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Four-stroke engine

Index Four-stroke engine

A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. [1]

77 relations: Adiabatic process, Air flow bench, Atkinson cycle, Étienne Lenoir, Cam, Camshaft, Catalytic converter, Coal gas, Compression ratio, Connecting rod, Corporate average fuel economy, Crankcase, Crankshaft, Cylinder head, Cylinder head porting, Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, Daimler Reitwagen, Daimler-Benz, Dead centre (engineering), Desmodromic valve, Deutz AG, Deutz, Cologne, Diesel engine, Engine control unit, Eugen Langen, Exhaust gas recirculation, Expansion ratio, Flathead engine, Fuel economy in automobiles, Fuel efficiency, Glowplug, Gottlieb Daimler, History of the internal combustion engine, Hydraulic tappet, Internal combustion engine, Isobaric process, Isochoric process, James Atkinson (inventor), Karl Benz, Lean-burn, Lubrication, Miller cycle, Napier Deltic, Nikolaus Otto, Numerical control, Overhead camshaft, Overhead valve engine, Philippe LeBon, Piston, Piston ring, ..., Pistonless rotary engine, Poppet valve, Power density, Radial engine, Revolutions per minute, Rocker arm, Rudolf Diesel, Six-stroke engine, Smog, Spark plug, Stirling engine, Stroke (engine), Stroke ratio, Supercharger, Tappet, Thermal efficiency, Thermodynamics, Turbine, Turbocharger, Turbosteamer, Two-stroke engine, Valve float, Valve seat, Vehicle emissions control, Volumetric efficiency, Waste heat recovery unit, Wilhelm Maybach. Expand index (27 more) »

Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

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Air flow bench

An air flow bench is a device used for testing the internal aerodynamic qualities of an engine component and is related to the more familiar wind tunnel.

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Atkinson cycle

The Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882.

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Étienne Lenoir

Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir also known as Jean J. Lenoir (12 January 1822 – 4 August 1900) was a Belgian engineer who developed the internal combustion engine in 1858.

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A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion.

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A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part.

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Catalytic converter

A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).

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Coal gas

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.

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Compression ratio

The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity.

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Connecting rod

A connecting rod is a shaft which connects a piston to a crank or crankshaft in a reciprocating engine.

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Corporate average fuel economy

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are regulations in the United States, first enacted by the United States Congress in 1975, after the 1973–74 Arab Oil Embargo, to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) produced for sale in the United States.

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A crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft in a reciprocating internal combustion engine.

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A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.

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Cylinder head

In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block.

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Cylinder head porting

Cylinder head porting refers to the process of modifying the intake and exhaust ports of an internal combustion engine to improve the quality and quantity of the air flow.

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Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft

Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) (Daimler Motors Corporation) was a German engineer and later automobile manufacturer, in operation from 1890 until 1926.

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Daimler Reitwagen

The Daimler Petroleum Reitwagen ("riding car") or Einspur ("single track") was a motor vehicle made by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in 1885.

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Daimler-Benz AG was a German manufacturer of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines, which was founded in 1926.

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Dead centre (engineering)

In a reciprocating engine, the dead centre is the position of a piston in which it is farthest from, or nearest to, the crankshaft.

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Desmodromic valve

A desmodromic valve is a reciprocating engine poppet valve that is positively closed by a cam and leverage system, rather than by a more conventional spring.

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Deutz AG

Deutz AG is an internal combustion engine manufacturer, based in Porz, Cologne, Germany.

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Deutz, Cologne

Cologne-Deutz, often just Deutz is an inner city part of Cologne, Germany and a formerly independent town.

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Diesel engine

The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).

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Engine control unit

An engine control unit (ECU), also commonly called an engine control module (ECM), is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance.

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Eugen Langen

Carl Eugen Langen (9 October 1833 – 2 October 1895) was a German entrepreneur, engineer and inventor, involved in the development of the petrol engine and the Wuppertal Suspension Railway.

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Exhaust gas recirculation

In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines.

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Expansion ratio

The expansion ratio of a liquefied and cryogenic substance is the volume of a given amount of that substance in liquid form compared to the volume of the same amount of substance in gaseous form, at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure.

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Flathead engine

A flathead engine, otherwise sidevalve engine,American Rodder, 6/94, pp.45 & 93.

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Fuel economy in automobiles

The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.

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Fuel efficiency

Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.

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A glowplug (alternatively spelled as glow plug or glow-plug) is a heating device used to aid starting diesel engines.

