276 relations: Absolute dating, Accretion (geology), Adaptation, Agate, Age (geology), Albert of Saxony (philosopher), Amber, Amino acid, Ammonoidea, Ancient Greece, Animal, Animal track, Aphrodisiac, Aragonite, Araucaria, Araucaria mirabilis, Araucarioxylon arizonicum, Archean, Arctic, Arecaceae, Argentina, Argon–argon dating, Aristotle, Arthropod, Asaphus kowalewskii, Associated Press, Astrobiology (journal), Atmosphere, Autotroph, Avicenna, Baltic Sea, Bezoar, Biochemistry, Bioerosion, Biofilm, Biomineralization, Biosignature, Biosphere, Biostratigraphy, Biotic material, Bivalvia, Bone, Botanical name, Brachiopod, Bryozoa, Burgess Shale, Calcareous, Calcite, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, ..., Cambrian substrate revolution, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbonaceous film (paleontology), Carboniferous, Carbonization, Carcharodontosaurus, Carl Linnaeus, Castanopsis, Catastrophism, Cell wall, Cenozoic, Chelation, Chemotroph, China, Chitin, Chlorophyta, Coccolithophore, Collagen, Collenia, Colony (biology), Compression fossil, Concretion, Continent, Coprolite, Coral, Cretaceous, Cryptospore, Curiosity (rover), Cyanobacteria, Cyprus, Dendrite (crystal), Devonian, Diagenesis, Dinosaur, DNA, DNA sequencing, Dragon, Earthworm, Echinoderm, Ediacaran biota, Embryo, Endocast, Ernest Ingersoll, Erosion, Eukaryote, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary radiation, Excite, Exhalation, Exoskeleton, Extraterrestrial life, Extremophile, Fault (geology), Feather, Feces, Florida, Fluid, Foraminifera, Fossil, Gammaproteobacteria, Gastropoda, Genus, Geologic time scale, Geology, Georges Cuvier, Germ layer, Goethite, Gotland, Green algae, Green River Formation, Groundwater, Hawthorn Group, Hemoglobin, Holocene, Homo erectus, Huang Tingjian, Hunsrück Slate, Hypoxia (environmental), Ichnology, Invertebrate, Isotope, Jurassic, K–Ar dating, Lacustrine plain, Lagerstätte, Lake, Latin, Law of superposition, Leonardo da Vinci, Limestone, List of index fossils, List of molluscan genera represented in the fossil record, Macrofossil, Maotianshan Shales, Markuelia, Mars, Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group, Mars rover, Mary Higby Schweitzer, Mazon Creek fossil beds, Megalodon, Micrograph, Micrographia, Micrometer, Microorganism, Micropaleontology, Mindspark Interactive Network, Mineralization (biology), Miocene, Molecular clock, Mollusca, Moss agate, Mucus, Mutation, Namibia, NASA, National Geographic Society, Natural history, Natural science, Nature Geoscience, Nematode, Niles Eldredge, Noah's Ark, Nucleotide, Oligocene, Olivia Judson, On the Origin of Species, Oncolite, Opportunity (rover), Ordovician, Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, Organic mineral, Orthoceras, Oxygen, Oyster, Paleobiology, Paleobotany, Paleoclimatology, Paleontology, Palmoxylon, Palynology, Patagonia, People's Daily, Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Permineralization, Persian people, Petrifaction, Petrified wood, Phacops, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Plain, Planetary habitability, Plant cell, Pliocene, Polymer, Prehistory, Priapulida, Prokaryote, Protein sequencing, Proterozoic, Protostome, Punctuated equilibrium, Radioactive decay, Radiocarbon dating, Radiometric dating, Relative dating, Renaissance, Richard Fortey, River, Robert Hooke, Sahara, Schultz's rule, Science (journal), Sclerobiont, Sediment, Sedimentary Geology (journal), Serpulidae, Sessility (motility), Shark tooth, Shrimp, Siberia, Silurian, Skin, Skull, Snail, Soft tissue, Soft-bodied organism, Solnhofen Limestone, Song dynasty, Species, Stephen Jay Gould, Stratigraphy, Stratum, Structure, Subfossil, Substrate (biology), Sunlight, Synchrotron, TalkOrigins Archive, Taphonomy, The Book of Healing, The New York Times, Thrombolite, Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Tomography, Total organic carbon, Trace fossil, Triassic, Trilobite, University of Chicago Press, Uranium–lead dating, Vapor, Vertebrate, Water, Weathering, William Buckland, William Smith (geologist), X-ray, Year, Zircon, 1,000,000,000. Expand index (226 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology.
