221 relations: Acanthamoeba, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aflatoxin, Agriculture, Alkaloid, Alternaria, Alternariol, American Public Health Association, American Public Health Association v. Butz, Amoeba, Anaerobic organism, Anisakis, Aplastic anemia, Argentina, Ascaris lumbricoides, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Australian Food Safety Information Council, Bacillus cereus, Bacteria, Blood, Botulinum toxin, Botulism, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Brucella, Cadaverine, Campylobacter, Campylobacter jejuni, Capsaicin, Carcinoma, Cardiac glycoside, Cell (biology), Center for Science in the Public Interest, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cestoda, Chili pepper, Ciguatera fish poisoning, Cirrhosis, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cold chain, Colony-forming unit, Communist Party USA, Conium, Consumer Federation of America, Corned beef, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyclopiazonic acid, ..., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cytochalasin, Death, Decomposition, Diacetoxyscirpenol, Digitalis, Diphyllobothrium, Disease, Domoic acid, Eleusine coracana, Entamoeba histolytica, Enterotoxin, Enterotoxin type B, Enterovirus, Ergoline, Ergot, Ergotamine, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Esophageal cancer, European Commission, European Committee for Standardization, Eustrongylidosis, Exotoxin, Farm-to-table, Fasciola hepatica, Flatworm, Food allergy, Food and Drug Administration, Food contaminant, Food microbiology, Food quality, Food safety, Food spoilage, Food Standards Agency, Food storage, Food testing strips, France, Fugu, Fumonisin, Fumonisin B1, Fusarium, Fusarium verticillioides, Garlic, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Giardia lamblia, Government Accountability Project, Grayanotoxin, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Hazard analysis and critical control points, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, Honey, Hygiene, Incubation period, Infectious dose, Jaundice, Kidney bean, Kojic acid, List of foodborne illness outbreaks, Listeria, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeriosis, Liver, Mandatory labelling, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Massillon, Ohio, Medicine, Microorganism, Multiplication, Mushroom poisoning, Mycotoxicology, Mycotoxin, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, National Consumers League, Necrosis, Nematode, Neutropenia, NHS Direct, Norovirus, North American Meat Institute, Ochratoxin, Ochratoxin A, Onion, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Parasitism, Pathogen, Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Patulin, Penitrem A, Periodontal disease, Pesticide, PH, Phage therapy, Phytohaemagglutinin, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Potato salad, Prion, Produce, Protozoa, Pseudomonas, Public health, Public service, Putrescine, Pyrrolizidine alkaloid, Q fever, Río de la Plata, Refrigerate after opening, Restaurant, Rice pudding, Rotavirus, Sabrina Tavernise, Salmonella, Scandinavia, Scombroid food poisoning, Shigella, Shigella sonnei, Soviet Union, Species, Spinal cord, Stachybotrys, Staphylococcal enteritis, Staphylococcus aureus, Stephanie Strom, Sterigmatocystin, Stomach, STOP Foodborne Illness, Streptococcus, Subclinical infection, Sulfur, Symptom, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Tetrodotoxin, The Lancet, The New York Times, Thrombocytopenia, Time (magazine), Tissue (biology), Tony Blair, Toxin, Toxoplasma gondii, Traceability, Trichinosis, Trichoderma, Trichothecene, Trichuris trichiura, Typhoid fever, United Kingdom, United States Department of Agriculture, Veterinary medicine, Veterinary physician, Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Virus, Vomiting, Vomitoxin, White paper, World Health Organization, World War II, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Zearalenone, Zoonosis, 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack, 2006 North American E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Expand index (171 more) » « Shrink index
Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae, a single-celled eukaryote commonly recovered from soil, fresh water and other habitats.
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
Aeromonas hydrophila is a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium mainly found in areas with a warm climate.
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi.
Alternariol is a toxic metabolite of Alternaria fungi.
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a Washington, D.C.-based professional organization for public health professionals in the United States.
American Public Health Association v. Butz (APHA v. Butz), 511 F.2d 331 (D.C. Cir. 1974) was a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit case argued on January 22, 1974 and decided on December 19, 1974.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Anisakis is a genus of parasitic nematodes which have lifecycles involving fish and marine mammals.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Ascaris lumbricoides is the "large roundworm" of humans, growing to a length of up to.
Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution.
Aspergillus parasiticus is a fungus belonging to the genus Aspergillus.
