84 relations: Allele, Amish, Andaman Islands, Arabic, Ashkenazi Jews, Biodiversity, Cândido Godói, Chromosome, Corsica, Corsican red deer, Cousin marriage, Creolization, Diaspora, DNA, Dominance (genetics), Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, Endangered species, Endogamy, Ernst Mayr, Evolution, First language, Fixation (population genetics), French Canadians, Fumarase deficiency, Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Genetic distance, Genetic divergence, Genetic drift, Genetic recombination, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Genetic variation, Genetics, Genotype, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Haplotype, Hybridity, Iceland, Inbreeding, Inbreeding depression, Insular biogeography, Island ecology, Jews, John Y. Barlow, Joseph Smith Jessop, Krakatoa, Land of Israel, Language revitalization, Lizard, Maple syrup urine disease, Mennonites, ..., Mindset, Mitochondrial Eve, Modern Hebrew, Morocco, Morphological typology, Mutation, National Institutes of Health, Nature Reviews Microbiology, Neolithic founder crops, Nicobar Islands, Peripatric speciation, Phenotype, PLOS One, Polydactyly, Polygyny, Popular sire effect, Population bottleneck, Population genetics, Quebec, Recent African origin of modern humans, Retinitis pigmentosa, Sardinia, Semitic languages, Sewall Wright, Shifting balance theory, Small population size, Speciation, Surtsey, Toba catastrophe theory, Tristan da Cunha, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States National Library of Medicine, Yiddish, Zygosity. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Cândido Godói is a municipality of 6,641 inhabitants in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil near the Argentine border, famous for the high number of twins born there.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Corsican red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus or Cervus corsicanus), also known simply as Corsican or Sardinian deer, is a subspecies of the red deer (Cervus elaphus), endemic to the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France).
Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors).
Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Ellis–van Creveld syndrome (also called chondroectodermal dysplasia or mesoectodermal dysplasia but see 'Nomenclature' section below) is a rare genetic disorder of the skeletal dysplasia type.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) in a given population to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
Fumarase deficiency (or fumaric aciduria) is an exceedingly rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder in Krebs cycle characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarate hydratase, which causes a buildup of fumaric acid in the urine, and a deficiency of malate.
The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS Church) is one of the largest Mormon fundamentalist denominations and one of the largest organizations in the United States whose members practice polygamy.
Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species, whether the distance measures time from common ancestor or degree of differentiation.
Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.
Hybridity, in its most basic sense, refers to mixture.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
Insular biogeography or island biogeography is a field within biogeography that examines the factors that affect the species richness of isolated natural communities.
Island ecology is the study of island organisms and their interactions with each other and the environment.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Yeates Barlow (also known as John Yates Barlow) (March 4, 1874 – December 29, 1949) was a Mormon fundamentalist leader in Short Creek, Arizona.
Joseph Smith Jessop (January 25, 1869 – September 1, 1953) was an early patriarch in the Mormon fundamentalist movement and, with John Y. Barlow, co-founder of Short Creek, Arizona (later Colorado City, Arizona, and Hildale, Utah), home to the polygynous Short Creek Community.
Krakatoa, or Krakatau (Krakatau), is a volcanic island situated in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in the Indonesian province of Lampung.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), also called branched-chain ketoaciduria, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
In decision theory and general systems theory, a mindset is a set of assumptions, methods, or notations held by one or more people or groups of people.
In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Nature Reviews Microbiology is a peer-reviewed review journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and Europe.
The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean.
Peripatric speciation is a mode of speciation in which a new species is formed from an isolated peripheral population.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
The popular sire effect (or popular stud/sire syndrome) occurs when an animal with desirable attributes is bred repeatedly.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
The shifting balance theory is a theory of evolution proposed in 1932 by Sewall Wright, suggesting that adaptive evolution may proceed most quickly when a population divides into subpopulations with restricted gene flow.
Small populations can behave differently from larger populations.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Surtsey ("Surtr's island" in Icelandic) is a volcanic island located in the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago off the southern coast of Iceland.
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
Effective founder population, Founder Effect, Founder effects, Founder event, Founder mutation, Founder population, Founder principle, Founder's effect, Founders effect, Founding population, Serial founder effect, Serial founder effects, The Founder Effect, The founder effect.