Accretion, in geology, is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz.
A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts.
Albert of Saxony (Latin: Albertus de Saxonia; c. 1320 – 8 July 1390) was a German philosopher known for his contributions to logic and physics.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An animal track is an imprint left behind in soil, snow, or mud, or on some other ground surface, by an animal walking across it.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
Araucaria (original pronunciation) is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae.
Araucaria mirabilis is an extinct species of coniferous tree from Patagonia, Argentina.
Araucarioxylon arizonicum is an extinct species of conifer that is the state fossil of Arizona.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argon–argon (or 40Ar/39Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Asaphus kowalewskii is one of the 35 species of trilobites of the genus Asaphus (this particular species is sometimes placed in its own genus, Neoasaphus).
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Astrobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life across the universe.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system, though it can occur in other locations.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioerosion describes the breakdown of hard ocean substrates – and less often terrestrial substrates – by living organisms.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.
A biosignature (sometimes called chemical fossil or molecular fossil) is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
The Burgess Shale is a fossil-bearing deposit exposed in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.
Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
The "Cambrian substrate revolution" or "Agronomic revolution",Seilacher and Pflüger, 1994 Seilacher, A., Pflüger, F., 1994.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbonaceous film or carbon film is an organism outline of a fossil.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
Carcharodontosaurus is a genus of carnivorous carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs that existed between 112 and 93.5 million years ago,Holtz, Thomas R. Jr.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Castanopsis, commonly called chinquapin or chinkapin, is a genus of evergreen trees belonging to the beech family, Fagaceae.
Catastrophism was the theory that the Earth had largely been shaped by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Collenia is genus of fossil cyanobacteria that form a particular type of stromatolites.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
A compression fossil is a fossil preserved in sedimentary rock that has undergone physical compression.
A concretion is a hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
A coprolite is fossilized feces.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Cryptospores are fossilised primitive plant spores that first appear in the fossil record during the middle of the Ordovician period.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
A crystal dendrite is a crystal that develops with a typical multi-branching tree-like form.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Diagenesis is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (lithification), at temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation of metamorphic rocks.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Mya).
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
An endocast is the internal cast of a hollow object, often referring to the cranial vault in the study of brain development in humans and other organisms.
Ernest Ingersoll (March 13, 1852 – November 13, 1946) was an American naturalist, writer and explorer.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace.
Excite (stylized as excite) is an internet portal launched in December 1995 that provides a variety of content including news and weather, a metasearch engine, a web-based email, instant messaging, stock quotes, and a customizable user homepage.
Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an organism.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The Hawthorn Group is a stratigraphic unit that includes several several geologic formations of Late Oligocene to Pliocene age in North Florida, United States.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Huang Tingjian (1045–1105) was a Chinese artist, scholar, government official, and poet of the Song dynasty.
The Hunsrück Slate (Hunsrück-Schiefer) is a Lower Devonian lithostratigraphic unit, a type of rock strata, in the German regions of the Hunsrück and Taunus.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Ichnology is the branch of geology and biology that deals with traces of organismal behavior, such as footprints and burrows.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
Lacustrine Plains (or lake plains) are lakes that get filled by incoming sediment.
A Lagerstätte (from Lager 'storage, lair' Stätte 'place'; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The law of superposition is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Index fossils (also known as guide fossils or indicator fossils) are fossils used to define and identify geologic periods (or faunal stages).
This list of molluscan genera represented in the fossil record is a list which is composed primarily of many mollusk genera which occur as fossils.
Macrofossils, also known as megafossils, are preserved organic remains large enough to be visible without a microscope.
The Maotianshan Shales are a series of Early Cambrian deposits in the Chiungchussu Formation, famous for their Konservat Lagerstätten, deposits known for the exceptional preservation of fossilized organisms or traces.
Markuelia is a genus of fossil worm-like bilaterian animals allied to Ecdysozoa and known from strata of Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician age containing five species.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) is a forum created by NASA to enable the scientific community to provide input for the planning and prioritizing of the exploration of Mars over the next several decades.
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.
Mary Higby Schweitzer is a paleontologist at North Carolina State University, who lead the groups that discovered the remains of blood cells in dinosaur fossils and later discovered soft tissue remains in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen MOR 1125, as well as evidence that the specimen was a gravid female when she died.
The Mazon Creek fossil beds are a conservation lagerstätte found near Morris, in Grundy County, Illinois.
Megalodon (Carcharocles megalodon), meaning "big tooth", is an extinct species of shark that lived approximately 23 to 2.6 million years ago (mya), during the Early Miocene to the end of the Pliocene.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Micrographia: or Some Phyſiological Deſcriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses.
