219 relations: Absoft Fortran Compilers, Abstract data type, Ada (programming language), ALGOL 58, Aliasing (computing), American Institute of Electrical Engineers, American National Standards Institute, Ames Research Center, Arithmetic IF, Array programming, ASCII, Assembly language, Association for Computing Machinery, Astronomy, Asynchronous I/O, BASIC, Basic block, Bi-quinary coded decimal, Bit manipulation, Boolean data type, Boolean expression, Burroughs Corporation, Burroughs large systems, C (programming language), C preprocessor, C++, Cambridge University Press, CDC 6600, Chapel (programming language), Climate model, CMS-2 (programming language), Coarray Fortran, Collation, Command-line interface, Compaq, Compiled language, Compiler, Complex data type, Computational chemistry, Computational economics, Computational fluid dynamics, Computational physics, Computational science, Computer History Museum, Concurrent computing, Conditional compilation, Considered harmful, Control Data Corporation, CPU cache, Cray, ..., Cross-platform, Crystallography, Data General, Data General Eclipse, Data General Eclipse MV/8000, Data General Nova, Data structure, Data type, David Sayre, Deal.II, Deprecation, Environment variable, Exception handling, F (programming language), F2c, FEniCS Project, Finite element method, Floating-point arithmetic, Foreign function interface, FORMAC, Fortran 95 language features, Fortress (programming language), Free-form language, Front panel, Function pointer, G95, Generic programming, Global variable, GNU Fortran, Herman Hollerith, Heron's formula, High Performance Fortran, High-level programming language, History of compiler construction, Hitachi, Hollerith constant, Honeywell, Hydrological modelling, IBM, IBM 1130, IBM 1401, IBM 1620, IBM 519, IBM 533, IBM 650, IBM 701, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM 704, IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 711, IBM System/360, IEEE 754 revision, Iftran, ILLIAC IV, Imperative programming, IMSL Numerical Libraries, Industrial Real-Time Fortran, Inheritance (object-oriented programming), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Instruction set architecture, Intel Fortran Compiler, Intel iPSC, International Committee for Information Technology Standards, International Organization for Standardization, International standard, Intrinsic function, J. Halcombe Laning, Jay Pasachoff, Job Control Language, John Backus, Keypunch, Laning and Zierler system, LAPACK, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, List of programming languages, Lois Haibt, Machine code, Macro (computer science), Magnetic-core memory, Mainframe computer, Manifest typing, Mathematical optimization, Matrix representation, Memory leak, Memory management, METIS, Microsoft, Microsoft Visual Studio, Modula-2, Modular programming, Monte Carlo method, Mortran, MUMPS, Murdoch University, NAG Numerical Library, NASA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Numerical Algorithms Group, Numerical analysis, Numerical weather prediction, Object-Oriented Fortran, Object-oriented programming, OpenMP, Operator overloading, Optimizing compiler, Oracle Developer Studio, Overlay (programming), Oxford University Press, PACT (compiler), PathScale, Physical cosmology, Pipeline (computing), PL/I, Plugboard, Pointer (computer programming), Polymorphism (computer science), Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, Porting, POSIX, Prentice Hall, Preprocessor, Procedural programming, Program optimization, Programming language, Programming paradigm, Pun, Punched card, Ratfiv, Ratfor, Recursion (computer science), Recursive data type, Row- and column-major order, Roy Nutt, Scalable parallelism, Scope (computer science), SIGPLAN, Silverfrost FTN95, SIMSCRIPT, Speedcoding, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation, Statement (computer science), Strong and weak typing, Structural engineering, Structured programming, Subroutine, Supercomputer, Syntax (programming languages), Texas Instruments, The Portland Group, TOP500, Trilinos, Type signature, Type system, UCSD Pascal, United States Department of Defense, United States Government Publishing Office, UNIVAC, Universal Coded Character Set, University of Waterloo, Volatile (computer programming), Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Watcom C/C++, WATFIV, Whitespace character, .NET Framework. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
Absoft Fortran Compilers are set of Fortran compilers for Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh, and Linux produced by Absoft Corporation.
