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Forensic science

Index Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. [1]

248 relations: Admissible evidence, Age of Enlightenment, Alec Jeffreys, Alphonse Bertillon, Ambroise Paré, American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Ammunition, Analytical chemistry, Ancient history, Anthropometry, Antonin Scalia, Approved mental health professional, Archaeology, Archibald Reiss, Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team, Arsenic, Arsenic trisulfide, Arsine, Arson, Art forgery, Arthur Conan Doyle, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, Astronomy, Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences, Austrians, Autopsy, Azizul Haque (police officer), Ballistics, Biological anthropology, Blood, Blood residue, Bloodstain pattern analysis, Burglary, Caliber, Canadian Identification Society, Canadian Society of Forensic Science, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Cartilage, CBC News, Charles Darwin, Chicago Tribune, China, Civil law (legal system), Colin Pitchfork, Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified, Comparative bullet-lead analysis, Computational criminology, Computer forensics, Confession (law), ..., Controlled substance, CRC Press, Crime, Crime lab, Criminal investigation, Criminal investigation department, Criminal justice, Criminal law, Criminal procedure, Criminology, Cruelty to animals, CSI effect, David Canter, Demonstrative evidence, Diatom, Digital forensics, Diplomatics, DNA paternity testing, DNA profiling, Donald Swanson, Drowning, Drug harmfulness, Dynamometer, Ear print analysis, Edmond Locard, Edmund Reid, Edward Henry, Edwin Mellen Press, Electrotyping, Elsevier, Entomology, Epigenetics in forensic science, Evidence, Expert witness, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fingerprint, Footprint, Forensic accounting, Forensic anthropology, Forensic astronomy, Forensic biology, Forensic chemistry, Forensic dentistry, Forensic economics, Forensic engineering, Forensic entomology, Forensic facial reconstruction, Forensic firearm examination, Forensic footwear evidence, Forensic geology, Forensic geophysics, Forensic identification, Forensic limnology, Forensic linguistics, Forensic Magazine, Forensic materials engineering, Forensic meteorology, Forensic nursing, Forensic pathology, Forensic photography, Forensic podiatry, Forensic polymer engineering, Forensic profiling, Forensic psychiatry, Forensic psychology, Forensic science, Forensic seismology, Forensic serology, Forensic social work, Forensic tire tread evidence, Forensic toxicology, Forensic video analysis, France, Francis Camps, Francis Galton, Frederick Abberline, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Genetic code, Glove prints, Gunshot residue, Hans Gross, Hem Chandra Bose, Henry Classification System, Henry Faulds, Henry Moore (police officer), History of forensic photography, Home Office, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen sulfide, Hypersexuality, Illegal drug trade, India, Indian Civil Service (British India), Insect, International Association for Identification, International Commission on Missing Persons, International Committee of the Red Cross, Italians, Jack the Ripper, James Marsh (chemist), Johann Peter Frank, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, Juan Vucetich, Jury, Keith Simpson (pathologist), Kolkata, Laboratory, Lancaster, Lancashire, Lawyer, Locard's exchange principle, Logic, London Docks, Lung, Lyon, Mania, Marine forensics, Marsh test, Medicine, Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts, Metropolitan Police Service, Micro-spectrophotometry, Middle East, Minnesota Protocol, Mobile device forensics, Mug shot, Narborough, Leicestershire, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Nature (journal), Necochea, Necrobiome, New Delhi, New York City, New York City Police Department, New York Post, Nursing, Occult, Offender profiling, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Outline of forensic science, Paralegal, Pathology, Paul Uhlenhuth, PBS, Pennsylvania State University, Pistol, Poison, Polygraph, Precipitin, Procedure (term), Profiling (information science), ProPublica, Prosecutor, Prostitution, Psychiatry, Questioned document examination, Rape investigation, Restoring Family Links, Retrospective diagnosis, Roman Forum, RSID, Scenes of crime officer, Science, Science & Justice, Science News, Scotland Yard, Semen, Sherlock Holmes, Sir William Herschel, 2nd Baronet, Skeletonization, Skid mark, Social work, Song Ci, Song dynasty, Strangling, Sulfuric acid, Surgery, Sydney Smith (forensic expert), Synonym, Testimony, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Thomas Bond (surgeon), Tokyo, Toxicology, Trace evidence, Uhlenhuth test, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, University of Lausanne, University Press of Kentucky, Walter Simon Andrews, Warwick, Wellcome Trust, Wheat, Wildlife forensic science, Wilfrid Derome, Zinc. Expand index (198 more) »

Admissible evidence

Admissible evidence, in a court of law, is any testimonial, documentary, or tangible evidence that may be introduced to a factfinder—usually a judge or jury—to establish or to bolster a point put forth by a party to the proceeding.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alec Jeffreys

Sir Alec John Jeffreys, (born 9 January 1950) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes.