The Australian Food Safety Information Council is a health promotion charity.
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, beta hemolytic bacterium commonly found in soil and food.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.
Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, named after David Bruce (1855–1931).
Cadaverine is a foul-smelling diamine compound produced by the putrefaction of animal tissue.
Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe.
Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and decrease its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) is a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit watchdog and consumer advocacy group that advocates for safer and healthier foods.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Ciguatera fish poisoning, also known simply as ciguatera, is a foodborne illness caused by eating reef fish whose flesh is contaminated with certain toxins.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.
Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium.
A cold chain or cool chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain.
In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU, cfu, Cfu) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample.
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
Conium is a genus of flowering plants in the carrot family Apiaceae which consists of four species accepted by The Plant List.
The Consumer Federation of America (CFA) is a non-profit organization founded in 1968 to advance consumer interests through research, education and advocacy.
Corned beef is a salt-cured beef product.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a toxic fungal secondary metabolite.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan that causes disease in humans, and perhaps primates.
Cytochalasins are fungal metabolites that have the ability to bind to actin filaments and block polymerization and the elongation of actin.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), also called anguidine, is a mycotoxin from the group of type A trichothecenes.
Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials commonly called foxgloves.
Diphyllobothrium is a genus of tapeworms which can cause diphyllobothriasis in humans through consumption of raw or undercooked fish.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Domoic acid (DA) is a kainic acid analog neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).
Eleusine coracana, or finger millet, is an annual herbaceous plant widely grown as a cereal crop in the arid and semiarid areas in Africa and Asia.
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic amoebozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba.
An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines.
In the field of molecular biology, enterotoxin type B, also known as Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), is an enterotoxin produced by the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.
Enteroviruses are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases.
Ergoline derivatives comprise a diverse group of chemical compounds whose structural skeleton is the alkaloid ergoline.
Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.
Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN, Comité Européen de Normalisation) is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.
Eustrongylidosis is a parasitic disease that mainly affects wading birds worldwide; however, the parasite’s complex, indirect life cycle involves other species such as aquatic worms and fish.
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.
Farm-to-table (or farm-to-fork, and in some cases farm-to-school) is a social movement which promotes serving local food at restaurants and school cafeterias, preferably through direct acquisition from the producer (which might be a winery, brewery, ranch, fishery, or other type of food producer which is not strictly a "farm").
Fasciola hepatica, also known as the common liver fluke or sheep liver fluke, is a parasitic trematode (fluke or flatworm, a type of helminth) of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness.
Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage, pathogens that may cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored, those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine, and those with other useful roles such as producing probiotics.
Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
Spoilage is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes reduced.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Food storage allows food to be eaten for some time (typically weeks to months) after harvest rather than solely immediately.
Food testing strips are products that help determine whether or not food contains bacteria that can cause foodborne illness.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The fugu (河豚; 鰒; フグ) in Japanese or bogeo (복어) or bok (복) in Korean is a pufferfish, normally of the genus Takifugu, Lagocephalus, or Sphoeroides, or a porcupinefish of the genus Diodon, or a dish prepared from these fish.
The fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins derived from Fusarium, Liseola section.
Fumonisin B1 is the most prevalent member of a family of toxins, known as fumonisins, produced by several species of Fusarium molds, such as Fusarium verticillioides, which occur mainly in maize (corn), wheat and other cereals.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
Fusarium verticillioides is the most commonly reported fungal species infecting maize (Zea mays).
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.
The Government Accountability Project (GAP) is a whistleblower protection and advocacy organization in the United States.
Grayanotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxins named after Leucothoe grayana, a plant native to Japan originally named for 19th century American botanist Asa Gray.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, or HACCP, is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level.
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
Infectious dose (ID) is the amount of pathogen (measured in number of microorganisms) required to cause an infection in the host.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Kojic acid is a chelation agent produced by several species of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, which has the Japanese common name koji.
This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks.
Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.
Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes, although L. ivanovii and L. grayi have been reported in certain cases.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Mandatory labelling or labeling (see spelling differences) is the requirement of consumer products to state their ingredients or components.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a privately held independent publishing company founded by its president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980.
Massillon is a city in Stark County in the U.S. state of Ohio, approximately west of Canton, south of Akron, and south of Cleveland.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
Mushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism or mycetismus) refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.
