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Index Forestry

Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits. [1]

218 relations: Adriatic Sea, Aerial Forest Protection Service (Russia), Afforestation, Afonso III of Portugal, Agriculture, Agroforestry, Alfred Thomas Grove, Applied science, Asheville, North Carolina, Atmosphere of Earth, Austria-Hungary, Šumarski list, Bachelor's degree, Berggeschrey, Biltmore Estate, Biltmore Forest School, Biodiversity, Biology, Biosphere, Bologna Process, Botany, Brian M. Fagan, British Isles, Canada, Capitalism, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sink, Carl A. Schenck, Castle of Villaviciosa de Odón, Caulking, Certification, Charles Lathrop Pack, China, Climate, Climatology, Close to nature forestry, Common land, Commons, Community forestry, Conservation movement, Controlled burn, Cornell University, Craft, Croatian Forestry Society, Culvert, Damals, Dante Alighieri, Deforestation, Deforestation and climate change, Dendrology, ..., Denis of Portugal, Developed country, Dietrich Brandis, Disease, Divine Comedy, Drainage basin, Ecological resilience, Ecology, Economics, Ecosystem, Enclosure, Environmental science, Epidemic, Erosion, Erosion control, Europe, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, European Higher Education Area, Federal University of Paraná, Felling, Fernand Braudel, Firewood, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forest, Forest dynamics, Forest ecology, Forest farming, Forest genetic resources, Forest informatics, Forest inventory, Forest management, Forest of Tronçais, Forest railway, Forest reproductive material, Forester, Forestry, Forestry law, Forestry literature, Fox hunting, France, French Navy, Genetic diversity, Genetics, Genotype, Gentry, Geographic information system, Georg Ludwig Hartig, George Washington Vanderbilt II, Gifford Pinchot, Grassland, Growth and yield modelling, Habitat, Habitat fragmentation, Han dynasty, Hans Carl von Carlowitz, Harvester (forestry), HEBUST forestry unmanned aerial vehicle, Hesse, Higher education, Highland Clearances, History of the forest in Central Europe, History of the New York State College of Forestry, Holznot, Hungen, Hydrology, Imperial Forestry Institute (disambiguation), Insect, International Union of Forest Research Organizations, International Year of Forests, Japan, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Joachim Radkau, John Evelyn, Journal of Forestry, Land tenure, Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, Landscape, Landslide, Latifundium, Leasehold estate, Leiria, List of forest research institutes, List of forestry journals, List of forestry technical schools, List of forestry universities and colleges, Logging, Louis XIV of France, Lumber, Lumberjack, Mahogany, Maritime history, Master's degree, Minas Gerais, Ming dynasty, Monk, Monoculture, Montes (journal), Nara, Nara, North America, Nucleic acid sequence, Nuremberg, Oak, Off-road vehicle, Oliver Rackham, Outdoor recreation, Pest (organism), Phenotype, Pine, Pine nut, Pitch (resin), Plant litter, Plant nursery, Plantation, Political science, Private nonindustrial forest land, Provenance, Recreation, Reforestation, Renewable resource, Research, Resin extraction, Revista pădurilor, Romagna, Romania, Russia, Saxony, Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen, Seedling, Silviculture, Silvology, Society of American Foresters, Sociology, Soil science, South America, Stand level modelling, Stewardship, Stone pine, Sustainability, Sustainable forest management, Sweden, Sylwan, Teak, Technology, The Indian Forester, Thinning, Timber rafting, Topography, Tragedy of the commons, Tree breeding, United States, University of Giessen, Urban area, Verderer, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Victor Giurgiu, Visigoths, Water resources, Watershed management, Waterway, Werner Sombart, Wetterau, Whipsaw, Wilderness, Wildfire, Wood, Wood industry, Woodland, Xu Guangqi. Expand index (168 more) »

Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Aerial Forest Protection Service (Russia)

The Aerial Forest Protection Service (Авиалесоохрана, or Avialesookhrana) is a Russian government agency charged primarily with the aerial management of forest fires.

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Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.

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Afonso III of Portugal

Afonso III (rare English alternatives: Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin), the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhês), King of Portugal (5 May 121016 February 1279) was the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland.

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Alfred Thomas Grove

Alfred Thomas Grove (born 1924) is a British geographer and climatologist.

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Applied science

Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.

