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Forty-Eighters

Index Forty-Eighters

The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. [1]

178 relations: Abraham Jacobi, Abraham Kuhn (banker), Adelaide, Adolf Cluss, Adolf Strodtmann, Adolph Douai, Adolph von Steinwehr, Al Sieber, Albert Bernhardt Faust, Albin Francisco Schoepf, Alexander Asboth, Alexander Herzen, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, American Civil War, Anton Heinrich Springer, Arnold Ruge, August Willich, Austin County, Texas, Australia, Austrian Empire, Battle of Antietam, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Fredericksburg, Battle of Gettysburg, Bavaria, Bellville, Texas, Bernhard Eunom Philippi, Camp Jackson affair, Carl Bergmann (musician), Carl Daenzer, Carl Heinrich Schnauffer, Carl Linger, Carl Schurz, Carl Zerrahn, Carlos Anwandter, Caroline Carleton, Charles Ansorge, Charles Zagonyi, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cincinnati riot of 1853, Czechs, Deutschtum, Edward Morwitz, Edward R. Straznicky, Edward Salomon, Emil Preetorius, England, Ethnic groups in Europe, ..., Ferdinand Freiligrath, Ferdinand Ludwig Herff, Ferenc Pulszky, Franz Sigel, Franz Umbscheiden, Frederick C. Salomon, Fredericksburg, Texas, Friedrich Beust, Friedrich Hassaurek, Friedrich Hecker, Friedrich Krichauff, Gaetano Bedini, Galveston, Texas, George Schneider (banker), German Americans, German Australians, German Canadians, German Question, Germans, Giuseppe Mazzini, Gottfried Kinkel, Grovedale, Victoria, Gustav Struve, Gustav Zerffi, Hans Balatka, Hans Kudlich, Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim, Heligoland, Henry Boernstein, Henry Flad, Henry Ulke, Henry Wirz, Herman Kiefer, Hermann Köchly, Hermann Raster, Hungarians, Johanna Kinkel, Johannes Ronge, Johannes Scherr, John Michael Maisch, John O'Mahony, John Philip Sousa, Joseph Spiegel, Joseph Weydemeyer, Julius Fröbel, Julius Stahel, Karl Blind, Karl Heinzen, Karl Hermann Berendt, Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer, Kilgen, Kindergarten, Koszta Affair, Kuhn, Loeb & Co., Lajos Kossuth, Lázár Mészáros, Lola Montez, London, Lorenzo Brentano, Lothar Bucher, Louis Blanc, Louis Blenker, Louis F. Schade, Louis Prang, Louis-Nicolas Ménard, Ludwig Bamberger, Malwida von Meysenbug, Margarethe Schurz, Marie Bloede, Mathilde Franziska Anneke, Max Weber (general), May Uprising in Dresden, Méry von Bruiningk, Mesoamerica, Miami and Erie Canal, Michael Heilprin, Milwaukee, Moritz Richard Schomburgk, Niclas Müller, Nueces massacre, Ohio, Oswald Ottendorfer, Otto Dresel, Over-the-Rhine, Papal States, Paris, Phineas Mendel Heilprin, Pierre Leroux, Reinhold Solger, Revolutions of 1848, Richard Wagner, Rudolf Doehn, Rudolf Dulon, Rudolph Lexow, Salon (gathering), Sewer Socialism, Solomon Loeb, Sonoma County, California, Spiegel (catalog), St John's Wood, St. Louis, Switzerland, Texas, Texas Hill Country, The German Element in the United States, The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America, The Song of Australia, Theodor Olshausen, Theodore Kaufmann, Thomas Francis Meagher, Turners, Union Army, United States, United States Congress, United States Secretary of the Interior, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Valdivia, Victor Prosper Considerant, Victoria (Australia), Vojtěch Náprstek, Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski, Wilhelm Heine, Wilhelm Loewe, Wilhelm Rapp, Wilhelm Weitling, Winemaker, Wisconsin, Zürich. Expand index (128 more) »

Abraham Jacobi

Abraham Jacobi (6 May 1830 – 10 July 1919) was a German physician and pioneer of pediatrics, opening the first children's clinic in the United States.