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Alphonse Bertillon

Alphonse Bertillon (24 April 1853 – 13 February 1914) was a French police officer and biometrics researcher who applied the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement creating an identification system based on physical measurements.

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Ambroise Paré

Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon who served in that role for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III.

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American Academy of Forensic Sciences

The American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) is a society for forensics professionals, founded in 1948.

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Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.

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Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.

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Ancient history

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.

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Anthropometry (from Greek ἄνθρωπος anthropos, "human", and μέτρον metron, "measure") refers to the measurement of the human individual.

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Antonin Scalia

Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.

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Approved mental health professional

The role of approved mental health professional (AMHP) in the United Kingdom was created in the 2007 amendment of the Mental Health Act 1983 to replace the role of approved social worker (ASW).

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Archibald Reiss

Rudolphe Archibald Reiss (8 July 1875 – 7 August 1929) was a German-Swiss criminology-pioneer, forensic scientist, professor and writer.

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Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team

The Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team (Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense, or "EAAF") is an Argentine not-for-profit scientific non-governmental organisation.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Arsenic trisulfide

Arsenic trisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2S3.

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Arsine is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH3.

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Arson is a crime of intentionally, deliberately and maliciously setting fire to buildings, wildland areas, abandoned homes, vehicles or other property with the intent to cause damage or enjoy the act.

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Art forgery

Art forgery is the creating and selling of works of art which are falsely credited to other, usually more famous artists.

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Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.

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Assassination of John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.

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Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners

The Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE) is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of firearm and tool mark identification, which is one of the forensic sciences.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences

The Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences is a multi-disciplinary learned society founded in 1967 modelled on the British Academy of Forensic Sciences.

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Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Azizul Haque (police officer)

Khan Bahadur Qazi Azizul Haque (1872 – 1935) was a Bengali police officer of British India who worked with Edward Henry to develop the Henry Classification System of fingerprints.

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Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.

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Biological anthropology

Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood residue

Blood residue are the wet and dry remnants of blood, as well the discoloration of surfaces on which blood has been shed.

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Bloodstain pattern analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA), one of several specialties in the field of forensic science, involves the study and analysis of bloodstains at a known or suspected violent crime scene with the goal of helping investigators draw conclusions about the nature, timing and other details of the crime.

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Burglary (also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking) is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence.

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In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.

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Canadian Identification Society

The Canadian Identification Society (CIS) is a bilingual (English- French) professional non-for-profit fellowship of police officers and civilian members who share interests and employment in crime scene investigation.

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Canadian Society of Forensic Science

The Canadian Society of Forensic Science (CSFS) is a professional association aimed at maintaining professional standards and promoting and enhancing the study and stature of forensic science.

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Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.

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Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.

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CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Colin Pitchfork

Colin Pitchfork (born 23 March 1960) is a British convicted murderer and rapist.

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Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified

Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified or the Washing Away of Wrongs is a Chinese book written by Song Ci in 1247 during the Song Dynasty (960-1276) as a handbook for coroners.

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Comparative bullet-lead analysis

Comparative bullet-lead analysis (CBLA), also known as compositional bullet-lead analysis, is a now discredited and abandoned forensic technique which used chemistry to link crime scene bullets to ones possessed by suspects on the theory that each batch of lead had a unique elemental makeup.

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Computational criminology

Computational criminology is an interdisciplinary field which uses computing science methods to formally define criminology concepts, improve our understanding of complex phenomena, and generate solutions for related problems.

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Computer forensics

Computer forensics (also known as computer forensic science) is a branch of digital forensic science pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media.

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Confession (law)

In the law of criminal evidence, a confession is a statement by a suspect in crime which is adverse to that person.

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Controlled substance

A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Crime lab

A crime laboratory - often shortened to crime lab - is a scientific laboratory, using primarily forensic science for the purpose of examining evidence from criminal cases.