In computer science, an abstract data type (ADT) is a mathematical model for data types, where a data type is defined by its behavior (semantics) from the point of view of a user of the data, specifically in terms of possible values, possible operations on data of this type, and the behavior of these operations.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
In computing, aliasing describes a situation in which a data location in memory can be accessed through different symbolic names in the program.
The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) was a United States-based organization of electrical engineers that existed from 1884 through 1962.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
The arithmetic IF statement is a three-way arithmetic conditional statement, first seen in the first release of Fortran in 1957, and found in all later versions, and some other programming languages, such as FOCAL.
In computer science, array programming languages (also known as vector or multidimensional languages) generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
In computer science, asynchronous I/O (also non-sequential I/O) is a form of input/output processing that permits other processing to continue before the transmission has finished.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
In compiler construction, a basic block is a straight-line code sequence with no branches in except to the entry and no branches out except at the exit.
Bi-quinary coded decimal is a numeral encoding scheme used in many abacuses and in some early computers, including the Colossus.
Bit manipulation is the act of algorithmically manipulating bits or other pieces of data shorter than a word.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
In computer science, a Boolean expression is an expression in a programming language that produces a Boolean value when evaluated, i.e. one of true or false.
The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The C preprocessor or cpp is the macro preprocessor for the C and C++ computer programming languages.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The CDC 6600 was the flagship of the 6000 series of mainframe computer systems manufactured by Control Data Corporation.
Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, is a parallel programming language developed by Cray.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
CMS-2 is an embedded systems programming language used by the United States Navy.
Coarray Fortran (CAF), formerly known as F--, started as an extension of Fortran 95/2003 for parallel processing created by Robert Numrich and John Reid in the 1990s.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
Compaq (a portmanteau of Compatibility And Quality; occasionally referred to as CQ prior to its final logo) was a company founded in 1982 that developed, sold, and supported computers and related products and services.
A compiled language is a programming language whose implementations are typically compilers (translators that generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Some programming languages provide a complex data type for complex number storage and arithmetic as a built-in (primitive) data type.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
Computational economics is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.
Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.
The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).
In computer programming, conditional compilation is compilation implementing methods which allow the compiler to produce differences in the executable program produced and controlled by parameters that are provided during compilation.
Considered harmful is a part of a phrasal template used in the titles of at least 65 critical essays in computer science and related disciplines.
Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.
Cray Inc. is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.
In computing, cross-platform software (also multi-platform software or platform-independent software) is computer software that is implemented on multiple computing platforms.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s.
The Data General Eclipse line of computers by Data General were 16-bit minicomputers released in early 1974 and sold until 1988.
The Eclipse MV/8000 was the first in a family of 32-bit minicomputers produced by Data General during the 1980s.
The Data General Nova is a series of 16-bit minicomputers released by the American company Data General.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
David Sayre (March 2, 1924 – February 23, 2012) was an American scientist, credited with the early development of direct methods for protein crystallography and of diffraction microscopy (also called coherent diffraction imaging).
deal.II is a free, open source library to solve partial differential equations using the finite element method.
In several fields, deprecation is the discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice, typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe, without completely removing it or prohibiting its use.
An environment variable is a dynamic-named value that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer.
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
F is a modular, compiled, numeric programming language, designed for scientific programming and scientific computation.
f2c is a program to convert Fortran 77 to C code, developed at Bell Laboratories.
The FEniCS Project is a collection of free and open-source software components with the common goal to enable automated solution of differential equations.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
A foreign function interface (FFI) is a mechanism by which a program written in one programming language can call routines or make use of services written in another.
FORMAC, acronym of FORmula MAnipulation Compiler, was an early computer algebra system based on FORTRAN.
This is an overview of Fortran 95 language features.
Fortress is a discontinued experimental programming language for high-performance computing, created by Sun Microsystems with funding from DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems project.
In computer programming, a free-form language is a programming language in which the positioning of characters on the page in program text is insignificant.
A front panel was used on early electronic computers to display and allow the alteration of the state of the machine's internal registers and memory.
A function pointer, also called a subroutine pointer or procedure pointer, is a pointer that points to a function.
G95 is a free, portable, open source Fortran 95 compiler.
Generic programming is a style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters.
In computer programming, a global variable is a variable with global scope, meaning that it is visible (hence accessible) throughout the program, unless shadowed.
