293 relations: Acceleration, Aerodynamics, Albert Einstein, Angle, Angular acceleration, Angular momentum, Angular velocity, Antiparticle, Archimedes, Archimedes' principle, Aristotelian physics, Aristotle, Asteroid, Atmospheric sciences, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Basis (linear algebra), Basketball, Beta decay, Big Bang, Boson, Boyle's law, Buoyancy, Center of mass, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Centrifugal force, Circular symmetry, Classical antiquity, Classical element, Classical mechanics, Closed system, Color confinement, Comet, Compass, Compression (physics), Conservation law, Conservation of energy, Conservative force, Contact force, Continuum mechanics, Contour line, Coriolis force, Coulomb's law, Cross product, Cross section (geometry), Deformation (engineering), Deformation (mechanics), Density, Diagonal matrix, Dimension, ..., Displacement field (mechanics), Division by zero, Drag (physics), Dynamic pressure, Dynamics (mechanics), Dyne, Earth's magnetic field, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electrical polarity, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electroweak interaction, Energy, English units, Entropy, Equivalence principle, Ernst Mach, Euclidean vector, External ballistics, Fermion, Field (physics), Flight, Fluid, Fluid mechanics, Foot–pound–second system, Force gauge, Four-acceleration, Four-force, Four-momentum, Four-vector, Frame of reference, Free body diagram, Free fall, Friction, Fundamental interaction, Galilean invariance, Galilean transformation, Galileo Galilei, Gauge boson, General relativity, Geodesic, Gluon, Gradient, Grand Unified Theory, Gravitational acceleration, Gravitational constant, Gravitational field, Gravitational metric system, Gravity, Hadron, Henry Cavendish, Higgs mechanism, History of science, Hooke's law, Impulse (physics), Inertia, Inertial frame of reference, Integral, Interaction, Internal energy, International System of Units, Internet Archive, Invariant mass, Inverse-square law, Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, John Philoponus, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Kaluza–Klein theory, Kelvin, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Kilogram, Kilogram-force, Kinematics, Kinetic energy, Kip (unit), Lepton, Lever, Lift (force), Light-year, List of unsolved problems in physics, Load cell, Logic, Lorentz factor, Lorentz force, Magnet, Magnetic field, Magnetism, Magnitude (mathematics), Mass, Maxwell's equations, Measurement, Mechanical advantage, Mechanical energy, Mechanical equilibrium, Mercury (planet), Meson, Metre, Michael Faraday, Microstate (statistical mechanics), MIT OpenCourseWare, Moment of inertia, Momentum, Moon, Motion (physics), Neptune, Net force, Neutrino, Neutrino oscillation, Neutron, Newton (unit), Newton's law of universal gravitation, Newton's laws of motion, Non-inertial reference frame, Normal (geometry), Normal force, Nuclear force, Nucleon, Nutation, Observation, Oliver Heaviside, Operational definition, Optics, Orbit, Orders of magnitude (force), Orthogonality, Parabola, Parallel (geometry), Parallel force system, Parallelogram law, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Pauli exclusion principle, Perception, Permittivity, Perturbation theory, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Philosophy, Photoelectric effect, Photon, Physical body, Physics, Physics (Aristotle), Planet, Point particle, Polar coordinate system, Position (vector), Potential, Potential energy, Pound (force), Pound (mass), Poundal, Power (physics), Precession, Pressure, Projectile, Proton, Pulley, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Radioactive decay, Radius, Radius of curvature, Reaction (physics), Relative direction, Rest frame, Resultant, Revolution, Right angle, Robert Hooke, Rotation, Scalar (physics), Scalar field, Schrödinger equation, Second, Second law of thermodynamics, Shear stress, Simple machine, Slug (unit), Space, Spacetime, Special relativity, Speed, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Spring (device), Spring scale, Standard gravity, Standard Model, Statics, Statistical mechanics, Sthène, Stress (mechanics), String theory, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Superposition principle, Supersymmetry, Symmetry, Symmetry (physics), Temperature, Tension (physics), Tensor, Test particle, Tests of general relativity, Theoretical definition, Theory of everything, Theory of impetus, Theory of relativity, Thrust, Time derivative, Ton-force, Torque, Torsion spring, Trajectory, Truism, Tug of war, Ultraviolet catastrophe, Unified field theory, Unit vector, Universe, University of Guelph, University of the Virgin Islands, University Physics, Velocity, Virtual particle, Viscosity, Vulcan (hypothetical planet), W and Z bosons, Walter Lewin, Walter Noll, Wave, Weak interaction, Weighing scale, Work (physics), World line. Expand index (243 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.
Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.
In geometry, circular symmetry is a type of continuous symmetry for a planar object that can be rotated by any arbitrary angle and map onto itself.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.
In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
A conservative force is a force with the property that the total work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the taken path.
A contact force is any force that requires contact to occur.
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In linear algebra, a diagonal matrix is a matrix in which the entries outside the main diagonal are all zero.
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
A displacement field is an assignment of displacement vectors for all points in a region or body that is displaced from one state to another.
In mathematics, division by zero is division where the divisor (denominator) is zero.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Dynamic pressure (sometimes called velocity pressure) is the increase in a moving fluid's pressure over its static value due to motion.
Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.
The dyne (symbol dyn, from Greek δύναμις, dynamis, meaning power, force) is a derived unit of force specified in the centimetre–gram–second (CGS) system of units, a predecessor of the modern SI.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
English units are the historical units of measurement used in England up to 1826 (when they were replaced by Imperial units), which evolved as a combination of the Anglo-Saxon and Roman systems of units.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.
The foot–pound–second system or FPS system is a system of units built on three fundamental units: the foot for length, the (avoirdupois) pound for either mass or force (see below), and the second for time.
A force gauge (also force gage) is a small measuring instrument used across all industries to measure the force during a push or pull test.
In the theory of relativity, four-acceleration is a four-vector (vector in four-dimensional spacetime) that is analogous to classical acceleration (a three-dimensional vector, see three-acceleration in special relativity).
In the special theory of relativity, four-force is a four-vector that replaces the classical force.
In special relativity, four-momentum is the generalization of the classical three-dimensional momentum to four-dimensional spacetime.
In special relativity, a four-vector (also known as a 4-vector) is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
In physics and engineering, a free body diagram (force diagram, or FBD) is a graphical illustration used to visualize the applied forces, movements, and resulting reactions on a body in a given condition.
In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames.
In physics, a Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian physics.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.
In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.
The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
The gravitational metric system (original French term Système des Méchaniciens) is a non-standard system of units, which does not comply with the International System of Units (SI).
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.
An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570), also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time and considered an important precursor to string theory.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
The kilogram-force (kgf or kgF), or kilopond (kp, from Latin pondus meaning weight), is a gravitational metric unit of force.
Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
A kip is a US customary unit of force.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result.
A load cell is a transducer that is used to create an electrical signal whose magnitude is directly proportional to the force being measured.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving.
In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system.
In physical sciences, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.
In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
In statistical mechanics, a microstate is a specific microscopic configuration of a thermodynamic system that the system may occupy with a certain probability in the course of its thermal fluctuations.
MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) is an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to publish all of the educational materials from its undergraduateand graduate-level courses online, freely and openly available to anyone, anywhere.
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
possible to determine the torque associated with the point of application of a net force so that it maintains the movement of jets of the object under theassociated torque, the net force, becomes the resultant force and has the same effect on the rotational mott as all actual forces taken together.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon, or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
A non-inertial reference frame is a frame of reference that is undergoing acceleration with respect to an inertial frame.
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.
In mechanics, the normal force F_n\ is that component of the contact force that is perpendicular to the surface that an object contacts.
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nutation (from Latin nūtātiō, "nodding, swaying") is a rocking, swaying, or nodding motion in the axis of rotation of a largely axially symmetric object, such as a gyroscope, planet, or bullet in flight, or as an intended behavior of a mechanism.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.