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Criminal investigation

Criminal investigation is an applied science that involves the study of facts, used to identify, locate and prove the guilt of an accused criminal.

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Criminal investigation department

A criminal investigation department (CID) is the branch of all territorial police forces within the British Police, and many other Commonwealth police forces, to which plainclothes detectives belong.

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Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.

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Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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Criminal procedure

Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.

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Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

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Cruelty to animals

Cruelty to animals, also called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission (animal neglect) or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human animal.

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CSI effect

The CSI effect, also known as the CSI syndrome and the CSI infection, is any of several ways in which the exaggerated portrayal of forensic science on crime television shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation influences public perception.

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David Canter

David Victor Canter (born 5 January 1944) is a psychologist.

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Demonstrative evidence

Demonstrative evidence is evidence in the form of a representation of an object.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Digital forensics

Digital forensics (sometimes known as digital forensic science) is a branch of forensic science encompassing the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices, often in relation to computer crime.

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Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of documents: especially, historical documents.

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DNA paternity testing

DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child.

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

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Donald Swanson

Chief Inspector Donald Sutherland Swanson (1848 - 24 November 1924) was born in Thurso in Scotland, and was a senior police officer in the Metropolitan Police in London during the notorious Jack the Ripper murders of 1888.

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Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.

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Drug harmfulness

Drug harmfulness is the degree to which a psychoactive drug is harmful to a user and is measured in various ways, such as by addictiveness and the potential for physical harm.

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A dynamometer or "dyno" for short, is a device for measuring force, torque, or power.

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Ear print analysis

Ear print analysis is used as a means of forensic identification intended as an identification tool similar to fingerprinting.

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Edmond Locard


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Edmund Reid

Detective Inspector Edmund John James Reid (21 March 1846 – 5 December 1917) was the head of the CID in the Metropolitan Police's H Division at the time of the Whitechapel murders of Jack the Ripper in 1888.

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Edward Henry

Sir Edward Richard Henry, 1st Baronet, (26 July 1850 – 19 February 1931) was the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (head of the Metropolitan Police of London) from 1903 to 1918.

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Edwin Mellen Press

The Edwin Mellen Press is a scholarly publishing house with offices in Lewiston, New York, and Lampeter, Wales.

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Electrotyping (also galvanoplasty) is a chemical method for forming metal parts that exactly reproduce a model.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.

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Epigenetics in forensic science

Epigenetics in forensic science is the application of epigenetics to solving crimes.

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Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.

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Expert witness

An expert witness, in England, Wales and the United States, is a person whose opinion by virtue of education, training, certification, skills or experience, is accepted by the judge as an expert.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

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Footprints are the impressions or images left behind by a person walking or running.

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Forensic accounting

Forensic accounting, forensic accountancy or financial forensics is the specialty practice area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation.

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Forensic anthropology

Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.

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Forensic astronomy

Forensic astronomy is the use of astronomy, the scientific study of celestial objects, to determine the appearance of the sky at specific times in the past.

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Forensic biology

Forensic biology is the application of biology to law enforcement.

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Forensic chemistry

Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting.

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Forensic dentistry

Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is the application of dental knowledge to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.

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Forensic economics

Forensic Economics as defined by the National Association of Forensic Economics is the scientific discipline that applies economic theories and methods to matters within a legal framework.

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Forensic engineering

Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal". It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss.

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Forensic entomology

Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the invasion of the succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations.

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Forensic facial reconstruction

Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an individual (whose identity is often not known) from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy.

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Forensic firearm examination

Forensic firearm examination is the forensic process of examining the characteristics of firearms as well as any cartridges or bullets left behind at a crime scene.

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Forensic footwear evidence

Forensic footwear evidence can be used in legal proceedings to help prove that a shoe was at a crime scene.

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Forensic geology

Forensic geology is the study of evidence relating to minerals, oil, petroleum, and other materials found in the Earth, used to answer questions raised by the legal system.

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Forensic geophysics

Forensic geophysics is a branch of forensic science and is the study, the search, the localization and the mapping of buried objects or elements beneath the soil or the water, using geophysics tools for legal purposes.

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Forensic identification

Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", and technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident.

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Forensic limnology

Forensic limnology is a sub-field of forensic botany, which examines the presence of diatoms in crime scene samples and victims.