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Abraham Kuhn (banker)

Abraham Kuhn (June 20, 1819 – May 30, 1892) was an American merchant and banker of German-Jewish origins, a founding partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. of New York City, one of the great US investment banking firms of the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Adelaide

Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia.

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Adolf Cluss

Adolf Ludwig Cluss (July 14, 1825 – July 24, 1905) also known as Adolph Cluss was a German-born American immigrant who became one of the most important, influential and prolific architects in Washington, D.C., in the late 19th century, responsible for the design of numerous schools and other notable public buildings in the capital.

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Adolf Strodtmann

Adolf Heinrich Strodtmann (24 March 1829, in Flensburg – 17 March 1879, in Steglitz) was a German poet, journalist, translator and literary historian.

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Adolph Douai

Karl Daniel Adolph Douai (1819 – 1888), known to his peers as "Adolph", was a German Texan teacher as well as a socialist and abolitionist newspaper editor.

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Adolph von Steinwehr

Baron Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich von Steinwehr (September 25, 1822 – February 25, 1877) was a German-Brunswick army officer who emigrated to the United States, became a geographer, cartographer, and author, and served as a Union general in the American Civil War.

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Al Sieber

Al Sieber (February 27, 1843 1844 was a leap year, leading to some confusion about Sieber's birth date. His tombstone in Globe gives his birth date as 1844, as does the book Chief of Scouts. Both are incorrect. – February 19, 1907) was a German-American who fought in the U.S Civil War and in the American Old West against Indians.

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Albert Bernhardt Faust

Albert Bernhardt Faust (April 20, 1870 in BaltimoreFebruary 8, 1951) was a United States German and German-American studies scholar.

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Albin Francisco Schoepf

Albin Francisco Schoepf (Albin Franciszek Schoepf; March 1, 1822 – May 10, 1886) was a European-born military officer who became a Union brigadier general during the American Civil War, best known as the commanding officer of Fort Delaware, a wartime camp for Confederate prisoners of war.

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Alexander Asboth

Alexander (Sandor) Asboth (Hungarian: Asbóth Sándor, December 18, 1811 – January 21, 1868) was a Hungarian military leader best known for his victories as a Union general during the American Civil War.

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Alexander Herzen

Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (also Aleksandr Ivanovič Gercen, Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).

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Alexander Schimmelfennig

Alexander Schimmelfennig (July 20, 1824 – September 5, 1865) was a German soldier and political revolutionary; then he became a Union Army general in the American Civil War.

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Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin

Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin (2 February 1807 in Paris – 31 December 1874) was a French politician, a champion of the working classes who was forced into exile after the failure of the French Revolution of 1848.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Anton Heinrich Springer

Anton Heinrich Springer (13 July 182531 May 1891) was a German art historian and writer.

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Arnold Ruge

Arnold Ruge (13 September 1802 – 31 December 1880) was a German philosopher and political writer.

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August Willich

August Willich (November 19, 1810 – January 22, 1878), born Johann August Ernst von Willich, was a military officer in the Prussian Army and a leading early proponent of communism in Germany.

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Austin County, Texas

Austin County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.

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Battle of Antietam

The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.

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Battle of Chancellorsville

The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War (1861–1865), and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign.

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Battle of Fredericksburg

The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Ambrose Burnside, as part of the American Civil War.

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Battle of Gettysburg

The Battle of Gettysburg (with an sound) was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bellville, Texas

Bellville is a city in the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Austin County.

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Bernhard Eunom Philippi

Berhard Eunom Philippi (19 September 1811 in Charlottenburg – 6 September 1852) was a German naturalist, explorer and colonization agent for Chile.

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Camp Jackson affair

The Camp Jackson affair, also known as the Camp Jackson massacre, was an incident during the American Civil War that occurred on May 10, 1861, when a volunteer Union Army regiment captured a unit of secessionists at Camp Jackson, outside the city of St. Louis, in the divided slave state of Missouri.

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Carl Bergmann (musician)

Carl Bergmann (born Ebersbach, Saxony, April 12, 1821, died New York, August 10, 1876) was a German-American cellist and conductor.

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Carl Daenzer

Carl Daenzer (July 17, 1820 in Odenheim - September 23, 1906 in Neckarsulm) founded the and was a long-time editor of the, two noted German-language newspapers in St. Louis, Missouri.

