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Four-wheel drive

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Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. [1]

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Acura

Acura is the luxury vehicle marque of Japanese automaker Honda.

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Alfa Romeo

Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is a car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A.L.F.A. (" Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", "Lombard Automobile Factory Company") on 24 June 1910, in Milan.

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Alfa Romeo 155

The Alfa Romeo 155 (Type 167) is a compact executive car produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo between 1992 and 1997.

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Alfa Romeo 156

The Alfa Romeo 156 (Tipo 932) is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Alfa Romeo.

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Alfa Romeo 159

The Alfa Romeo 159 (Type 939) is a compact executive car produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo between 2004 and 2011.

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Alfa Romeo 164

The Alfa Romeo 164 (codenamed Type 164) is a four-door executive saloon that was manufactured by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo from 1987 to 1998 and designed by Pininfarina.

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Alfa Romeo 33

The Alfa Romeo 33 (Type 905 and 907) is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1983 and 1995.

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Alfa Romeo Brera and Spider

The Alfa Romeo Spider (Type 939) and the Alfa Romeo Brera are two sports cars manufactured by Alfa Romeo respectively between 2005-2010 and 2006-2010.

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Alfa Romeo Matta

The Alfa Romeo 1900 M (better known by its nickname Alfa Romeo Matta, meaning "mad") is a four-wheel drive utility vehicle produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1951 to 1954.

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All-terrain vehicle

An all-terrain vehicle (ATV), also known as a quad, quad bike, three-wheeler, four-wheeler or quadricycle as defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a vehicle that travels on low-pressure tires, with a seat that is straddled by the operator, along with handlebars for steering control.

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All-Trac

All-Trac was a proprietary full-time symmetric four wheel drive system used on a variety of Toyota badged models from 1988 to 2000.

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All-wheel drive

An all-wheel drive vehicle (AWD vehicle) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand.

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AMC Eagle

The AMC Eagle is a compact-sized four-wheel drive passenger vehicle that was produced by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1979 to 1987.

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AMC V8 engine

American Motors Corporation (AMC) designed and manufactured two distinct V8 engine designs.

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American Austin Car Company

The American Austin Car Company was an American automobile manufacturing corporation.

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American Motors Corporation

American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company.

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Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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ATTESA

ATTESA (acronym for Advanced Total Traction Engineering System for All-Terrain) is a four-wheel drive system used in some automobiles produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan, including some models under its luxury marque Infiniti.

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Audi

Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles.

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Audi 100

The Audi 100 and Audi 200 are four-door, front-engine, front- or all-wheel drive full-size/executive sedans manufactured and marketed by the Audi division of the Volkswagen Group for model years 1968 through 1994 — across four generations (C1-C4), with a two-door model available in the first and second generation (C1-2) and a five-door wagon available in the third (C3) generation.

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Audi 80

The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German manufacturer Audi (initially known as Auto Union and Audi NSU Auto Union) from 1966 to 1996.

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Audi A3

The Audi A3 is a small family/subcompact executive car produced since 1996.

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Audi A4

The Audi A4 is a line of compact executive cars produced since 1994 by the German car manufacturer Audi, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group.

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Audi A5

The Audi A5 is a series of executive coupe cars produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi since March 2007.

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Audi A6

The Audi A6 is an executive car made by the German automaker Audi, now in its fifth generation.

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Audi A8

The Audi A8 is a four-door, full-size, luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by the German automaker Audi since 1994.

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Audi Q7

The Audi Q7 is a mid-size crossover SUV made by the German manufacturer Audi, unveiled in September 2002 at the Frankfurt Motor Show.

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Audi Quattro

The Audi Quattro is a road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group.

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Audi R8

The Audi R8 is a mid-engine, 2-seater sports car, which uses Audi's trademark quattro permanent all-wheel drive system.

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Audi RS 4

The Audi RS4 quattro is the top tier and highest performing version of some specific generations of the Audi A4 range of automobiles.

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Audi RS 6

The Audi RS 6 quattro, commonly referred to as the RS6, is a sports-focused executive car, produced by the high-performance subsidiary company Audi Sport GmbH, for Audi AG, part of the Volkswagen Group.

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Audi S4

The Audi S4 is the high performance variant of Audi's compact executive car A4.

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Audi S6

The Audi S6 is the high performance variant of the Audi A6, an executive car produced by German automaker Audi.

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Audi S8

Audi S8 is a full-size, luxury sports car of the special Audi S models produced by the German concern Audi AG, Audi Sport GmbH in the city of Neckarsulm.

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Audi TT

The Audi TT is a 2-door compact sports car marketed by Volkswagen Group subsidiary Audi since 1998.

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Austin Champ

The Austin Champ is the civilian version of a British Army vehicle made by the Austin Motor Company.

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Austin Motor Company

The Austin Motor Company Limited was a British manufacturer of motor vehicles, founded in 1905 by Herbert Austin.

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Auto Union

Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, Saxony, during the Great Depression.

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Automatic transmission

An automatic transmission, also called auto, self-shifting transmission, n-speed automatic (where n is its number of forward gear ratios), or AT, is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually.

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Automobile Dacia

Automobile Dacia S.A. is a Romanian car manufacturer that takes its name from the historic region that constitutes the present-day Romania.

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Automobile handling

Automobile handling and vehicle handling are descriptions of the way a wheeled vehicle responds and reacts to the inputs of a driver, as well as how it moves along a track or road.

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Automobile layout

In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found.

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Backhoe loader

A backhoe loader, also called a loader backhoe, digger in layman's terms, or colloquially shortened to backhoe within the industry, is a heavy equipment vehicle that consists of a tractor like unit fitted with a loader-style shovel/bucket on the front and a backhoe on the back.

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Bentley Continental Flying Spur (2005)

The Bentley Continental Flying Spur is the four-door saloon variant of the Bentley Continental GT coupé.

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Bentley Continental GT

The Bentley Continental GT is a grand tourer manufactured and marketed by British automaker Bentley Motors since 2003.

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Big Three (automobile manufacturers)

In the automotive industry of the United States of America, the term Big Three refers to the country's three largest automobile manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Fiat Chrysler (FCA US).