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Forensic linguistics

Forensic linguistics, legal linguistics, or language and the law, is the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure.

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Forensic Magazine

Forensic Magazine is a business-to-business magazine published by Advantage Business Media.

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Forensic materials engineering

Forensic materials engineering, a branch of forensic engineering, focuses on the material evidence from crime or accident scenes, seeking defects in those materials which might explain why an accident occurred, or the source of a specific material to identify a criminal.

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Forensic meteorology

Forensic meteorology is meteorology, the scientific study of weather, applied to the process of reconstructing weather events for a certain time and location.

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Forensic nursing

Forensic nursing is defined as the application of the nursing process to public or legal proceedings, and the application of forensic health care in the scientific investigation of trauma and/or death related to abuse, violence, criminal activity, liability, and accidents.

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Forensic pathology

Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse.

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Forensic photography

Forensic photography, also referred to as crime scene photography, is an activity that records the initial appearance of the crime scene and physical evidence, in order to provide a permanent record for the courts.

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Forensic podiatry

Forensic Podiatry is a subdiscipline of forensic science in which specialized podiatric knowledge including foot and lower limb anatomy, musculoskeletal function, deformities and diseases of the foot, ankle, lower extremities, and at times, the entire human body is used in the examination of foot-related evidence in the context of a criminal investigation.

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Forensic polymer engineering

Forensic polymer engineering is the study of failure in polymeric products.

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Forensic profiling

Forensic profiling is the study of trace evidence in order to develop information which can be used by police authorities.

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Forensic psychiatry

Forensic psychiatry is a sub-speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.

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Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Forensic seismology

Forensic seismology is the forensic use of the techniques of seismology to detect and study distant phenomena, particularly explosions, including those of nuclear weapons.

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Forensic serology

Forensic serology is the detection, classification and study of various bodily fluids such as blood, semen, fecal matter and perspiration, and their relationship to a crime scene.

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Forensic social work

Forensic social work is the application of social work to questions and issues relating to law and legal systems.

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Forensic tire tread evidence

Forensic tire tread evidence records and analyzes impressions of vehicle tire treads for use in legal proceedings to help prove the identities of persons at a crime scene.

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Forensic toxicology

Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use.

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Forensic video analysis

Forensic video analysis is the scientific examination, comparison and/or evaluation of video in legal matters.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Camps

Francis Edward Camps, FRCP, FRCPath (28 June 1905 – 8 July 1972) was a famous English pathologist notable for his work on the cases of serial killer John Christie and suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Frederick Abberline

Frederick George Abberline (8 January 1843 in Blandford Forum, Dorset – 10 December 1929) was a Chief Inspector for the London Metropolitan Police and a prominent police figure in the investigation into the Jack the Ripper serial killer murders of 1888.

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Frontline (U.S. TV series)

Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Glove prints

Glove prints, also sometimes described as gloveprints or glove marks, are latent, fingerprint-like impressions that are transferred to a surface or object by an individual who is wearing gloves.

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Gunshot residue

Gunshot residue (GSR), also known as cartridge discharge residue (CDR), "gunfire residue" (GFR), or firearm discharge residue (FDR), is residue deposited on the hands and clothes of someone who discharges a firearm.

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Hans Gross

Hans Gustav Adolf Gross or Groß (26 December 1847 – 9 December 1915) was an Austrian criminal jurist and criminologist, the "Founding Father" of criminal profiling.

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Hem Chandra Bose

Rai Bahadur Hem Chandra Bose (হেমচন্দ্র বোস) with Azizul Haque, the two Indian employees of the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau (before it became the Fingerprint Bureau), working under the supervision of Edward Henry have been credited with the primary development of the fingerprint classification system eventually named after their supervisor, and is known as the Henry Classification System of fingerprint.

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Henry Classification System

The Henry Classification System is a long-standing method by which fingerprints are sorted by physiological characteristics for one-to-many searching.

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Henry Faulds

Henry Faulds (1 June 1843 – 24 March 1930) was a Scottish physician, missionary and scientist who is noted for the development of fingerprinting.

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Henry Moore (police officer)

Henry Moore (2 June 1848 – 1918) was a British policeman from Northamptonshire.

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History of forensic photography

Forensic science holds the branch of forensic photography which encompasses documenting both suspected and convicted criminals, and also the crime scenes, victims, and other evidence needed to make a conviction.