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Carl Heinrich Schnauffer

Carl Heinrich Schnauffer (4 July 1823 Heimsheim - 4 September 1854 Baltimore, Maryland) was a poet, soldier and editor.

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Carl Linger

Carl Linger (15 March 1810 – 16 February 1862) was a German Australian composer in South Australia who in 1859 wrote the melody for the patriotic "Song of Australia".

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Carl Schurz

Carl Christian Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer.

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Carl Zerrahn

Carl Zerrahn (28 July 1826 Malchow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 29 December 1909 Milton, Massachusetts) was a German-born American flautist and conductor.

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Carlos Anwandter

Carlos Anwandter (1 April 1801, Luckenwalde, Prussia – 10 July 1889 Valdivia, Chile) was a German political exile who emigrated to Valdivia, Chile in 1850 after participating in the Revolutions of 1848.

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Caroline Carleton

Caroline Carleton (6 October 1811 – 10 July 1874) was a South Australian poet, born in England, who is best known for her prize-winning poem Song of Australia, which, put to a tune by Carl Linger was used as a patriotic song in South Australian schools and elsewhere, and one of four in a national plebiscite to select a National Song in 1977.

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Charles Ansorge

Charles Ansorge (born in Spiller, Silesia, Germany, in 1817; died in Chicago, 28 October 1866) was a German-born musician and composer who, as a Forty-Eighter, emigrated to the United States and worked for a time there also.

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Charles Zagonyi

Károly Zágonyi, (Szatmar, Hungary, 1826 – ?) known in the U.S as Charles Zagonyi, was a former Hungarian military officer who served in the American Civil War as an aide to John C. Frémont and commander of his bodyguard at the rank of major, effective September 19, 1861.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Cincinnati

No description.

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Cincinnati riot of 1853

The Cincinnati riot of 1853 was triggered by the visit of then-Archbishop (later, Cardinal) Gaetano Bedini, the emissary of Pope Pius IX, to Cincinnati, Ohio, on 21 December 1853.

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Czechs

The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.

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Deutschtum

Deutschtum is a German term equating to "Germanness".

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Edward Morwitz

Edward Morwitz (12 June 1815 Danzig, Prussia – 13 December 1893 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a physician and inventor in Germany and a newspaper publisher and physician in the United States.

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Edward R. Straznicky

Edward R. Straznicky (Moravia, Austria 1820New York City, 9 February 1876) was superintendent of the Astor Library 1872-1876.

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Edward Salomon

Edward Salomon (August 11, 1828April 21, 1909) was an American politician and the Lieutenant Governor and eighth Governor of Wisconsin during the American Civil War after the accidental drowning of his predecessor, Louis P. Harvey.

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Emil Preetorius

Emil Preetorius (15 March 1827 - 19 November 1905) was a 19th-century St. Louis journalist.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Ferdinand Freiligrath

Ferdinand Freiligrath (17 June 1810 – 18 March 1876) was a German poet, translator and liberal agitator, who is considered part of the Young Germany movement.

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Ferdinand Ludwig Herff

Ferdinand Ludwig Herff (1820–1912) was a 19th-century German-born physician who emigrated to Texas and became a medical pioneer in San Antonio.

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Ferenc Pulszky

Ferenc Aurél Pulszky de Cselfalva et Lubócz (17 September 1814 – 9 September 1897) was a Hungarian politician and writer.

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Franz Sigel

Franz Sigel (November 18, 1824 – August 21, 1902) was a German American military officer, revolutionist and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union major general in the American Civil War.

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Franz Umbscheiden

Franz Umbscheiden (1821 Grünstadt, Rhine Province - December 13, 1874 Newark, New Jersey) was a revolutionary during the revolutions of 1848 who emigrated to the United States (one of the Forty-Eighters) and became a journalist.

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Frederick C. Salomon

Frederick (Friedrich) C. Salomon (April 7, 1826 – March 8, 1897) was a German immigrant to the United States who served as a Union brigadier general in the American Civil War.

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Fredericksburg, Texas

Fredericksburg (Friedrichsburg) is the seat of Gillespie County, in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Friedrich Beust

Friedrich (von) Beust (August 9, 1817 – December 6, 1899), German soldier, revolutionary and political activist and Swiss reform pedagogue, was the son of Prussian Major Karl Alexander von Beust.