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BMW

BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.

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BMW 3 Series (E30)

The BMW E30 is the second generation of BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 1982 to 1994.

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BMW 3 Series (E46)

The BMW E46 is the fourth generation of the BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 1997 to 2006.

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BMW 3 Series (E90)

The BMW 3 Series (E90/E91/E92/E93) is the fifth generation compact executive car of the BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 2004 to 2013.

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BMW 5 Series (E34)

The BMW E34 is the third generation of the BMW 5 Series, which was produced from the 2nd of November 1987 until June 1996.

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BMW 5 Series (E60)

The BMW E60/E61 series is the fifth generation of the BMW 5 Series, which was sold from 2003 to 2010.

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BMW X5 (E53)

The BMW E53 is the first-generation BMW X5 mid-sized luxury crossover SUV.

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BMW X5 (E70)

The BMW E70 is second-generation BMW X5 mid-size luxury crossover SUV.

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BMW xDrive

BMW xDrive is the marketing name for the all-wheel drive system found on the BMW X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and X7 crossover sport activity vehicles.

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BorgWarner

BorgWarner Inc. is an American worldwide automotive industry components and parts supplier.

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Bramah Joseph Diplock

Bramah Joseph Diplock (27 April 1857 – 9 August 1918) was an English inventor who invented the pedrail wheel in 1903 and the pedrail chaintrack, a type of caterpillar track, in 1910.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Leyland

British Leyland was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings.

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British Motor Corporation

The British Motor Corporation Limited (BMC) was a UK-based vehicle manufacturer, formed in early 1952 to give effect to an agreed merger of the Morris and Austin businesses.

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Brookville, Pennsylvania

* Brookville is a borough in Jefferson County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, 100 miles (161 km) northeast of Pittsburgh.

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Bugatti

Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti.

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Bugatti EB 110

The Bugatti EB 110 is a mid-engine sports car produced by Bugatti Automobili S.p.A. from 1991 to 1995, when the company was liquidated.

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Bugatti Type 53

The Bugatti Type 53 was a four-wheel drive racing car built by Bugatti in 1932.

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Buick

Buick, formally the Buick Motor Division, is an upscale automobile brand of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM).

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Car platform

A car platform is a shared set of common design, engineering, and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and even types of cars, often from different, but related marques.

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Case Construction Equipment

Case Construction Equipment (stylized as CASE Construction Equipment, commonly referred to as simply Case) is a brand of construction equipment from CNH Industrial.

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Chevrolet

Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM).

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Chevrolet Astro

The Chevrolet Astro was a rear-wheel drive van/minivan manufactured and marketed by the American automaker Chevrolet from 1985 to 2005 and over two build generations.

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Chevrolet Avalanche

The Chevrolet Avalanche is a four-door, five or six passenger pickup truck sharing GM's long-wheelbase chassis used on the Chevrolet Suburban and Cadillac Escalade ESV.

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Chevrolet Colorado

The Chevrolet Colorado and its counterpart, the GMC Canyon, are mid-size pickup trucks marketed by American automaker General Motors.

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Chevrolet Equinox

The Chevrolet Equinox is a series of compact crossover SUV from Chevrolet based on General Motors's Theta unibody platform, and introduced in 2004 for the 2005 model year.

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Chevrolet K5 Blazer

The K5 Blazer was the smallest full-size SUV version of the Chevrolet C/K family.

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Chevrolet Kodiak

The Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick are a line of medium duty trucks that were produced by the Chevrolet and GMC divisions of General Motors.

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Chevrolet S-10

The Chevrolet S-10 is a compact pickup truck that was produced by Chevrolet.

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Chevrolet S-10 Blazer

The Chevrolet Blazer (4WD model T-10) and its rebadged variant, the GMC S-15 Jimmy (4WD model T-15), are compact/mid-size SUVs manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet and GMC from 1982-2005 across two generations.

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Chevrolet Silverado

The Chevrolet Silverado, and its mechanically identical cousin, the GMC Sierra, are a series of full-size and heavy-duty pickup trucks manufactured by General Motors and introduced in 1998 as the successor to the long-running Chevrolet C/K line.

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Chevrolet Suburban

The Chevrolet Suburban is a full-size suv from Chevrolet.

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Chevrolet Tahoe

The Chevrolet Tahoe (and its rebadged version GMC Yukon) is a full-size SUV from General Motors.

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Chevrolet Tracker

The Chevrolet Tracker is an automotive nameplate that has been used by Chevrolet for two different vehicle lines.

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Chevrolet TrailBlazer

The Chevrolet TrailBlazer is a mid-size sport utility vehicle that has been produced by General Motors since 2002 (except between 2010 and 2011).

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Chrysler

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.

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Chrysler Hemi engine

The Chrysler Hemi engines, known by the trademark Hemi, are a series of I6 and V8 gasoline engines built by Chrysler with hemispherical combustion chambers.

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Chrysler Pacifica

The Chrysler Pacifica nameplate was used by Chrysler for a variety of vehicles.

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Citroën

Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).

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Citroën 2CV

The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".

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Citroën BX

The Citroën BX is a large family car that was produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1982 to 1994.

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Clutch

A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft.

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ControlTrac

ControlTrac four-wheel drive is the brand name of a selectable automatic full-time four-wheel drive system offered by Ford Motor Company.

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Convertible

A convertible or cabriolet is a passenger car that can be driven with or without a roof in place.

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Cosworth

Cosworth is an automotive engineering company founded in London in, specialising in high-performance internal combustion engines, powertrain, and electronics; for automobile racing (motorsport) and mainstream automotive industries.

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Coupé

A coupé — also known as coupe — is a car with a fixed-roof body style usually with two doors, however some four-door cars have been marketed as four door coupés or quad coupés due to their coupé-like roofline at the rear.

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Crossover (automobile)

A crossover or crossover utility vehicle (CUV) is a vehicle built on a unibody car platform combining in highly variable degrees features of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) with those of a passenger vehicle, especially a station wagon or hatchback.