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Asheville, North Carolina

Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Šumarski list

Šumarski list is one of the oldest, still-publishing forestry journals in the world.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Berggeschrey or Berggeschrei ("mining clamour") was a German term for the rapid spread of news on the discovery of rich ore deposits that led to the rapid establishment of a mining region, as in the silver rush in the early days of silver ore mining in the Ore Mountains.

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Biltmore Estate

Biltmore Estate is a large (6950.4 acre or 10.86 square miles) private estate and tourist attraction in Asheville, North Carolina.

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Biltmore Forest School

The Biltmore Forest School was the first school of forestry in North America.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Brian M. Fagan

Brian Murray Fagan (born 1 August 1936) is a prolific British author of popular archaeology books and a professor emeritus of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon sink

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.

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Carl A. Schenck

Carl Alwyn Schenck (March 25, 1868 – May 17, 1955) was a pioneering forestry educator in North America, known for his contributions as the forester for George W. Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate, and the founder of the Biltmore Forest School, the first practical forestry school in the United States, in 1898, near Brevard, NC.

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Castle of Villaviciosa de Odón

The Castle of Villaviciosa de Odón is a palace-fortress complex found in the small town of the same name near Madrid, Spain.

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Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.

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Certification refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization.

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Charles Lathrop Pack

Charles Lathrop Pack (May 7, 1857 – June 14, 1937), a third-generation timberman, was "one of the five wealthiest men in America prior to World War I".

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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Close to nature forestry

Close to nature forestry is a management approach treating forest as an ecological system performing multiple functions.

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Common land

Common land is land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel.

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The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.

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Community forestry

Community forestry is an evolving branch of forestry whereby the local community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decision making by themselves in the facilitating support of government as well as change agents.

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Conservation movement

The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

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Controlled burn

A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard reduction burning, backfire, swailing, or a burn-off, is a wildfire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.

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Croatian Forestry Society

The Croatian Forestry Society (Hrvatsko šumarsko društvo) has its origins in the Croatian-Slavonian Agricultural Society, founded at the initiative of foresters in Zagreb in 1841.

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A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side.

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Damals is a German monthly popular scientific history magazine.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Deforestation and climate change

Deforestation is one of the main contributors to climate change.

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Dendrology (δένδρον, dendron, "tree"; and -λογία, -logia, science of or study of) or xylology (ξύλον, ksulon, "wood") is the science and study of wooded plants (trees, shrubs, and lianas), specifically, their taxonomic classifications.

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Denis of Portugal

Denis (9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Dietrich Brandis

Sir Dietrich Brandis, KCIE, FRS (31 March 1824 – 28 May 1907, Bonn) was a German-British botanist and forestry academic and administrator, who worked with the British Imperial Forestry Service in colonial India for nearly 30 years.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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Ecological resilience

In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.

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Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

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An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.

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In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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Erosion control

Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Forest Genetic Resources Programme

European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN) is an international network that supports the conservation and sustainable use of forest genetic resources in Europe.

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European Higher Education Area

The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference.

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Federal University of Paraná

The Federal University of Paraná (Universidade Federal do Paraná, UFPR) is a public university headquartered in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

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Felling is the process of downing individual trees,"Feller" def.

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Fernand Braudel

Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.

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Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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Forest dynamics

Forest dynamics describes the underlying physical and biological forces that shape and change a forest ecosystem.

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Forest ecology

Forest ecology is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns, processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests.

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Forest farming

Forest farming is the cultivation of high-value specialty crops under a forest canopy that is intentionally modified or maintained to provide shade levels and habitat that favor growth and enhance production levels.

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Forest genetic resources

Forest genetic resources or tree genetic resources are genetic material of shrub and tree species of actual or future value.

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Forest informatics

Forest informatics is the combined science of Forestry and informatics, with a special emphasis on collection, management, and processing of data, information and knowledge, and the incorporation of informatic concepts and theories specific to enrich forest management and forest science; it has a similar relationship to library science and information science.

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Forest inventory

Forest inventory is the systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis.

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Forest management

Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.

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Forest of Tronçais

The Forest of Tronçais (Forêt de Tronçais) is a forêt domaniale comprising in the Allier, managed by the National Forests Office.

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Forest railway

A forest railway, forest tram, timber line, logging railway or logging railroad is a mode of railway transport which is used for forestry tasks, primarily the transportation of felled logs to sawmills or railway stations.