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Friedrich Hassaurek

Friedrich Hassaurek (8 October 1831 Vienna, Austria - 3 October 1885 Paris) was a United States journalist and ambassador.

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Friedrich Hecker

Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker (September 28, 1811 – March 24, 1881) was a German lawyer, politician and revolutionary.

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Friedrich Krichauff

Friedrich Edouard Heinrich Wulf Krichauff (15 December 1824 – 29 September 1904) was a politician in colonial South Australia.

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Gaetano Bedini

Gaetano Bedini (15 May 1806 – 6 September 1864) was an Italian ecclesiastic, Cardinal and diplomat of the Catholic Church.

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Galveston, Texas

Galveston is a coastal resort city on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the U.S. state of Texas.

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George Schneider (banker)

George Schneider (1823-1905) was an Illinois journalist and banker.

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German Americans

German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.

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German Australians

German Australians (Deutsch-Australier) are Australian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.

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German Canadians

German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.

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German Question

The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the unification of Germany.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Giuseppe Mazzini

Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.

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Gottfried Kinkel

Johann Gottfried Kinkel (11 August 1815 – 13 November 1882) was a German poet also noted for his revolutionary activities and his escape from a Prussian prison in Spandau with the help of his friend Carl Schurz.

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Grovedale, Victoria

Grovedale is a mainly residential southern suburb of Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

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Gustav Struve

Dr.

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Gustav Zerffi

George Gustav (or Gustavus) Zerffi, born with the surname Cerf or perhaps Hirsch (21 May 1820 – January 28, 1892) was a Hungarian journalist, revolutionist and spy.

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Hans Balatka

Hans Balatka (March 5, 1827 – April 17, 1899) was a United States conductor and composer.

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Hans Kudlich

Hans Kudlich (October 23, 1823 – November 10, 1917) was an Austrian political activist, Austrian legislator, American immigrant, writer, and physician.

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Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim

Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim (July 20, 1819 in Frankfurt – March 29, 1880 in Berlin) was a German publicist and philosopher concerned with the ideas of liberalism, free trade and international law.

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Heligoland

Heligoland (Helgoland; Heligolandic Frisian: deät Lun, Mooring Frisian: Hålilönj) is a small German archipelago in the North Sea.

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Henry Boernstein

Henry Boernstein (November 4, 1805 - September 10, 1892) was the publisher of the Anzeiger des Westens in St. Louis, Missouri, the oldest German newspaper west of the Mississippi River.

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Henry Flad

Henry Flad (July 30, 1824 – July 20, 1898) was a German-born civil engineer who served as an engineering officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War, as a railroad engineer before and during the civil war, and later as a civil engineer after the war.

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Henry Ulke

Henry Ulke (January 29, 1821 – February 17, 1910) was an American photographer and portrait painter.

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Henry Wirz

Heinrich Hartmann Wirz, better known as Henry Wirz (November 25, 1823 – November 10, 1865), was a Swiss-born American officer of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.

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Herman Kiefer

Herman Kiefer (19 November 1825 Sulzburg, Grand Duchy of Baden - 11 October 1911) was a physician, politician and diplomat of the United States.

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Hermann Köchly

Hermann Köchly (born Leipzig, 5 August 1815; died Trieste, 3 December 1876) was a German philologist and educational reformer.

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Hermann Raster

Hermann Raster (May 6, 1827 – July 24, 1891) was a German American Forty-Eighter, editor, abolitionist, and politician best known for his career as chief editor for the Illinois Staats-Zeitung between 1867 and 1891 and his brief term as Collector of Internal Revenue for the 1st District of Illinois.

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Hungarians

Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Johanna Kinkel

Johanna Kinkel (8 July 1810 – 15 November 1858) was a German composer, writer, and revolutionary.

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Johannes Ronge

Johannes Ronge (16 October 1813 – 26 October 1887) was the principal founder of the New Catholics.

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Johannes Scherr

Johannes Scherr (3 October 1817 – 21 November 1886), was a German-born novelist and literary critic most of whose working life was spent in Switzerland.

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John Michael Maisch

John Michael Maisch (30 January 1831 Hanau, Germany – September 10, 1893) was a United States pharmacist, the "father of adequate pharmaceutical legislation.".