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Dacia Duster

The Dacia Duster is a compact sport utility vehicle (SUV) produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2010.

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Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft

Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) (Daimler Motors Corporation) was a German engineer and later automobile manufacturer, in operation from 1890 until 1926.

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Daimler-Benz

Daimler-Benz AG was a German manufacturer of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines, which was founded in 1926.

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Dana 60

The Dana/Spicer Model 60 is an automotive axle manufactured by Dana Holding Corporation and used in OEM pickup and limited passenger car applications by Chevrolet, Dodge, Chrysler, Jeep, Ford and Land Rover.

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Dana S 110

The Dana/Spicer Model S110 is an automotive axle manufactured by the Dana Holding Corporation and the Eaton Corporation.

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Detroit

Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.

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Differential (mechanical device)

A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.

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Dilatant

A dilatant (also termed shear thickening) material is one in which viscosity increases with the rate of shear strain.

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DKW Munga

The DKW Munga was a DKW-branded off-road vehicle built by Auto-Union in Ingolstadt, Germany.

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Dodge

Dodge is an American brand of automobile manufactured by Fiat Chrysler (formerly known as Chrysler Group LLC), based in Auburn Hills, Michigan.

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Dodge Caliber

The Dodge Caliber is a front-engine, front-wheel drive five-door compact hatchback manufactured and marketed by Chrysler's Dodge division from model years 2007 to 2012, replacing the Neon and Chrysler PT Cruiser.

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Dodge Dakota

The Dodge Dakota, known as the Ram Dakota for the final two years of production, is a mid-size pickup truck from Chrysler's Ram (formerly Dodge Truck) division.

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Dodge Durango

The Dodge Durango is a sport utility vehicle (SUV) produced by Dodge.

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Dodge Nitro

The Dodge Nitro is a compact SUV that was produced by Dodge from the 2007 to the 2012 model year.

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Dodge Power Wagon

The Dodge Power Wagon is a four wheel drive light truck that was produced in various model series from 1945 to 1981 by Dodge, then as a nameplate for the Dodge Ram from 2005 to 2013, and, most recently, as an individual model marketed by Ram Trucks.

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Drive shaft

A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft (prop shaft), or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.

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Drivetrain

The drivetrain of a motor vehicle is the group of components that deliver power to the driving wheels.

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Eight-wheel drive

Eight-wheel drive, often notated as 8WD or 8×8, is a drivetrain configuration that allows all eight wheels of an eight-wheeled vehicle to be drive wheels (that is, to receive power from the engine) simultaneously.

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Electric motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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Electric vehicle

An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.

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Electronic stability control

Electronic stability control (ESC), also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a computerized technology that improves a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding).

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Epicyclic gearing

An epicyclic gear train (also known as planetary gear) consists of two gears mounted so that the center of one gear revolves around the center of the other.

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Equipe Matra Sports

Matra Company's sports division under the name of Matra Sports, Equipe Matra Elf and Equipe Matra Sports (after a takeover by Simca in 1969 as Matra-Simca Division Automobile) was formed in 1965 and based at Champagne-sur-Seine (1965–1967), Romorantin-Lanthenay (1967–1969) and Vélizy-Villacoublay (1969–1979).

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Exponential growth

Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.

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Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile

The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA, English: International Automobile Federation) is an association established as the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR, English: 'International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs') on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users.

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Ferdinand Porsche

Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.

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Ferguson Research

Harry Ferguson Research Limited was a British company founded by Harry Ferguson who was mostly known as "the father of the modern farm tractor".

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Ferrari

Ferrari N.V. is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello.

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Ferrari FF

The Ferrari FF (FF meaning "Ferrari Four", for four seats and four-wheel drive) is a grand tourer presented by Ferrari on March 1, 2011 at the Geneva Motor Show as a successor to the 612 Scaglietti grand tourer.

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Fiat Automobiles

Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.

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Fiat Campagnola

The Fiat Campagnola is a heavy-duty off-road vehicle produced by Fiat.

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Fiat Panda

The Fiat Panda is a city car manufactured and marketed by Fiat, now in its third generation.

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Fiat Tempra

The Fiat Tempra (Type 159) is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Fiat from 1990 to 1996.

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Ford Escape

The Ford Escape is a compact crossover vehicle sold by Ford since 2000 over three generations.

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Ford Expedition

The Ford Expedition is a full-size SUV that is made by Ford Motor Company.

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Ford Explorer

The Ford Explorer is a range of SUVs manufactured by Ford Motor Company.

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Ford Explorer Sport Trac

The Ford Explorer Sport Trac (also shortened to Ford Sport Trac) is a truck that was manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company for North America.

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Ford F-Series

The Ford F-Series is a series of light-duty trucks and medium-duty trucks (Class 2-7) that have been marketed and manufactured by Ford Motor Company since 1948.

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Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

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Ford Ranger

The Ford Ranger is a nameplate that has been used on three distinct model lines of vehicles sold by Ford.

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Ford RS200

The Ford RS200 is a mid-engined, four-wheel drive sports car that was produced by Ford Europe from 1984 to 1986.

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Ford Super Duty

The Ford F-Series Super Duty (often shortened to Ford Super Duty) is a series of trucks manufactured by Ford Motor Company.

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Formula One

Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.

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Four Wheel Drive

The Four Wheel Drive Auto Company, more often known as Four Wheel Drive (FWD), was a pioneering American company that developed and produced all-wheel drive vehicles.

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Four-wheel drive

Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.

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Four-wheel drive in Formula One

Four-wheel drive (4WD) has only been tried a handful of times in Formula One.

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Front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout

In automotive design, an F4, or Front-engine, Four-wheel drive layout places the internal combustion engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels.

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Front-wheel drive

Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.

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GAZ

GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Gorky Automobile Plant) is a Russian automotive manufacturer located in Nizhny Novgorod.

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GAZ-61

GAZ-61 was a four wheel drive car from USSR manufacturer GAZ first introduced in 1938 by designer V. A. Gratchev, to replace his too-complex model GAZ-M2.

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GAZ-64

The GAZ-64 was a 4x4 vehicle made by GAZ (Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, translated as Gorky Automobile Plant, a cooperation between Ford and the Soviet Union), succeeding the earlier GAZ-61.