GNU Fortran or GFortran is the name of the GNU Fortran compiler, which is part of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC).
Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting.
In geometry, Heron's formula (sometimes called Hero's formula), named after Hero of Alexandria, gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulae for the area of a triangle, such as half the base times the height or half the norm of a cross product of two sides.
High Performance Fortran (HPF) is an extension of Fortran 90 with constructs that support parallel computing, published by the High Performance Fortran Forum (HPFF).
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
In computing, a compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language or computer language (the source language), into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code or machine code).
() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
Hollerith constants, named in honor of Herman Hollerith, were used in early FORTRAN programs to allow manipulation of character data.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
A hydrologic model is a simplification of a real-world system (e.g., surface water, soil water, wetland, groundwater, estuary) that aids in understanding, predicting, and managing water resources.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.
The IBM 1401 is a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on October 5, 1959.
The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".
The IBM 519 Document-Originating Machine, introduced in 1946, was the last in a series of unit record machines designed for automated preparation of punched cards.
The IBM 533 Input-Output Unit, announced on July 2, 1953, was a punched card reader and punch that served as the primary input-output unit for the IBM 650 computer.
The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.
The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.
The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.
The IBM 704, introduced by IBM in 1954, is the first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware.
The IBM 709 was a computer system, initially announced by IBM in January 1957 and first installed during August 1958.
The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications".
The IBM 711 was a punched card reader used as a peripheral device for IBM mainframe vacuum tube computers and early transistorized computers.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
IEEE 754-2008 (previously known as IEEE 754r) was published in August 2008 and is a significant revision to, and replaces, the IEEE 754-1985 floating point standard.
IFTRAN (née Iftran) was created in 1972 by E. F. Miller at General Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, California as a mechanism to support structured programming concepts in a FORTRAN-based environment.
The ILLIAC IV was the first massively parallel computer.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
IMSL (International Mathematics and Statistics Library) is a commercial collection of software libraries of numerical analysis functionality that are implemented in the computer programming languages C, Java, C#.NET, and Fortran.
Industrial Real-Time Fortran (IRTF) was developed, during the decade of 1970-1980, to augment the Fortran language with library bindings useful for process and device control, and I/O.
In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the mechanism of basing an object or class upon another object (prototypal inheritance) or class (class-based inheritance), retaining the same implementation.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
Intel Fortran Compiler, also known as IFORT, is a group of Fortran compilers from Intel for Windows, OS X, and Linux.
The Intel Personal SuperComputer (Intel iPSC) was a product line of parallel computers in the 1980s and 1990s.
The InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS), (pronounced "insights"), is an ANSI-accredited standards development organization composed of Information technology developers.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations.
In computer software, in compiler theory, an intrinsic function (or builtin function) is a function (subroutine) available for use in a given programming language which implementation is handled specially by the compiler.
Jay Myron Pasachoff (born 1943) is an American astronomer.
Job Control Language (JCL) is a name for scripting languages used on IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem.
John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist.
A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator.
The Laning and Zierler system (sometimes called "George" by its users) was one of the first operating algebraic compilers, that is, a system capable of accepting mathematical formulae in algebraic notation and producing equivalent machine code (the term compiler had not yet been invented and the system was referred to as "an interpretive program").
LAPACK (Linear Algebra Package) is a standard software library for numerical linear algebra.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order, except for dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages.
Lois Mitchell Haibt (born 1934) is an American computer scientist best known for being a member of the ten-person team at IBM that developed FORTRAN, the first successful high-level programming language.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
In computer science, manifest typing is explicit identification by the software programmer of the type of each variable being declared.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
Matrix representation is a method used by a computer language to store matrices of more than one dimension in memory.
In computer science, a memory leak is a type of resource leak that occurs when a computer program incorrectly manages memory allocations in such a way that memory which is no longer needed is not released.
Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.
METIS is a software package for graph partitioning that implements various multilevel algorithms.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft.
Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.
Mortran (More Fortran) is an extension of the Fortran programming language used for scientific computation.
MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System), or M, is a general-purpose computer programming language that provides ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable) transaction processing.
Murdoch University is a public university in Perth, Western Australia, with campuses also in Singapore and Dubai.