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John O'Mahony

John Francis O'Mahony (1816 – 7 February 1877) was a Gaelic scholar and the founding member of the Fenian Brotherhood in the United States, sister organisation to the Irish Republican Brotherhood.

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John Philip Sousa

John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known primarily for American military and patriotic marches.

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Joseph Spiegel

Joseph Spiegel (born 1840) retrieved December 3, 2015 is the founder of the Spiegel catalog, Civil War veteran, March 13, 2003 and the younger brother of Union Army Colonel Marcus M. Spiegel.

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Joseph Weydemeyer

Joseph Arnold Weydemeyer (February 2, 1818, Münster – August 26, 1866, St. Louis, Missouri) was a military officer in the Kingdom of Prussia and the United States as well as a journalist, politician and Marxist revolutionary.

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Julius Fröbel

Carl Ferdinand Julius Fröbel (16 July 1805 – 7 November 1893) was a German geologist and mineralogist, journalist, and democratic revolutionary already during the Vormärz era.

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Julius Stahel

Julius H. Stahel-Számwald (November 5, 1825 – December 4, 1912) was a Hungarian soldier who emigrated to the United States and became a Union general in the American Civil War.

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Karl Blind

Karl Blind (4 September 1826, Mannheim – 31 May 1907, London) was a German revolutionist and writer on politics, history, mythology and German literature.

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Karl Heinzen

Karl Peter Heinzen (22 February 1809 – 12 November 1880) was a revolutionary author who resided mainly in Germany and the United States.

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Karl Hermann Berendt

Karl Hermann Berendt (Danzig, November 12, 1817 – Guatemala City, May 12, 1878) was a German-American physician, collector, explorer and investigator of Mesoamerican linguistics.

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Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer

Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer (14 October 1812, in Marburg – 3 February 1888) was a German American philosopher and publicist.

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Kilgen

Kilgen was a prominent American builder of organs which was in business from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century.

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Kindergarten

Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.

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Koszta Affair

The Koszta Affair (1853) was the name applied to a diplomatic episode between the United States and the Austrian Empire involving the rights in foreign countries of new Americans who were not yet fully naturalized.

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Kuhn, Loeb & Co.

Kuhn, Loeb & Co. was a bulge bracket investment bank founded in 1867 by Abraham Kuhn(1819–1892) and his brother-in-law Solomon Loeb.

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Lajos Kossuth

Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (Slovak: Ľudovít Košút, archaically English: Louis Kossuth) 19 September 1802 – 20 March 1894) was a Hungarian nobleman, lawyer, journalist, politician, statesman and Governor-President of the Kingdom of Hungary during the revolution of 1848–49. With the help of his talent in oratory in political debates and public speeches, Kossuth emerged from a poor gentry family into regent-president of Kingdom of Hungary. As the most influential contemporary American journalist Horace Greeley said of Kossuth: "Among the orators, patriots, statesmen, exiles, he has, living or dead, no superior." Kossuth's powerful English and American speeches so impressed and touched the most famous contemporary American orator Daniel Webster, that he wrote a book about Kossuth's life. He was widely honored during his lifetime, including in Great Britain and the United States, as a freedom fighter and bellwether of democracy in Europe. Kossuth's bronze bust can be found in the United States Capitol with the inscription: Father of Hungarian Democracy, Hungarian Statesman, Freedom Fighter, 1848–1849.

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Lázár Mészáros

General Lázár Mészáros (English: Lazarus Mészáros) (20 February 1796 in Baja – 16 November 1858 in Eywood), was the Minister of War during the 1848 Hungarian Revolution.

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Lola Montez

Marie Dolores Eliza Rosanna Gilbert, Countess of Landsfeld (17 February 1821 – 17 January 1861), better known by the stage name Lola Montez, was an Irish dancer and actress who became famous as a "Spanish dancer", courtesan, and mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lorenzo Brentano

Lorenzo Brentano (November 4, 1813 – September 18, 1891) was a journalist and a U.S. Representative from Illinois.

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Lothar Bucher

Lothar Bucher (October 25, 1817 – October 12, 1892) was a German publicist and trusted aide of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck.

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Louis Blanc

Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (29 October 1811 – 6 December 1882) was a French politician and historian.