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GAZ-67

The GAZ-67 and the subsequent GAZ-67B were general purpose four wheel drive Soviet military vehicles built by GAZ starting in 1943.

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GAZ-69

The GAZ-69 is a four-wheel drive light truck, produced by GAZ (ГАЗ, or Gorkovsky Avtomobilnyi Zavod, Gorky Automobile Factory) between 1953 and 1956 and then by UAZ, in 1956–1972, though all of these vehicles were known as GAZ-69s.

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Gear train

A gear train is a mechanical system formed by mounting gears on a frame so the teeth of the gears engage.

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General Motors

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.

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GMC (automobile)

GMC (General Motors Truck Company), formally the GMC Division of General Motors LLC, is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM) that primarily focuses on trucks and utility vehicles.

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GMC CCKW 2½-ton 6x6 truck

The GMC CCKW also known as "Jimmy" was a 2½-ton 6x6 U.S. Army cargo truck that saw heavy service in both World War II and the Korean War.

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GMC Envoy

The GMC Envoy is a mid-size SUV that was produced by General Motors.

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Grand tourer

A grand tourer (gran turismo) (GT) is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving.

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Group B

Group B was a set of regulations introduced in 1982 for competition vehicles in sportscar racing and rallying regulated by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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Haldex Traction

BorgWarner acquired Haldex Traction AB division of Haldex Group in February 2011, making it the Europe branch of BorgWarner TTS.

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Homologation

Homologation (Greek homologeo, ὁμολογέω, "to agree") is the granting of approval by an official authority.

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Honda

is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.

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Honda CR-V

The Honda CR-V is a compact crossover manufactured by Honda since 1995 and introduced in the North American market in 1997.

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Humvee

The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV; colloquial: Humvee) is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General.

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Hybrid electric vehicle

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).

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Hybrid vehicle drivetrain

Hybrid vehicle drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles.

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Hyundai Santa Fe

The Hyundai Santa Fe (현대 싼타페) is a sport utility vehicle (SUV) produced by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai since 2000.

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Hyundai Tucson

The Hyundai Tucson (현대 투싼) is a compact crossover SUV produced by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai since 2004.

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Hyundai Veracruz

The Hyundai Veracruz (현대 베라크루즈), also known as the Hyundai ix55 in Europe and Russia, is a mid size crossover that was manufactured by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai from 2006 to 2012.

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Independent suspension

Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of the others.

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Indianapolis 500

The Indianapolis 500 is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana, United States, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana.

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Individual-wheel drive

Individual-wheel drive or IWD is a wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all wheels to receive torque from several motors independent of each other.

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Infiniti

is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Nissan.

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Infiniti QX70

The Infiniti QX70 (formerly called the Infiniti FX until 2013) is a mid-sized / lengthened compact luxury crossover SUV produced by the Nissan-owned Infiniti luxury vehicle brand between the 2003-2017 model year.

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Infiniti QX80

The Infiniti QX80 (called the Infiniti QX56 until 2013) is a full-size luxury SUV built by Nissan Motor Company's Infiniti division.

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Isuzu MU

The Isuzu MU is a mid-size SUV that was produced by the Japan-based manufacturer Isuzu.

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Jaguar Cars

Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England and owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.

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Jaguar X-Type

The Jaguar X-Type is a front-engine, all-wheel drive entry-level luxury car manufactured and marketed by Jaguar Cars from 2001 to 2009 under the internal designation X400, for a single generation, in sedan and wagon body styles.

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Jeep

Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a division of FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group, LLC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.

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Jeep Cherokee

The Jeep Cherokee is a line of American vehicles sold by Jeep under various vehicle classes.

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Jeep Cherokee (XJ)

The Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is a compact sport utility vehicle that was manufactured and marketed by Jeep in the USA from 1983 to 2001, as well as in other countries, and sometimes under other names, until 2014, with Jeep selling almost 3 million units between 1984 and 2001. Sharing the name of the original full-size Cherokee SJ model, the 1984 Cherokee XJ was Jeep's first all-new vehicle design since the 1963 SJ ''Wagoneer'', from which the '74 SJ Cherokee had been derived. Instead of the traditional separate body and chassis, the XJ featured a light-weight, compact and space-efficient, integrated body and frame design, The models were originally marketed as Sportwagons and became the precursor to the modern sport utility vehicle (SUV) as that term was not yet in use. The XJ spawned competitors as other automakers began to notice that this Jeep design began replacing regular cars. It also began to supplant the role of the station wagon and "transformed from truck to limousine in the eyes of countless suburban owners." The XJ is a "significant link in the evolution of the 4x4." Built in Toledo, Ohio, USA; Beijing, China; Ferreyra, Argentina; Cairo, Egypt; and in Valencia, Venezuela, the XJ provided the mechanical basis for the MJ-series Jeep Comanche pickup truck. Many of the XJ models had an eight-slot or a ten-slot grille design. Automotive journalist Robert Cumberford, writing for ''Automobile'', called the Jeep XJ one of the 20 greatest cars of all time — for its design, and "possibly the best SUV shape of all time, it is the paradigmatic model to which other designers have since aspired". The XJ was also selected in 2011 as one of "10 cars that refuse to die" by Kiplinger.

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Jeep CJ

The Jeep CJ models are both a series and a range of small, open-bodied off-road vehicles and compact pickup trucks, built and sold by several successive incarnations of the Jeep automobile marque from 1945 to 1986.

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Jeep Comanche

The Jeep Comanche (designated MJ) is a pickup truck variant of the Cherokee compact SUV (1984–2001) manufactured and marketed by Jeep for model years 1986-1992 in rear wheel (RWD) and four-wheel drive (4WD) models as well as two cargo bed lengths: six-feet (1.83 metres) and seven-feet (2.13 metres).

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Jeep Compass

The Jeep Compass is a five-door, front engine subcompact crossover SUV introduced for model year 2007, and now in its second generation.

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Jeep four-wheel-drive systems

Jeep uses a variety of four-wheel drive systems on their various vehicles.

