107 relations: Absorbance, Acetic acid, Acidity regulator, Agar, Alkannin, Anticaking agent, Antioxidant, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australia, Bacon, Bacteria, Baking, Basil, Boric acid, Calorie, Candy, Carcinogen, Chemical Abstracts Service, Citric acid, Code of Federal Regulations, Codex Alimentarius, Colour retention agent, Convenience food, Daily Express, Defoamer, Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea, Dietary supplement, E, E number, Electromagnetic spectrum, Emulsion, Europe, European Food Safety Authority, European Union, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Flavor, Flour, Flour treatment agent, Food, Food Additives Amendment of 1958, Food and Drug Administration, Food Chemicals Codex, Food coloring, Food energy, Food fortification, Food processing, Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Fruit preserves, Fumaric acid, ..., Fungus, Generally recognized as safe, Glazing agent, High-performance liquid chromatography, Humectant, Ice cream, International Numbering System for Food Additives, International Organization for Standardization, John Triggs, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Lactic acid, List of food additives, List of food labeling regulations, Malic acid, Mayonnaise, Micronutrient, Microorganism, Milk, Mineral, Mineral (nutrient), Monosodium glutamate, New Zealand, Organic fertilizer, Oxygen, Pectin, PH, Pickling, Pink slime, Precautionary principle, Preservative, Processing aid, Root beer, Saccharin, Safrole, Salt, Sassafras, Sodium cyclamate, Stabilizer (chemistry), Starch, Sugar, Sugar substitute, Sulfur dioxide, Sweetened beverage, Tartaric acid, Thickening agent, Tooth decay, Tracer-gas leak testing, Trading Standards, Ultraviolet, Vinegar, Viscosity, Visible spectrum, Vitamin, Vitamin C, Wine, World War I, World War II. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity).
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
Alkannin is a natural dye that is obtained from the extracts of plants from the borage family Alkanna tinctoria that are found in the south of France.
An anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt or confectionaries to prevent the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, and consumption.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
Colour retention agents are food additives that are added to food to prevent the colour from changing.
Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption.
The Daily Express is a daily national middle market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom.
A defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents, bread improvers, dough conditioners and dough improvers) are food additives combined with flour to improve baking functionality.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The Food Additives Amendment of 1958 is a 1958 amendment to the United States' Food, Drugs, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) is a collection of internationally recognized standards for the purity and identity of food ingredients.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) (Māori: Te Mana Kounga Kai - Ahitereiria me Aotearoa), formerly Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA), is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
A glazing agent is a natural or synthetic substance that provides a waxy, homogeneous, coating to prevent water loss from a surface and provide other protection.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.
A humectant is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant because it is wet.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
The International Numbering System for Food Additives (INS) is a European-based naming system for food additives, aimed at providing a short designation of what may be a lengthy actual name.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
John Triggs (born 1976) was a British journalist and feature writer.
The Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives was an international report of the World Health Organization.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
;Acids: Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants.
The packaging and labeling of food is subject to regulation in most regions/jurisdictions, both to prevent false advertising and to promote food safety.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, animal excreta (manure), human excreta, and vegetable matter (e.g. compost and crop residues).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
"Pink slime" (a derogatory term for lean finely textured beef or LFTB, finely textured beef, and boneless lean beef trimmings or BLBT) is a meat by-product used as a food additive to ground beef and beef-based processed meats, as a filler, or to reduce the overall fat content of ground beef.
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
A processing aid is a substance used in the production of processed food, and which may end up in the finished product, but which is not, by law, required to be disclosed to the consumer as an ingredient.
Root beer is a sweet North American soft drink traditionally made using the sassafras tree Sassafras albidum (sassafras) or the vine Smilax ornata (sarsaparilla) as the primary flavor.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
Safrole is a phenylpropene.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia.
Sodium cyclamate (sweetener code 952) is an artificial sweetener.
In industrial chemistry, a stabilizer is a chemical that is used to prevent degradation.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
A sweetened beverage is any beverage with added sugar.
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
A tracer-gas leak testing method is a nondestructive testing method that detects gas leaks.
In the United Kingdom, Trading Standards are the local authority departments, formerly known as Weights and Measures, that enforce consumer protection legislation.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.