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Louis Blenker

Louis Blenker (July 31, 1812 – October 31, 1863) was a German revolutionary and American soldier.

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Louis F. Schade

Louis Frederick Schade (April 4, 1829 – February 25, 1903) was a German American lawyer and newspaper editor who was prominent in political and social circles of Washington, D.C., in the United States.

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Louis Prang

Louis Prang (March 12, 1824 – September 14, 1909) was an American printer, lithographer, publisher, and Georgist.

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Louis-Nicolas Ménard

Louis-Nicolas Ménard (19 October 1822 – 9 February 1901) was a French man of letters also known for his early discoveries on collodion.

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Ludwig Bamberger

Ludwig Bamberger (22 July 1823 – 14 March 1899) was a German economist, politician, revolutionary and writer.

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Malwida von Meysenbug

Malwida von Meysenbug (28 October 1816 — 23 April 1903) was a German writer, her work including Memories of an Idealist, the first volume of which she published anonymously in 1869.

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Margarethe Schurz

Molly Meyer-Schurz (born Margarethe Meyer; also called Margaretha Meyer-Schurz or just Margarethe Schurz; born 27 August 1833 in Hamburg; died 15 March 1876) opened the first German-language Kindergarten in Watertown, WI (in the United States.).

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Marie Bloede

Marie Bloede (29 September 1821 - 12 March 1870) was an American author of German descent, who also published under the pseudonym Marie Westland.

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Mathilde Franziska Anneke

Mathilde Franziska Anneke (April 3, 1817 – November 25, 1884) was a German-American feminist and revolutionary socialist who dedicated her life to the dissemination of knowledge through her writing, newspapers, and school.

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Max Weber (general)

Max Weber (August 27, 1824 – June 15, 1901) was a military officer in the armies of Germany and later the United States, most known for serving as a brigadier general in the Union army during the American Civil War.

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May Uprising in Dresden

The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony in 1849; it was one of the last of the series of events known as the Revolutions of 1848.

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Méry von Bruiningk

Baroness Marie "Méry" von Bruiningk (August 11, 1818 – 22 January, 1853) was an Estonian (Baltic German) democrat, known for her participation in the democratic intellectual debate in the Baltic during the revolution year of 1848.

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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Miami and Erie Canal

The Miami and Erie Canal was a canal that ran from Cincinnati to Toledo, Ohio, creating a water route between the Ohio River and Lake Erie.

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Michael Heilprin

Michael Heilprin (Heilprin Mihály, 1823 – 1888) was a Polish-American Jewish biblical scholar, critic, and writer, born at Piotrków, Russian Poland, to Jewish parents.

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Milwaukee

Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.

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Moritz Richard Schomburgk

Moritz Richard Schomburgk (5 October 1811 – 24 March 1891), generally known as Richard Schomburgk, was a German botanist and curator of the Adelaide Botanic Garden.

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Niclas Müller

Niclas Müller (born in Langenau, near Ulm, Germany, on 15 November 1809; died in New York City, 14 August 1875) was a German-American poet.

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Nueces massacre

The Nueces Massacre, also known as the Massacre on the Nueces, was a violent confrontation between Confederate soldiers and German Texans on August 10, 1862, in Kinney County, Texas.

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Ohio

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Oswald Ottendorfer

Valentin Oswald Ottendorfer (26 February 1826 in Zwittau, Moravia – 15 December 1900 in New York City) was a United States journalist associated with the development of the German-language New Yorker Staats-Zeitung into a major newspaper.

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Otto Dresel

Otto Dresel (December 20, 1826 – July 26, 1890) was an American pianist, music teacher and composer of German birth.

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Over-the-Rhine

Over-the-Rhine is a neighborhood in Cincinnati.

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Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Phineas Mendel Heilprin

Phineas Mendel Heilprin (November 1801 in Lublin, Poland – 30 January 1863 in Washington, D.C., United States) was a Jewish scholar.

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Pierre Leroux

Pierre Henri Leroux (7 April 1797 – 12 April 1871), French philosopher, and political economist, was born at Bercy, now a part of Paris, the son of an artisan.

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Reinhold Solger

Reinhold Ernst Friedrich Karl Solger (5 July 1817 in Stettin – 11 January 1866 in Washington, D. C.) was an American historian, novelist, poet, political activist and lecturer.