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Jeep Grand Cherokee

The Jeep Grand Cherokee is a range of Mid-size SUVs produced by the American manufacturer Jeep.

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Jeep Hurricane

The Jeep Hurricane is a bespoke custom concept vehicle that was unveiled at the 2005 North American International Auto Show in Detroit by American off-road brand Jeep.

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Jeep Liberty

The Jeep Liberty, or Jeep Cherokee (KJ/KK) outside North America, is a compact SUV that was produced by Jeep for the model years 2002–2012.

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Jeep SJ

Jeep's SJ platform was part of the "FSJ" or full-size Jeep lineup.

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Jeep Wagoneer (SJ)

The Jeep Wagoneer is the first luxury 4x4, sold and produced for Jeep by several automakers from 1962 to 1991.

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Jeep Wrangler

The Jeep Wrangler is a series of compact and mid-size (Wrangler Unlimited and Wrangler 4-door JL) four-wheel drive off-road vehicle models, manufactured by Jeep since 1986, and currently migrating from its third into its fourth generation.

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Jeffery Quad

The Jeffery Quad, also known as the Nash Quad or Quad is a four-wheel drive truck that was developed and built by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company from 1913 in Kenosha, Wisconsin and after 1916 by Nash Motors, which acquired the Jeffery Company.

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Jensen FF

The Jensen FF is a four-wheel drive grand tourer produced by British car manufacturer Jensen Motors between 1966 and 1971.

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Jensen Motors

Jensen Motors Limited was a British manufacturer of sports cars and commercial vehicles in West Bromwich, England.

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Kaiser Jeep

Kaiser Jeep was the result of the merger between the Kaiser Motors, an independent automaker based in Willow Run, Michigan, and the Toledo, Ohio-based Willys-Overland Company.

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Kia Sorento

The Kia Sorento is a mid-size crossover SUV (mid-size SUV in its first generation) produced since 2002 by the South Korean manufacturer Kia Motors.

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Kurogane Type 95

The Type 95 was a Japanese scout car built by, and was used during the war with China and World War II in the East.

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Lada

LADA is a brand of cars manufactured by AvtoVAZ in Russia, which is today majority owned by Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance.

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Lada Niva

The Lada 4x4, formerly called the Lada Niva (Лада Нива; Niva (нива) is the Russian word for "field"), is an off-road vehicle designed and produced by the Russian (former Soviet) manufacturer AvtoVAZ specifically for the rural market.

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Lamborghini

Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy.

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Lamborghini Diablo

The Lamborghini Diablo is a high-performance mid-engined sports car that was built by Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini between 1990 and 2001.

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Lancia

Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C..

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Lancia Delta

The Lancia Delta is a small family car produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Lancia in three generations.

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Land Rover

Land Rover is a car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008.

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Land Rover Defender

The Land Rover Defender (initially called the Land Rover Ninety and Land Rover One Ten) is a British four-wheel drive off-road vehicle developed in the 1980s from the original Land Rover Series which was launched at the Amsterdam Motor Show in April 1948.

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Land Rover Discovery

The Land Rover Discovery is a mid-size luxury SUV, from the British manufacturer Land Rover.

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Land Rover Freelander

The Land Rover Freelander was a compact sport utility vehicle (SUV) which was produced by the British manufacturer Land Rover, in both two-wheel and four-wheel drive versions, from 1997 to 2014.

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Land Rover Series

The Land Rover Series I, II, and III (commonly referred to as series Land Rovers, to distinguish them from later models) are off-road vehicles produced by the British manufacturer Rover Company that were inspired by the US-built Willys Jeep.

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Le Mans Prototype

A Le Mans Prototype (LMP) is the type of sports prototype race car used in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, FIA World Endurance Championship, WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, European Le Mans Series and Asian Le Mans Series.

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Lexus

is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese car maker Toyota.

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Lexus GX

The Lexus GX (Japanese: レクサス・GX, Rekusasu GX) is a mid-size luxury SUV sold in North American and Eurasian markets by Lexus, a luxury division of Toyota.

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Lexus RX

The Lexus RX (Japanese: レクサス・RX, Rekusasu RX) is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV that is based on the Toyota Highlander and sold since 1998 by Lexus, a luxury division of Toyota.

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Limited-slip differential

A limited-slip differential (LSD) is a type of differential that allows its two output shafts to rotate at different speeds but limits the maximum difference between the two shafts.

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Lincoln Motor Company

Lincoln, formally the Lincoln Motor Company, is a luxury vehicle brand of the American manufacturer Ford Motor Company.

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Lincoln Navigator

The Lincoln Navigator is a full-size luxury SUV marketed and sold by the Lincoln brand of Ford Motor Company since the 1998 model year.

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Locking differential

A locking differential is designed to overcome the chief limitation of a standard open differential by essentially "locking" both wheels on an axle together as if on a common shaft.

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Locking hubs

Locking hubs, also known as free wheeling hubs are fitted to some (mainly older) four-wheel drive vehicles, allowing the front wheels to rotate freely when disconnected (unlocked) from the front axle.

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Lohner-Porsche

The Lohner-Porsche Mixed Hybrid (sometimes wrongly referred to as Löhner-Porsche) was the first hybrid vehicle and was developed by Ferdinand Porsche.

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Lotus 56

The Lotus 56 was a gas turbine-powered four-wheel driven racing car, designed by Maurice Philippe as Team Lotus' 1968 STP-backed entry in the Indianapolis 500, replacing the successful Lotus 38 and the 1967 STP-Paxton Turbocar.

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Louwman Museum

The Louwman Museum is a museum for historic cars, coaches, and motorcycles in The Hague, Netherlands.

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Luxury vehicle

Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury—pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity—at increased expense.

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Macau Grand Prix

The Macau Grand Prix is a motor-racing event held annually in Macau, one of China's Special Administrative Regions.

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Marmon-Herrington

The Marmon-Herrington Company, Inc. is an American manufacturer of axles and transfer cases for trucks and other vehicles.

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Mars rover

A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.