Mycotoxicology is the branch of mycology that focuses on analyzing and studying the toxins produced by fungi, known as mycotoxins.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
National Cattlemen's Beef Association (NCBA) is a trade association and lobbying group for beef producers in the United States.
The National Consumers League, founded in 1899, is an American consumer organization.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
For the service in Wales, see NHS Direct Wales NHS Direct was the health advice and information service provided by the National Health Service (NHS), established in March 1998.
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.
The North American Meat Institute (NAMI) is a non-profit, industry trade association formed in 2015 from the merger of the American Meat Institute (AMI) and the North American Meat Association (NAMA).
Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species (mainly A. ochraceus, but also by 33% of A. niger industrial strains) and some Penicillium species, especially P. verrucosum and P. carbonarius.
Ochratoxin A—a toxin produced by different Aspergillus and Penicillium species — is one of the most-abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops).
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Escherichia coli (Anglicized to; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of molds, in particular, Aspergillus and Penicillium and Byssochlamys.
Penitrem A (tremortin) is an indol-diterpenoid mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus, ''Claviceps'', and Penicillium, which can be found growing on various plant species such as ryegrass.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.
Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or phytohemagglutinin) is a lectin found in plants, especially certain legumes.
Plesiomonas shigelloides is a species of bacteria that was formerly classified in the family Vibrionaceae, but now most microbiologists agree that a better classification is in the family Enterobacteriaceae (see box on the right).
Potato salad is a dish made from boiled potatoes and a variety of other ingredients.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops and goods, including fruits and vegetables – meats, grains, oats, etc.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Putrescine, or tetramethylenediamine, is a foul-smelling organic chemical compound NH2(CH2)4NH2 (1,4-diaminobutane or butanediamine) that is related to cadaverine; both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), sometimes referred to as necine bases, are a group of naturally occurring alkaloids based on the structure of pyrrolizidine.
Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that affects humans and other animals.
The Río de la Plata ("river of silver") — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.
The term refrigerate after opening is an instruction on commercial preserved food products to cool the container after it has been opened and the contents exposed to open air.
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money.
Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.
Sabrina Tavernise is an American journalist who writes for The New York Times.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scombroid food poisoning, also known as simple scombroid, is a foodborne illness that typically results from eating spoiled fish.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Stachybotrys is a genus of molds, hyphomycetes or asexually reproducing, filamentous fungi.
Staphylococcal enteritis is an inflammation that is usually caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with staph enterotoxin.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Stephanie Strom (born in Dickinson, Texas) is an American journalist who has been a national correspondent for The New York Times since December 2002.
Sterigmatocystin is a polyketide mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
STOP Foodborne Illness, formerly known as Safe Tables Our Priority (S.T.O.P.), is a non-profit public health organization in the United States dedicated to the prevention of illness and death from foodborne pathogens.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
A subclinical infection (sometimes called a preinfection) is an infection that, being subclinical, is nearly or completely asymptomatic (no signs or symptoms).
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Taenia saginata (synonym Taeniarhynchus saginatus), commonly known as the beef tapeworm, is a zoonotic tapeworm belonging to the order Cyclophyllidea and genus ''Taenia''.
Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
Traceability is the capability to trace something.
Trichinosis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the Trichinella type.
Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi.
Trichothecenes are a very large family of chemically related mycotoxins produced by various species of Fusarium, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Cephalosporium, Verticimonosporium, and Stachybotrys.
The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura or Trichocephalus trichiuris) is a round worm (a type of helminth) that causes trichuriasis (a type of helminthiasis which is one of the neglected tropical diseases) when it infects a human large intestine.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a curved, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium found in brackish saltwater, which, when ingested, causes gastrointestinal illness in humans.
Vibrio vulnificus is a species of Gram-negative, motile, curved, rod-shaped (bacillus), pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Vomitoxin, also known as deoxynivalenol (DON), is a type B trichothecene, an epoxy-sesquiterpenoid.
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacillus-shaped bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Far East scarlet-like fever in humans, who occasionally get infected zoonotically, most often through the food-borne route.
Zearalenone (ZEN), also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Fusarium and Gibberella species.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack was the food poisoning of 751 individuals in The Dalles, Oregon, through the deliberate contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants with Salmonella.
In 2006, there were several outbreaks of foodborne illness from spinach and lettuce contaminated by ''E. coli'' O157:H7.
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