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Home Office

The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.

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Illegal drug trade

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Civil Service (British India)

The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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International Association for Identification

The International Association for Identification (IAI) is the largest forensic organization in the world.

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International Commission on Missing Persons

The International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is an intergovernmental organization that addresses the issue of persons missing as a result of armed conflicts, violations of human rights, and natural disasters.

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International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.

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The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Jack the Ripper

Jack the Ripper is the best-known name for an unidentified serial killer generally believed to have been active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888.

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James Marsh (chemist)

James Marsh (2 September 1794 – 21 June 1846) was a British chemist who invented the Marsh test for detecting arsenic.

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Johann Peter Frank

Johann Peter Frank (19 March 1745 – 24 April 1821) was a German physician and hygienist who was a native of Rodalben.

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Journal of Forensic Sciences

The Journal of Forensic Sciences is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

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Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science

The Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which publishes original research papers, comments, and reviews relating to all aspects of forensic science.

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Juan Vucetich

Juan Vucetich (July 20, 1858 – January 25, 1925) was a Croatian-born Argentine anthropologist and police official who pioneered the use of fingerprinting.

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A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.

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Keith Simpson (pathologist)

Cedric Keith Simpson, CBE, FRCP, FRCPath, (20 July 1907 – 21 July 1985) was an English forensic pathologist.

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Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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Lancaster, Lancashire

Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, England. It is on the River Lune and has a population of 52,234; the wider City of Lancaster local government district has a population of 138,375. Long a commercial, cultural and educational centre, Lancaster gives Lancashire its name. The House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, who is also the Duke of Lancaster. Lancaster is an ancient settlement, dominated by Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church and the Ashton Memorial. It is also home to Lancaster University and a campus of the University of Cumbria.

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A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.

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Locard's exchange principle

In forensic science, Locard's exchange principle holds that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be used as forensic evidence.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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London Docks

The London Docks were one of several sets of docks in the historic Port of London.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

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Marine forensics

Marine forensics refers to the scientific study of incidents or accidents occurring as a result of or involving bodies of water including oceans, streams or rivers, lakes or ponds.

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Marsh test

The Marsh test is a highly sensitive method in the detection of arsenic, especially useful in the field of forensic toxicology when arsenic was used as a poison.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts

Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts, 557 U.S. 305 (2009), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that it was a violation of the Sixth Amendment right of confrontation for a prosecutor to submit a chemical drug test report without the testimony of the person who performed the test.

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Metropolitan Police Service

The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.

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Microspectrophotometry is the measure of the spectra of microscopic samples using different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation (e.g. ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, etc.) It is accomplished with microspectrophotometers, cytospectrophotometers, microfluorometers, Raman microspectrophotometers, etc.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Minnesota Protocol

The Minnesota Protocol on the Investigation of Potentially Unlawful Death (2016) is a set of international guidelines for the investigation of suspicious deaths, particularly those in which the responsibility of a State is suspected (either as a result of act or omission).

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Mobile device forensics

Mobile device forensics is a branch of digital forensics relating to recovery of digital evidence or data from a mobile device under forensically sound conditions.

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Mug shot

A mug shot or mugshot (an informal term for police photograph or booking photograph) is a photographic portrait of a person from the waist up, typically taken after a person is arrested.

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Narborough, Leicestershire

Narborough is a large village and civil parish in the Blaby district of Leicestershire, England, located around southwest of Leicester.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Necochea is a port and beach city in the southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

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The necrobiome is the community of organisms associated with a decaying corpse as described in 2013 by Benbow et al.

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New Delhi

New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York City Police Department

The City of New York Police Department, commonly known as the NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the five boroughs of New York City.

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New York Post

The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.

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Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".

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Offender profiling

Offender profiling, also known as criminal profiling, is an investigative tool used by law enforcement agencies to identify likely suspects and has been used by investigators to link cases that may have been committed by the same perpetrator.

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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Outline of forensic science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to forensic science: Forensic science – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system.

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A paralegal is an individual, qualified by education, training or work experience, who is employed or retained by a lawyer, law office, corporation, governmental agency, or other entity and who performs specifically delegated substantive legal work for which a lawyer is responsible.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Paul Uhlenhuth

Paul Theodor Uhlenhuth (7 January 1870 in Hanover – 13 December 1957 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German bacteriologist and immunologist, and Professor at the University of Strasbourg (1911–1918), at the University of Marburg (1918–1923) and at the University of Freiburg (1923–1936).