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Maurice Wilks

Maurice Fernand Cary Wilks (1904–1963) was an automotive and aeronautical engineer, and by the time of his death in 1963, was the chairman of the Rover Company, a British car manufacturer.

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Mazda

, commonly referred to as simply Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

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Mazda Familia

The Mazda Familia, also marketed prominently as the Mazda 323 and Mazda Protegé, was a small family car that was manufactured by Mazda between 1963 and 2003.

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Mazda6

The Mazda 6 or Mazda6 (known as the Mazda Atenza in China and Japan, derived from the Italian attenzione) is a mid-size family car produced by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Mazda since 2002.

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McLaren

McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren F1 Team, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Woking, Surrey, England.

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Mercedes-AMG

Mercedes-AMG GmbH, commonly known as AMG, is the high performance brand used by Mercedes-Benz.

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Mercedes-Benz

Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.

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Mercedes-Benz G-Class

The Mercedes-Benz G-Class, sometimes called G-Wagen (short for Geländewagen, "cross country vehicle"), is a mid-size four-wheel drive luxury SUV manufactured by Magna Steyr (formerly Steyr-Daimler-Puch) in Austria and sold by Mercedes-Benz.

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Mercedes-Benz GL-Class

The Mercedes-Benz GLS-Class is a full-size luxury SUV produced by the German carmaker Mercedes-Benz since 2006.

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Mercedes-Benz W124

No description.

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Mercury (automobile)

Mercury is a defunct division of the American automobile manufacturer Ford Motor Company.

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MG Rover Group

The MG Rover Group was the last domestically owned mass-production car manufacturer in the British motor industry.

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Michigan (1903 automobile)

The Michigan was a pioneering brass era automobile built in Kalamazoo, Michigan by the Michigan Automobile Company from 1903 to 1908.

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Mid-engine design

A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles.

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Mini

The Mini is a small economy car produced by the English-based British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 until 2000.

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Mini Moke

The Mini Moke is a vehicle based on the Mini designed for the British Motor Corporation (BMC) by Sir Alec Issigonis and John Sheppard.

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Mitsubishi

The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.

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Mitsubishi Cordia

The Mitsubishi Cordia is a compact hatchback-coupé manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors between 1982 and 1990.

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Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution

The Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, also known as a Lan Evo or just Evo, is a sports sedan based on the Lancer that was manufactured by Japanese manufacturer Mitsubishi Motors from 1992 until 2016.

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Mitsubishi Motors

is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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Mitsubishi Outlander

The Mitsubishi Outlander is a compact crossover (Mid-size from 2007-present) manufactured by Japanese automaker Mitsubishi.

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Mitsubishi Pajero

The Mitsubishi Pajero (Japanese), p.2, Chameleon Translations, p.1, Chameleon Translations is a three- or five-door, front engine, all/four-wheel drive sport utility vehicle manufactured and marketed globally by Mitsubishi — and now in its fourth generation.

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Mitsubishi Raider

The Mitsubishi Raider is a pickup truck from Mitsubishi Motors that debuted in the fall of 2005 as a 2006 model for the United States market and is based largely on the Dodge Dakota.

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Mitsubishi S-AWC

S-AWC (Super All Wheel Control) is the brand name of an advanced full-time four-wheel drive system developed by Mitsubishi Motors.

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Monocoque

Monocoque, also structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell.

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Namibia

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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New Venture Gear

New Venture Gear, a division of Magna Powertrain, was an automobile and light truck transmission company that was started in 1990 as the first ever joint venture between any of the Big Three US automakers.

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Nissan

, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.

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Nissan Armada

The Nissan Armada is a full-size SUV.

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Nissan Cube

The Nissan Cube (stylised as Nissan cube) is a mini MPV produced by Japanese carmaker Nissan since 1998.

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Nissan E-4WD

E-4WD is a system used by Nissan that drives two rear wheels with an electric motor to supplement the traction available to a front wheel drive vehicle.

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Nissan GT-R

The Nissan GT-R is a 2-door 2+2 high performance vehicle produced by Nissan unveiled in 2007.

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Nissan Murano

The Nissan Murano is a front engine, five door mid-size crossover manufactured and marketed by Nissan since May 2002 as a model for 2003, and now in its third generation — with a convertible variant, the CrossCabriolet, available for the model years of 2011 to 2014.

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Nissan Navara

The Nissan Navara is the name for the D22, D40 and D23 generations of Nissan pickup trucks sold in Asia, Europe and Australia.

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Nissan Pathfinder

The Nissan Pathfinder is a mid-size SUV manufactured by Nissan since 1986, derived from Nissan's compact pickup truck platform.

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Nissan Patrol

The Nissan Patrol (Japanese: 日産・パトロール Nissan Patorōru) is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles manufactured by Nissan in Japan and sold throughout the world.

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Nissan Skyline

The Nissan Skyline (Japanese: 日産・スカイライン Nissan Sukairain) is a line of compact cars, sports cars and compact executive cars originally produced by the Prince Motor Company starting in 1957, and then by Nissan after the two companies merged in 1967.

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Nissan Skyline GT-R

The Nissan Skyline GT-R is a sports car based on the Nissan Skyline range.

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Nissan Terrano II

The Nissan Terrano II (known as the Nissan Mistral in Japan) is a Compact SUV manufactured by the Japanese automaker Nissan from 1993 to 2006.

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Nissan Tiida

The Nissan Tiida is a small car produced by the Japanese manufacturer Nissan since 2004, spanning two generations.

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Nissan Titan

The Nissan Titan is a full-size pickup truck manufactured in the United States for the North American market by Nissan.

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Nissan Xterra

The Nissan Xterra is a compact SUV that was manufactured and marketed by Nissan Motors across two generations, sharing its platform with the Nissan Frontier pickup.

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North American International Auto Show

The North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) is an annual auto show held in Detroit, Michigan at Cobo Center, usually in January.

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Off-road vehicle

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

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Off-roading

Off-roading is the activity of driving or riding a vehicle on unsurfaced roads or tracks, made of materials such as sand, gravel, riverbeds, mud, snow, rocks, and other natural terrain.

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Opel

Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.

