolley (British English), also known by a variety of other names, is a cart supplied by a shop, especially supermarkets, for use by customers inside the shop for transport of merchandise to the checkout counter during shopping.
Simmering is a food preparation technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept just below the boiling point of water (which is 100 °C or 212 °F at average sea level air pressure), but higher than poaching temperature.
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
Slow Food is an organization that promotes local food and traditional cooking.
Smoking is the process of flavoring, browning, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
Spirulina represents a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
Steak tartare is a meat dish made from raw ground meat (beef or horsemeat).
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
Stevia is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana.
Steviol is a diterpene first isolated from the plant Stevia rebaudiana in 1931.
Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and sugar substitute.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.
is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.
Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
The term tandoor refers to a variety of ovens, the most commonly known is a cylindrical clay or metal oven used in cooking and baking.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Thai cuisine (อาหารไทย) is the national cuisine of Thailand.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
A toaster, or a toast maker, is an electric small appliance designed to toast sliced bread by exposing it to radiant heat, thus converting it into toast.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Traditional foods are foods and dishes that are passed through generations or which have been consumed many generations.
Umami, or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.
The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), spanning from 1986 to 1994 and embracing 123 countries as "contracting parties".
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
Vinaigrette is made by mixing an oil with something acidic such as vinegar or lemon juice.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Whole foods are plant foods that are unprocessed and unrefined, or processed and refined as little as possible, before being consumed.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The World Resources Institute (WRI) is a global research non-profit organization that was established in 1982 with funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation under the leadership of James Gustave Speth.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, creating a global crisis and causing political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations.
Following the 2007–2008 world food price crisis and a short lull in high prices during 2009, food prices around the world again started to rise in 2010.
Comestible, Comestibles, Eatings, Food product, Food products, Food source, Food sources, Food-plant, Food-plants, Foods, Foodstuff, Foood, Human food, Ingested food, International food exports, International food imports, People food, Provender, Victual, Victualage, Victuals, Vittle, Vittles.