A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristic details.
Mindspark Interactive Network, Inc. was an operating business unit of IAC known for the development and marketing of entertainment and personal computing software, as well as mobile application development.
In biology, mineralization refers to a process where an inorganic substance precipitates in an organic matrix.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Moss agate pebble, 1 inch (25 mm) long. Moss agate is a semi-precious gemstone formed from silicon dioxide.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is a U.S. biologist and paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972.
Noah's Ark (תיבת נח; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) by which God spares Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Olivia P. Judson (born 1970) is an evolutionary biologist and science writer.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
Oncolites are sedimentary structures composed of oncoids, which are layered structures formed by cyanobacterial growth.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
The Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, when combined, are the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct.
In chemistry and mineralogy, an organic mineral is a mineral that contains carbon.
Orthoceras ("straight horn") is a genus of extinct nautiloid cephalopod endemic to Middle Ordovician-aged marine limestones of the Baltic States and Sweden.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Paleobiology (UK & Canadian English: palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Palmoxylon (Petrified palmwood) is an extinct genus of palm named from petrified wood found around the world.
Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Permineralization is a process of fossilization in which mineral deposits form internal casts of organisms.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.
Petrified wood (from the Greek root petro meaning "rock" or "stone"; literally "wood turned into stone") is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation.
Phacops is a genus of trilobites in the order Phacopida, family Phacopidae, that lived in Europe, northwestern Africa, North and South America and China from the Early until the very end of the Devonian, with a broader time range described from the Late Ordovician.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Priapulida (priapulid worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive), sometimes referred to as penis worms, is a phylum of unsegmented marine worms.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.
Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record the population will become stable, showing little evolutionary change for most of its geological history.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age, (i.e. estimated age).
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Richard Alan Fortey FRS FRSL (born 15 February 1946 in London) is a British palaeontologist, natural historian, writer and television presenter, who served as President of the Geological Society of London for its bicentennial year of 2007; he is married and has four children.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Schultz's rule is a rule by Adolph H. Schultz declaring a relationship between the first tooth eruption of the molar versus the permanent teeth and the progress or aging of its carrier.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sclerobionts are collectively known as organisms living in or on any kind of hard substrate (Taylor and Wilson, 2003).
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentary Geology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about sediments in a geological context published by Elsevier.
The Serpulidae are a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
A shark tooth is one of the numerous teeth of a shark.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.
Soft-bodied organisms are animals that lack skeletons, a group roughly corresponding to the group Vermes as proposed by Carl von Linné.
The Solnhofen Plattenkalk, or Solnhofen Limestone, is a Jurassic Konservat-Lagerstätte that preserves a rare assemblage of fossilized organisms, including highly detailed imprints of soft bodied organisms such as sea jellies.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
A subfossil (as opposed to a fossil) is a bone or other part of an organism that has not fully fossilized.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
The TalkOrigins Archive is a website that presents mainstream science perspectives on the antievolution claims of young-earth, old-earth, and "intelligent design" creationists.
Taphonomy is the study of how organisms decay and become fossilized.
The Book of Healing (Arabic: کتاب الشفاء Kitāb al-Šifāʾ, Latin: Sufficientia) is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from ancient Persia, near Bukhara in Greater Khorasan.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thrombolites are ancient forms of microbial communities that photosynthesize.
This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
Total organic carbon (TOC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality or cleanliness of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.
A trace fossil, also ichnofossil (ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), is a geological record of biological activity.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Uranium–lead dating, abbreviated U–Pb dating, is one of the oldestBoltwood, B.B., 1907, On the ultimate disintegration products of the radio-active elements.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
William Buckland DD, FRS (12 March 1784 – 14 August 1856) was an English theologian who became Dean of Westminster.
William 'Strata' Smith (23 March 1769 – 28 August 1839) was an English geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide geological map.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
Body fossil, Body fossils, Cast (geology), Cast fossil, Casting (geology), Derived fossil, Dinosaur bone, Dinosaur bones, Fossil formation, Fossil preservation, Fossil record, Fossil types, Fossile, Fossiliferous, Fossilification, Fossilisation, Fossilise, Fossilised, Fossilising, Fossilization, Fossilize, Fossilized, Fossils, List of fossils, List of notable fossils, Nanofossil, Natural mold, Oldest fossil, Oldest fossils, Preservational processes, Preserved fossil, Remanie, Reworked fossil, Types of fossils, Typolite, Zoolite.