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Opel Vectra

The Opel Vectra is a large family car that was engineered and produced by the German automaker Opel.

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Panther Solo

The Panther Solo is a mid-engined sports car that was made by the British company Panther Car Company.

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Panther Westwinds

Panther Westwinds (commonly known as Panther) was a manufacturer of niche sports cars and luxury cars, based in Surrey, United Kingdom.

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Pedrail wheel

The pedrail wheel is a type of wheel developed in the early 20th century for all-terrain locomotion.

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Peugeot

Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.

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Peugeot 205

The Peugeot 205 is a supermini car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1983 to 1998.

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Pinzgauer High-Mobility All-Terrain Vehicle

The Pinzgauer is a family of high-mobility all-terrain 4WD (4×4) and 6WD (6×6) military utility vehicles.

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Pontiac

Pontiac is a now-defunct car brand that was owned, made, and sold by General Motors.

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Pontiac 6000

The Pontiac 6000 is a mid-size car that was introduced by Pontiac in 1981 for the 1982 model year, positioned between the smaller Phoenix and larger Bonneville (previously the Le Mans).

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Pontiac Torrent

The Pontiac Torrent was a midsize crossover produced by General Motors for the 2006 to 2009 model years.

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Porsche

Dr.-Ing.

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Porsche 911

The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined classic German sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany.

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Porsche 959

The Porsche 959 is a sports car manufactured by German car manufacturer Porsche from 1986 to 1993, first as a Group B rally car and later as a road legal production car designed to satisfy FIA homologation regulations requiring at least 200 units be produced.

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Press-on-Regardless Rally

Press-on-Regardless Rally (POR) is a road rally organized by the Detroit Region of the Sports Car Club of America.

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Quattro (four-wheel-drive system)

Quattro (meaning four in Italian) is the sub-brand used by the car brand Audi to indicate that all-wheel drive (AWD) technologies or systems are used on specific models of its Audi automobiles.

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Rallying

Rally is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars.

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Ram Pickup

The Ram pickup (formerly the Dodge Ram pickup) is a full-size pickup truck manufactured by FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group LLC) and marketed as of 2011 onwards under the Ram Trucks brand.

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Ram Trucks

Ram Trucks, stylized as RAM and formally known as the Ram Truck Division, is a United States-based brand of light to mid-weight commercial vehicles established in 2010 as a division of FCA US LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.

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Range Rover

The Land Rover Range Rover (generally known simply as a Range Rover) is a full-sized luxury sport utility vehicle (SUV) from Land Rover, a marque of Jaguar Land Rover.

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Renault

Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.

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Renault 18

The Renault 18 is a large family car produced by French manufacturer Renault between 1978 and 1989, with South American production continuing until 1994.

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Reynolds-Alberta Museum

The Reynolds-Alberta Museum, in Wetaskiwin, Alberta, Canada is one of 19 provincially owned and operated historic sites and museums.

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Rimac Concept One

The Rimac Concept One (sometimes stylized as Concept_One) is a two-seat high-performance electric car designed and manufactured in Croatia by Rimac Automobili.

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Rock crawling

Rock crawling is an extreme form of off road driving using vehicles anywhere from stock to highly modified to overcome obstacles.

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Rover V8 engine

The Rover V8 engine is a compact V8 internal combustion engine with aluminium cylinder heads and cylinder block, originally designed by General Motors and later re-designed and produced by Rover in the United Kingdom.

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Saab 9-3

The Saab 9-3 is a compact executive car that was originally developed and manufactured by the Swedish automaker Saab.

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Saab 9-4X

The Saab 9-4X is a compact luxury crossover SUV that was introduced at the 2010 LA Auto Show 2010.

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Saab 9-5

The Saab 9-5 is an executive car that was produced by the Swedish automobile maker Saab.

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Saab Automobile

Saab Automobile AB was a manufacturer of automobiles that was founded in Sweden in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB, began a project to design a small automobile.

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Saab XWD

XWD, an acronym for Cross-Wheel Drive, is an advanced all-wheel drive system designed by Haldex in partnership with Saab.

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SAE International

SAE International, initially established as the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a U.S.-based, globally active professional association and standards developing organization for engineering professionals in various industries.

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Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.

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Sedan (automobile)

A sedan (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.

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SH-AWD

Super Handling-All Wheel Drive or SH-AWD is a full-time, fully automatic all-wheel drive traction and handling system designed and engineered by Honda Motor Company.

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Shear stress

A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.

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Six-wheel drive

Six-wheel drive (6WD or 6×6) is an all-wheel drive drivetrain configuration of three axles with at least two wheels on each axle capable of being driven simultaneously by the vehicle's engine.

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Snowbelt

Snowbelt is a term describing a number of regions near the Great Lakes in North America where heavy snowfall in the form of lake-effect snow is particularly common.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spiral bevel gear

A spiral bevel gear is a bevel gear with helical teeth.

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Sport utility vehicle

Sport-utility (vehicle), SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification, typically a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, and available four-wheel drive.

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Spyker

Spyker or Spijker was a Dutch carriage, automobile and aircraft manufacturer, started in 1880 by blacksmiths Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker.

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Station wagon

A station wagon, also called an estate car, estate wagon, or simply wagon or estate, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk/boot lid.

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Steering

Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc.

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Stirling Moss

Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss (born 17 September 1929) is a British former Formula One racing driver.

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Subaru

(or) is the automobile manufacturing division of Japanese transportation conglomerate Subaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.

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Subaru BRAT

The Subaru BRAT, short for "Bi-drive Recreational All-terrain Transporter", known outside Canada and the United States as the 284 in the United Kingdom, Brumby in Australia, and Shifter, MV, or Targa in other markets, is a light duty, four-wheel drive coupé utility, sold from 1978 to 1994.

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Subaru Forester

The Subaru Forester is a station-wagon based compact crossover SUV manufactured since 1997 by Subaru.

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Subaru Impreza

The is a compact family car that has been manufactured since 1992 by Subaru, introduced as a replacement for the Leone, with the predecessor's EA series engines replaced by the new EJ series.

