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Four-dimensional printing

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4-dimensional printing (4D printing; also known as 4D bioprinting, active origami, or shape-morphing systems) uses the same techniques of 3D printing through computer-programmed deposition of material in successive layers to create a three-dimensional object. [1]

36 relations: Acrylamide, Actin, Angiogenesis, Anisotropy, Aqueous solution, Bimetal, Bimetallic strip, Biocompatibility, Carbon nanotube, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Gel, Hydrophile, Hydrophobic effect, Hygroscopy, Inflammation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mesenchymal stem cell, Metastasis, Myofibril, Nastic movements, PH, Photoinitiator, Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), Polyaniline, Polymerization, Polypyrrole, Programmable matter, Resin, Rheology, Shape-memory polymer, Skylar Tibbits, Stereolithography, Stress relaxation, Tetrafluoroborate, Turgor pressure, 3D printing.


Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO.

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Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.

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Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Bimetal refers to an object that is composed of two separate metals joined together.

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Bimetallic strip

A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement.

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Biocompatibility is related to the behavior of biomaterials in various contexts.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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Hydrophobic effect

The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.

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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Mesenchymal stem cell

Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).

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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.

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Nastic movements

Nastic movements are non-directional responses to stimuli (e.g. temperature, humidity, light irradiance), and are usually associated with plants.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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A photoinitiator is a molecule that creates reactive species (free radicals, cations or anions) when exposed to radiation (UV or visible).

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Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (variously abbreviated PNIPA, PNIPAAm, NIPA, PNIPAA or PNIPAm) is a temperature-responsive polymer that was first synthesized in the 1950s.

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Polyaniline (PANI) is a conducting polymer of the semi-flexible rod polymer family.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polypyrrole (PPy) is a type of organic polymer formed by the polymerization of pyrrole.

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Programmable matter

Programmable matter is matter which has the ability to change its physical properties (shape, density, moduli, conductivity, optical properties, etc.) in a programmable fashion, based upon user input or autonomous sensing.

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In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.

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Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.

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Shape-memory polymer

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are polymeric smart materials that have the ability to return from a deformed state (temporary shape) to their original (permanent) shape induced by an external stimulus (trigger), such as temperature change.

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Skylar Tibbits

Skylar Tibbits is an American designer and computer scientist.

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Stereolithography (SLA or SL; also known as stereolithography apparatus, optical fabrication, photo-solidification, or resin printing) is a form of 3D printing technology used for creating models, prototypes, patterns, and production of parts in a layer by layer fashion using photopolymerization, a process by which light causes chains of molecules to link, forming polymers.

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Stress relaxation

In materials science, stress relaxation is the observed decrease in stress in response to the same amount of strain generated in the structure.

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Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF4−.

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Turgor pressure

Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.

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3D printing

3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).

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4-Dimensional Printing, 4D printing, 4d printing.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-dimensional_printing

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