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Gottlieb Daimler

Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (17 March 1834 – 6 March 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg, a federal state of the German Confederation), in what is now Germany.

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History of the internal combustion engine

Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.

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Hydraulic tappet

A hydraulic valve lifter, also known as a hydraulic tappet or a hydraulic lash adjuster, is a device for maintaining zero valve clearance in an internal combustion engine.

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Internal combustion engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

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Isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP.

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Isochoric process

An isochoric process, also called a constant-volume process, an isovolumetric process, or an isometric process, is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant.

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James Atkinson (inventor)

James Atkinson (1846–1914) of Hampstead was a British engineer who invented several engines with greater efficiency than the Otto cycle.

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Karl Benz

Karl Friedrich Benz (25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer.

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Lean-burn refers to the burning of fuel with an excess of air in an internal combustion engine.

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Lubrication is the process or technique of using a lubricant to reduce friction and/or wear in a contact between two surfaces.

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Miller cycle

In engineering, the Miller cycle is a thermodynamic cycle used in a type of internal combustion engine.

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Napier Deltic

The Napier Deltic engine is a British opposed-piston valveless, supercharged uniflow scavenged, two-stroke Diesel engine used in marine and locomotive applications, designed and produced by D. Napier & Son.

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Nikolaus Otto

Nikolaus August Otto (14 June 1832, Holzhausen an der Haide, Nassau – 26 January 1891, Cologne) was a German engineer who successfully developed the compressed charge internal combustion engine which ran on petroleum gas and led to the modern internal combustion engine.

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Numerical control

Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.

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Overhead camshaft

Overhead camshaft, commonly abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads ("above" the pistons and combustion chambers) and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves (OHV) and pushrods.

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Overhead valve engine

An overhead valve engine (OHV engine), or "pushrod engine", is a reciprocating piston engine whose poppet valves are sited in the cylinder head.

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Philippe LeBon

Philippe le Bon (or Lebon) (D'Humbersin) (May 29, 1767 – December 1, 1804) was a French engineer, born in Brachay, France.

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A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.

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Piston ring

A piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a piston in a reciprocating engine such as an internal combustion engine or steam engine.

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Pistonless rotary engine

A pistonless rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons.

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Poppet valve

A poppet valve (also called mushroom valve) is a valve typically used to control the timing and quantity of gas or vapour flow into an engine.

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Power density

Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume.

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Radial engine

The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel.

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Revolutions per minute

Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.

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Rocker arm

A rocker arm (in the context of an internal combustion engine of automotive, marine, motorcycle and reciprocating aviation types) is an oscillating lever that conveys radial movement from the cam lobe into linear movement at the poppet valve to open it.

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Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (18 March 185829 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine, and for his mysterious death.

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Six-stroke engine

The term six-stroke engine has been applied to a number of alternative internal combustion engine designs that attempt to improve on traditional two-stroke and four-stroke engines.

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Smog is a type of air pollutant.

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Spark plug

A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.

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Stirling engine

A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.

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Stroke (engine)

In the context of an Internal combustion engine, the term stroke has the following related meanings.

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Stroke ratio

In a reciprocating piston engine, the stroke ratio, defined by either bore/stroke ratio or stroke/bore ratio, is a term to describe the ratio between cylinder bore diameter and piston stroke.

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A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine.

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A tappet is a projection that imparts a linear motion to some other component within a mechanism.

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Thermal efficiency

In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.

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A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.

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A turbosteamer is a term used by BMW to describe a combined cycle engine.

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Two-stroke engine

A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution.

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Valve float

Valve float is an adverse condition which can occur at high engine speeds when the poppet valves in an internal combustion engine valvetrain do not properly follow the closure phase of the cam lobe profile.

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Valve seat

The valve seat in an internal combustion gasoline or diesel engine is the surface against which an intake or an exhaust valve rests during the portion of the engine operating cycle when that valve is closed.

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Vehicle emissions control

Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.

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Volumetric efficiency

Volumetric efficiency (VE) in internal combustion engine engineering is defined as the ratio of the mass density of the air-fuel mixture drawn into the cylinder at atmospheric pressure (during the intake stroke) to the mass density of the same volume of air in the intake manifold.

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Waste heat recovery unit

A waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) is an energy recovery heat exchanger that transfers heat from process outputs at high temperature to another part of the process for some purpose, usually increased efficiency.

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Wilhelm Maybach

(9 February 1846 – 29 December 1929) was an early German engine designer and industrialist.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-stroke_engine

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