The NAG Numerical Library is a software product developed and sold by The Numerical Algorithms Group.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) is a software company which provides methods for the solution of mathematical and statistical problems, and offers services to users of High performance computing (HPC) systems.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
Numerical weather prediction (NWP) uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions.
Object-Oriented Fortran is an object-oriented extension of Fortran, in which data items can be grouped into objects, which can be instantiated and executed in parallel.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) is an application programming interface (API) that supports multi-platform shared memory multiprocessing programming in C, C++, and Fortran, on most platforms, instruction set architectures and operating systems, including Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, Linux, macOS, and Windows.
In programming, operator overloading, sometimes termed operator ad hoc polymorphism, is a specific case of polymorphism, where different operators have different implementations depending on their arguments.
In computing, an optimizing compiler is a compiler that tries to minimize or maximize some attributes of an executable computer program.
Oracle Developer Studio, formerly named Oracle Solaris Studio, Sun Studio, Sun WorkShop, Forte Developer, and SunPro Compilers, is Oracle Corporation's flagship software development product for the Solaris and Linux operating systems.
In a general computing sense, overlaying means "the process of transferring a block of program code or other data into internal memory, replacing what is already stored".
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
PACT was a series of compilers for the IBM 701 and IBM 704 scientific computers.
PathScale Inc. was a company that developed a highly optimizing compiler for the x86-64 microprocessor architectures.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
A plugboard, or control panel (the term used depended on the application area), is an array of jacks, or sockets (often called hubs), into which patch cords can be inserted to complete an electrical circuit.
In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.
In programming languages and type theory, polymorphism (from Greek πολύς, polys, "many, much" and μορφή, morphē, "form, shape") is the provision of a single interface to entities of different types.
The Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc, pronounced PET-see; the S is silent), is a suite of data structures and routines developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the scalable (parallel) solution of scientific applications modeled by partial differential equations.
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program.
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
In computer science, program optimization or software optimization is the process of modifying a software system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Ratfiv is an enhanced version of the Ratfor programming language, a preprocessor for Fortran designed to give it C-like capabilities.
Ratfor (short for Rational Fortran) is a programming language implemented as a preprocessor for Fortran 66.
Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).
In computer programming languages, a recursive data type (also known as a recursively-defined, inductively-defined or inductive data type) is a data type for values that may contain other values of the same type.
In computing, row-major order and column-major order are methods for storing multidimensional arrays in linear storage such as random access memory.
Roy Nutt (October 20, 1930 – June 14, 1990) was an American businessman and computer pioneer.
Software is said to exhibit scalable parallelism if it can make use of additional processors to solve larger problems, i.e. this term refers to software for which Gustafson's law holds.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
SIGPLAN is the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on programming languages.
Silverfrost FTN95: Fortran for Windows is a Fortran compiler for Microsoft Windows.
SIMSCRIPT is a free-form, English-like general-purpose simulation language conceived by Harry Markowitz and Bernard Hausner at the RAND Corporation in 1963.
Speedcoding or Speedcode was the first high-level programming language created for an IBM computer.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) is an American non-profit organization that aims to "produce, establish, maintain and endorse a standardized set" of performance benchmarks for computers.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed).
Structural engineering is that part of civil engineering in which structural engineers are educated to create the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
PGI (formerly The Portland Group, Inc.), was a company that produced a set of commercially available Fortran, C and C++ compilers for high-performance computing systems.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
Trilinos is a collection of open-source software libraries, called packages, intended to be used as building blocks for the development of scientific applications.
In computer science, a type signature or type annotation defines the inputs and outputs for a function, subroutine or method.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
UCSD Pascal was a Pascal programming language system that ran on the UCSD p-System, a portable, highly machine-independent operating system.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation.
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
The University of Waterloo (commonly referred to as Waterloo, UW, or UWaterloo) is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Ontario.
In computer programming, particularly in the C, C++, C#, and Java programming languages, the volatile keyword indicates that a value may change between different accesses, even if it does not appear to be modified.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
Watcom C/C++ (currently Open Watcom C/C++) is an integrated development environment (IDE) product from Watcom International Corporation for the C, C++, and Fortran programming languages.
WATFIV, or WATerloo FORTRAN IV, developed at the University of Waterloo, Canada is an implementation of the Fortran computer programming language.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
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