An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
The following list shows different orders of magnitude of force.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
In mechanical engineering, a parallel force system is a situation in which two forces of equal magnitude act in the same direction within the same plane, with the counter force in the middle.
In mathematics, the simplest form of the parallelogram law (also called the parallelogram identity) belongs to elementary geometry.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.
Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction.
In geometry, a position or position vector, also known as location vector or radius vector, is a Euclidean vector that represents the position of a point P in space in relation to an arbitrary reference origin O. Usually denoted x, r, or s, it corresponds to the straight-line from O to P. The term "position vector" is used mostly in the fields of differential geometry, mechanics and occasionally vector calculus.
Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
The pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
The poundal (symbol: pdl) is a unit of force that is part of the foot–pound–second system of units, in Imperial units introduced in 1877, and is from the specialized subsystem of English absolute (a coherent system).
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt.
In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.
In differential geometry, the radius of curvature,, is the reciprocal of the curvature.
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.
The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.
In special relativity the rest frame of a particle is the coordinate system (frame of reference) in which the particle is at rest.
In mathematics, the resultant of two polynomials is a polynomial expression of their coefficients, which is equal to zero if and only if the polynomials have a common root (possibly in a field extension), or, equivalently, a common factor (over their field of coefficients).
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
In geometry and trigonometry, a right angle is an angle of exactly 90° (degrees), corresponding to a quarter turn.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.
A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.
In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force.
The slug is a derived unit of mass in the weight-based system of measures, most notably within the British Imperial measurement system and in the United States customary measures system.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
A spring scale or spring balance or newton meter is a type of weighing scale.
The standard acceleration due to gravity (or standard acceleration of free fall), sometimes abbreviated as standard gravity, usually denoted by or, is the nominal gravitational acceleration of an object in a vacuum near the surface of the Earth.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
The sthène (symbol sn), sometimes spelled (or misspelled) sthéne or sthene (from the Greek σθένος (sthenos) meaning "force"), is an obsolete unit of force or thrust in the metre–tonne–second system of units (mts) introduced in France in 1919.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.
In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
In physical theories, a test particle is an idealized model of an object whose physical properties (usually mass, charge, or size) are assumed to be negligible except for the property being studied, which is considered to be insufficient to alter the behavior of the rest of the system.
Tests of general relativity serve to establish observational evidence for the theory of general relativity.
A theoretical definition is an abstract concept that defines a term in an academic discipline.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
The theory of impetus was an auxiliary or secondary theory of Aristotelian dynamics, put forth initially to explain projectile motion against gravity.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
A time derivative is a derivative of a function with respect to time, usually interpreted as the rate of change of the value of the function.
A ton-force is one of various units of force defined as the weight of one ton due to standard gravity.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A torsion spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting; that is, a flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device, and is the opposite of falsism.
Tug of war (also known as war of tug, tug o' war, tug war, rope war, rope pulling, tugging war or toutrek) is a sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.
The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, was the prediction of late 19th century/early 20th century classical physics that an ideal black body at thermal equilibrium will emit radiation in all frequency ranges, emitting more energy as the frequency increases.
In physics, a unified field theory (UFT) is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a pair of physical and virtual fields.
In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Guelph (U of G) is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
The University of the Virgin Islands (or UVI) is a public, historically black university (HBCU) located in the United States Virgin Islands.
University Physics is the name of a two-volume physics textbook written by Hugh Young and Roger Freedman.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vulcan is a small hypothetical planet that was proposed to exist in an orbit between Mercury and the Sun.
The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.
Walter Hendrik Gustav Lewin (born January 29, 1936) is a Dutch astrophysicist and former professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Walter Noll (January 7, 1925 June 6, 2017) was a mathematician, and Professor Emeritus at Carnegie Mellon University.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
Weighing scales (or weigh scales or scales) are devices to measure weight.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
The world line (or worldline) of an object is the path that object traces in -dimensional spacetime.