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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

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A pistol is a type of handgun.

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In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector, measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions.

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A precipitin is an antibody which can precipitate out of a solution upon antigen binding.

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Procedure (term)

A procedure is a document written to support a "policy directive".

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Profiling (information science)

In information science, profiling refers to the process of construction and application of user profiles generated by computerized data analysis.

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ProPublica is an American nonprofit organization based in New York City.

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A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.

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Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Questioned document examination

In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law.

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Rape investigation

Rape investigation is the procedure to gather facts about a suspected rape, including forensic identification of a perpetrator, type of rape and other details.

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Restoring Family Links

Restoring Family Links (RFL) is a program of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, more specifically the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies involving activities that aim to prevent separation and disappearance, look for missing persons, restore and maintain contact between family members and clarify the fate of persons reported missing.

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Retrospective diagnosis

A retrospective diagnosis (also retrodiagnosis or posthumous diagnosis) is the practice of identifying an illness after the death of the patient (sometimes in a historical figure) using modern knowledge, methods and disease classifications.

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Roman Forum

The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.

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Rapid Stain Identification Series (RSID) is designed for fast, easy and reliable detection of human fluids from a variety of samples encountered by forensic laboratories.

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Scenes of crime officer

A Scenes of Crime Officer (SOCO) is an officer who gathers forensic evidence for the British police.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Science & Justice

Science & Justice is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of forensics published by Elsevier on behalf of the Forensic Science Society and the International Society for Forensic Genetics.

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Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

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Scotland Yard

Scotland Yard (officially New Scotland Yard) is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), the territorial police force responsible for policing most of London.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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Sherlock Holmes

Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

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Sir William Herschel, 2nd Baronet

Sir William James Herschel, 2nd Baronet (9 January 1833 – 24 October 1917)"Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Dictionary: H" (glossary), Michele Triplett, 2006, Fprints.nwlean.net webpage:.

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Skeletonization refers to the final stage of decomposition, during which the last vestiges of the soft tissues of a corpse or carcass have decayed or dried to the point that the skeleton is exposed.

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Skid mark

A skid mark is the visible mark left by any solid which moves against another, and is an important aspect of trace evidence analysis in forensic science and forensic engineering.

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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Song Ci

Song Ci (Chinese: 宋慈; Pinyin: Sòng Cí) (1186–1249) was a Chinese physician, judge, and forensic medical scientist active during the Southern Song Dynasty who wrote a groundbreaking book titled Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified (Xi Yuan Ji Lu).

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Strangling is compression of the neck that may lead to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Sydney Smith (forensic expert)

Sir Sydney Alfred Smith (4 August 1883 in Roxburgh, New Zealand – 8 May 1969 in Edinburgh, Scotland), was a renowned forensic scientist and pathologist.

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A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

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In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thomas Bond (surgeon)

Dr Thomas Bond FRCS, MB BS (London), (1841–1901) was a British surgeon considered by some to be the first offender profiler,Serial Crime: Theoretical and Practical Issues in Behavioral Profiling By Wayne Petherick Published by Academic Press (2005) pg 1 and best known for his association with the notorious Jack the Ripper murders of 1888.

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, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.

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Trace evidence

Trace evidence is created when objects make contact.

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Uhlenhuth test

The Uhlenhuth test, also referred to as the antigen–antibody precipitin test for species, is a test which can determine the species of a blood sample.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.

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University of Lausanne

The University of Lausanne (UNIL, French: Université de Lausanne) in Lausanne, Switzerland was founded in 1537 as a school of theology, before being made a university in 1890.

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University Press of Kentucky

The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.

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Walter Simon Andrews

Walter Simon Andrews (27 April 1847 – 26 August 1899) was a British policeman.

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Warwick is the county town of Warwickshire, England.

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Wellcome Trust

The Wellcome Trust is a biomedical research charity based in London, United Kingdom.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Wildlife forensic science

Wildlife forensic science is forensic science applied to legal issues involving wildlife.

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Wilfrid Derome

Wilfrid Derome (19 April 1877 – 24 November 1931) was a Quebec forensic scientist known as the founder of the first Forensic science laboratory in North America, founded in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forensic_science

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