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Forest reproductive material

Forest reproductive material is a part of a tree that can be used for reproduction such as seed, cutting or seedling.

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A forester is a person who practices forestry, the science, art, and profession of managing forests.

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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.

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Forestry law

Forestry laws govern activities in designated forest lands, most commonly with respect to forest management and timber harvesting.

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Forestry literature

Forestry literature is the books, journals and other publications about forestry.

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Fox hunting

Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of unarmed followers led by a "master of foxhounds" ("master of hounds"), who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French Navy

The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.

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Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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Georg Ludwig Hartig

Georg Ludwig Hartig (September 2, 1764 – February 2, 1837) was a German forester.

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George Washington Vanderbilt II

George Washington Vanderbilt II (November 14, 1862 – March 6, 1914) was an art collector and member of the prominent Vanderbilt family, which amassed a huge fortune through steamboats, railroads, and various business enterprises.

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Gifford Pinchot

Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865October 4, 1946) was an American forester and politician.

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Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.

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Growth and yield modelling

Growth and yield modelling is a branch of financial management.

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Habitat fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Hans Carl von Carlowitz

Hans Carl von Carlowitz, originally Hannß Carl von Carlowitz (24 December 1645 - 3 March 1714), was a German tax accountant and mining administrator.

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Harvester (forestry)

A harvester is a type of heavy forestry vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees.

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HEBUST forestry unmanned aerial vehicle

The HEBUST forestry unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a Chinese micro air vehicle (MAV) developed by Hebei University of Science and Technology (HEBUST, 河北科技大学) to perform surveilliance and fire detection missions over the forest where access by foot or ground vehicle is difficult or impossible.

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Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.

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Higher education

Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.

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Highland Clearances

The Highland Clearances (Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal, the "eviction of the Gaels") were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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History of the forest in Central Europe

The history of the forest in Central Europe is characterised by thousands of years of exploitation by people.

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History of the New York State College of Forestry

The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.

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Holznot (German for wood shortage) is a historic term for an existing or imminent supply crisis of wood.

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Hungen is a town in the district of Gießen, in Hesse, Germany.

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Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

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Imperial Forestry Institute (disambiguation)

Imperial Forestry Institute may refer to.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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International Union of Forest Research Organizations

The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (Union Internationale des Instituts de Recherches Forestières, Internationaler Verband Forstlicher Forschungsanstalten, Unión Internacional de Institutos de Investigación Forestal) is a non-profit, non-governmental international network of forest scientists, headquartered in Austria.

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International Year of Forests

The year 2011 was declared the International Year of Forests by the United Nations to raise awareness and strengthen the sustainable management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests for the benefit of current and future generations.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

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Joachim Radkau

Joachim Radkau (born October 4, 1943) is a German historian.

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John Evelyn

John Evelyn, FRS (31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.

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Journal of Forestry

The Journal of Forestry is the primary scholarly journal of the Society of American Foresters.

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Land tenure

In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.

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Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt

The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a younger branch of the House of Hesse.

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A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.

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The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.

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A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.

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Leasehold estate

A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to hold land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord.

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Leiria (ɸlāryo) is a city and a municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal.

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List of forest research institutes

This is a list of forest research institutes around the world, by continent and country.

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List of forestry journals

This list includes representative academic, peer-reviewed journals in forestry, forest science and related fields.

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List of forestry technical schools

This is a list of secondary, tertiary and technical schools, and practical training institutes around the world offering one- or two-year forestry technician and related degrees, diplomas or certificates, grouped by continent and country.

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List of forestry universities and colleges

This is a list of tertiary educational institutions around the world offering bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees in forestry or related fields.

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Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products.

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Mahogany is a kind of wood—the straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the AmericasBridgewater, Samuel (2012).

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Maritime history

Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.

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Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.

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Montes (journal)

Revista Montes (Journal of Forestry) is a Spanish scientific journal of forestry.

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Nara, Nara

is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.

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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Off-road vehicle

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

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Oliver Rackham

Oliver Rackham, (17 October 1939 – 12 February 2015) was an academic at the University of Cambridge who studied the ecology, management and development of the British countryside, especially trees, woodlands and wood pasture.

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Outdoor recreation

Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity refers to leisure pursuits engaged in the outdoors, often in natural or semi-natural settings out of town.