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Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.

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Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").

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Rudolf Doehn

Rudolf Doehn (2 February 1821, Hinrichshagen – 9 April 1895, Dresden) was a German writer and journalist.

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Rudolf Dulon

Christoph Joseph Rudolf Dulon (April 30, 1807 – April 13, 1870) was a pastor of the Reformed Church (Calvinist) and a socialist agitator in Bremen; later he was an educator in the United States.

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Rudolph Lexow

Rudolph Lexow (January 10, 1823 Tönning, Schleswig-Holstein – July 16, 1909 New York City) was a German-American writer and editor.

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Salon (gathering)

A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host.

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Sewer Socialism

Sewer Socialism was a term, originally pejorative, for the American socialist movement that centered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin from around 1892 to 1960.

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Solomon Loeb

Solomon Loeb (June 29, 1828 – December 12, 1903) was a German-born American banker and businessman.

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Sonoma County, California

Sonoma County is a county in the U.S. state of California.

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Spiegel (catalog)

Spiegel is an American direct marketing and catalog company.

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St John's Wood

St John's Wood is a district of northwest London, of which more than 98 percent lies in the City of Westminster and less than two percent in Camden.

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St. Louis

St.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Texas

Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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Texas Hill Country

The Texas Hill Country is a geographic region located in the Edwards Plateau at the crossroads of West Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas.

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The German Element in the United States

The German Element in the United States, With Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social and Educational Influence, by Albert Bernhardt Faust is a two-volume work published in 1909.

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The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America

The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America is one of the largest mutual life insurance companies in the United States.

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The Song of Australia

"The Song of Australia" was written by English-born poet Caroline Carleton in 1859 for a competition sponsored by the Gawler Institute.

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Theodor Olshausen

Theodor Olshausen (1802–1869) was a German author, journalist and politician, prominent in the Patriotic Party in Schleswig-Holstein.

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Theodore Kaufmann

Theodore Kaufmann (December 18, 1814 – 1896) was an artist who worked mostly in the United States.

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Thomas Francis Meagher

Thomas Francis Meagher (3 August 1823 1 July 1867) was an Irish nationalist and leader of the Young Irelanders in the Rebellion of 1848.

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Turners

Turners (Turner) are members of German-American gymnastic clubs that also served as nationalist political groups that were politically active and oftrn served in German military outfits as well as the Union Army in the United States during the American Civil War.

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Union Army

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Secretary of the Interior

The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Valdivia

Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.

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Victor Prosper Considerant

Victor Prosper Considerant (12 October 1808 – 27 December 1893) was a French utopian Socialist and disciple of Fourier.

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Victoria (Australia)

Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.

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Vojtěch Náprstek

Vojtěch Náprstek (often called Vojta) (17 April 1826, in Prague – 2 September 1894), was a Czech philanthropist, patriot and politician, as well as a pioneering Czech language journalist in the United States.

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Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski

Włodzimierz Bonawentura Krzyżanowski (8 July 1824 – 31 January 1887) was a Polish-born American engineer, politician, and military leader — during the American Civil War, a brigadier general in the Union Army.

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Wilhelm Heine

Peter Bernhard Wilhelm Heine, better known as Wilhelm (or William) Heine (January 30, 1827 in Dresden – October 5, 1885 in Lößnitz bei Dresden) was a German-American artist, world traveller and writer as well as an officer during the American Civil War.

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Wilhelm Loewe

Wilhelm Loewe (14 November 1814 in Olvenstedt – 2 November 1886 in Meran, County of Tyrol) was a German physician and Liberal politician, also called Wilhelm Loewe-Kalbe or Wilhelm Loewe von Kalbe.

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Wilhelm Rapp

Wilhelm Georg Rapp (1827-1907) was a German American journalist, abolitionist, and newspaper editor.

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Wilhelm Weitling

Wilhelm Christian Weitling (October 5, 1808 – January 25, 1871) was a German-born tailor, inventor, and radical political activist.

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Winemaker

A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking.

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Wisconsin

Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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Zürich

Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.

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'48ers, 48'ers, 48er, 48ers, Forty Eighter, Forty-Eighter, Forty-eighters.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forty-Eighters

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