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Pest (organism)

A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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Pine nut

Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).

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Pitch (resin)

Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.

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Plant litter

Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material (such as leaves, bark, needles, twigs, and cladodes) that have fallen to the ground.

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Plant nursery

A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size.

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A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Private nonindustrial forest land

Private nonindustrial forest lands are forest lands in various countries, owned by a private individual or organization that does not also own a wood processing facility.

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Provenance (from the French provenir, 'to come from/forth') is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object.

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Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.

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Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.

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Renewable resource

A renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Resin extraction

Resin extraction consists of incising the outer layers of a pine tree in order to collect the sap or resin.

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Revista pădurilor

Revista pădurilor (Journal of Forests) is a Romanian peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1882 that has appeared without interruption since 1886, making it the oldest Romanian journal published without interruption and one of the oldest forestry journals in the world.

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Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen

Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen (the Swiss Forestry Journal) is one of the oldest forestry journals still in print in the world.

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A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.

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Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.

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Silvology (Latin, silva or sylva, "forests and woods"; and -λογία, -logia, "science of or study of") is the study of forests and woods, incorporating both the understanding of natural forest ecosystems and the design of silvicultural systems.

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Society of American Foresters

The Society of American Foresters (SAF) is a scientific and educational 501(c) non-profit organization, representing the forestry profession in the United States of America.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Soil science

Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Stand level modelling

Stand level modelling is a type of modelling in the forest sciences in which the main unit is a forested stand.

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Stewardship is an ethic that embodies the responsible planning and management of resources.

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Stone pine

The stone pine, botanical name Pinus pinea, also known as the Italian stone pine, umbrella pine and parasol pine, is a tree from the pine family (Pinaceae).

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Sustainable forest management

Sustainable forest management is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Sylwan is the oldest scientific journal covering forestry in the world that is still in print.

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Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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The Indian Forester

The Indian Forester is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in forestry.

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Thinning is a term used in agricultural sciences to mean the removal of some plants, or parts of plants, to make room for the growth of others.

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Timber rafting

Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together into rafts and drifted or pulled across a water body or down a river.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Tragedy of the commons

The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.

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Tree breeding

Tree breeding is the application of genetic, reproductive biology and economics principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Giessen

Giessen University, official name Justus Liebig University Giessen (German: Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen), is a large public research university in Giessen, Hesse, Germany.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Verderers are officials in Britain who deal with common land in certain former royal hunting areas which are the property of the Crown.

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Viçosa, Minas Gerais

Viçosa is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Minas Gerais. Its population in July 2016 was estimated at 77,863 inhabitants. It is a city essentially oriented to education, with emphasis on the Federal University of Viçosa, founded in 1926 by the president of the Republic Arthur da Silva Bernardes, who was born in Viçosa. It also possesses other private higher education institutions, emphasizing the educational character of the city. It is a city that attracts many people from Brazil and other countries due to scientific and academic events that take place around the university, totaling approximately 500 annual events.

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Victor Giurgiu

Victor Giurgiu (born May 16, 1930 in Moieciu, Brașov County) is a Romanian forestry engineer, a titular member of the Romanian Academy since 2009.

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The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.

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Water resources

Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.

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Watershed management

Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary.

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A waterway is any navigable body of water.

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Werner Sombart

Werner Sombart (19 January 1863 – 18 May 1941) was a German economist and sociologist, the head of the “Youngest Historical School” and one of the leading Continental European social scientists during the first quarter of the 20th century.

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The Wetterau is a fertile undulating tract, watered by the Wetter, a tributary of the Nidda River, in the western German state of Hesse, between the hilly province Oberhessen and the north-western Taunus mountains.

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A whipsaw or pitsaw was originally a type of saw used in a saw pit, and consisted of a narrow blade held rigid by a frame and called a frame saw or sash saw (see illustrations).

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Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.

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A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Wood industry

The wood industry or lumber industry is a - usually private - economic sector concerned with forestry, logging, timber trade, and the production of forest products, timber/lumber, primary forest and wood products (e.g. furniture) and secondary products like wood pulp for the pulp and paper industry.

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Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.

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Xu Guangqi

Xu Guangqi or Hsü Kuang-ch'i (April 24, 1562– November 8, 1633), also known by his baptismal name Paul, was a Chinese scholar-bureaucrat, Catholic convert, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician under the Ming dynasty.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forestry

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