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Subaru Justy

The Subaru Justy is a subcompact hatchback that has been sold by Japanese automobile manufacturer Subaru since 1984.

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Subaru Legacy

The Subaru Legacy is a mid-size car built by Japanese automobile manufacturer Subaru since 1989.

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Subaru Leone

The Subaru Leone is a compact car produced by the Japanese car manufacturer Subaru from 1971 to 1994.

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Subaru Outback

The Subaru Outback is an automotive nameplate used by the Japanese automaker Subaru for two different vehicles: a Legacy-based station wagon (1994-present), the Outback; and an Impreza-derived hatchback, the Outback Sport (1994-2011).

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Subaru Tribeca

The Subaru Tribeca is a mid-size crossover SUV made from 2005 to 2014.

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Sump

A sump (American English and some parts of Canada: oil pan) is a low space that collects often undesirable liquids such as water or chemicals.

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Super Touring

Super Touring, Class 2 or Class II was a motor racing Touring Cars category defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) for national touring car racing in 1993.

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Suzuki

is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu, that manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines.

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Suzuki Jimny

The Suzuki Jimny is a line of small four-wheel drive off-road cars and mini SUVs made by the Japanese automaker Suzuki produced since April 1970.

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Suzuki Vitara

The Suzuki Vitara is a compact SUV produced by Suzuki in four generations since 1988.

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Targa top

Targa top, or targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats.

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Team Lotus

Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars.

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Tesla Model S

The Tesla Model S is a full-sized / mid-size luxury all-electric five-door liftback Q-car (for P models), produced by Tesla, Inc., and introduced on June 22, 2012.

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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Thomas B. Jeffery Company

The Thomas B. Jeffery Company was an American automobile manufacturer in Kenosha, Wisconsin from 1902 until 1916.

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Timken Company

The Timken Company is a global manufacturer of bearings, and related components and assemblies.

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Tokyu Kogyo Kurogane

, or Kurogane, was one of the first Japanese automakers.

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Torque

Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

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Torsen

Torsen Torque-Sensing (full name Torsen traction) is a type of limited-slip differential used in automobiles.

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Toyota

, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.

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Toyota 4Runner

The is a compact, later mid-size sport utility vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and sold throughout the world from 1984 to present.

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Toyota Camry

The Toyota Camry (Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ Toyota Kamuri) is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since 1982, spanning multiple generations.

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Toyota Celica

The or was an automobile produced by Toyota from 1970 to 2006.

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Toyota Celica GT-Four

The Toyota Celica GT-Four was a high performance model of the Celica Liftback, with a turbocharged 3S-GTE engine, and full-time AWD.

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Toyota Corolla

The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota.

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Toyota FJ Cruiser

The Toyota FJ Cruiser is a retro style, mid-size SUV.

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Toyota Harrier

The Toyota Harrier is a mid-size crossover SUV sold since December 1997 by Toyota in Japan, and is exclusive new to Toyopet Store Japanese dealerships.

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Toyota Hilux

The Toyota Hilux (also stylized as HiLux and historically as Hi-Lux) is a series of light commercial vehicles produced and marketed by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota.

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Toyota Land Cruiser

The is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota.

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Toyota Land Cruiser Prado

Toyota Land Cruiser Prado is a mid-size four-wheel drive vehicle in the Toyota Land Cruiser range.

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Toyota Previa

The Toyota Previa, also known as the Toyota Estima in Japan, and Toyota Tarago in Australia, is an MPV or multi-purpose vehicle (known as a minivan in North America) produced by Toyota since 1990.

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Toyota RAV4

The is a compact crossover SUV (sport utility vehicle) produced by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota.

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Toyota Sequoia

The is a Full-size SUV manufactured by Toyota and derived from its Tundra pickup truck.

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Toyota Sienna

The Toyota Sienna is a minivan manufactured by Toyota at the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indiana facility, in Princeton, Indiana, United States, for the North American market.

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Toyota Tacoma

The Toyota Tacoma is a pickup truck manufactured in the U.S. by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota since 1995.

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Traction control system

A traction control system (TCS), also known as ASR (from lit), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control (ESC) on production motor vehicles, designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels.

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Traction engine

A traction engine is a self-propelled steam engine used to move heavy loads on roads, plough ground or to provide power at a chosen location.

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Trans-Am Series

The 'Trans-Am Series' is an automobile racing series held in North America.

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Transaxle

A transaxle is a major automotive mechanical component that combines the functionality of the transmission, axle, and differential into one integrated assembly.

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Transfer case

A transfer case is a part of the drivetrain of four-wheel-drive, all-wheel-drive, and other multiple powered axle vehicles.

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Transmission (mechanics)

A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power.

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Two-wheel tractor

Two-wheel tractor or walking tractor motoculteur Einachsschlepper oder Bodenfräse are generic terms understood in the USA and in parts of Europe to represent a single-axle tractor, which is a tractor with one axle, self-powered and self-propelled, which can pull and power various farm implements such as a trailer, cultivator or harrow, a plough, or various seeders and harvesters.

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UAZ

UAZ (УАЗ) (Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant) is an automobile manufacturer based in Ulyanovsk, Russia, which manufactures off-road vehicles, buses and trucks.

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UAZ-469

The UAZ-469 is an off-road military light utility vehicle manufactured by UAZ.

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Unimog

Unimog is a range of multi-purpose all-wheel drive medium trucks produced by Daimler (formerly Daimler-Benz) and sold under the brand name Mercedes-Benz.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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V8 engine

A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets (or banks) of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft.

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Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Viscous coupling unit

A viscous coupling is a mechanical device which transfers torque and rotation by the medium of a viscous fluid.

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Volkswagen

Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.

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Volkswagen Golf

The Volkswagen Golf is a compact car produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen since 1974, marketed worldwide across seven generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – such as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada (Mk1 and Mk5), and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico (Mk1).

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Volkswagen Iltis

The Volkswagen Type 183, more commonly known as the Iltis (German for polecat), is a military vehicle built by Volkswagen for use by the German military.

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Volkswagen Jetta

The Volkswagen Jetta is a compact car/small family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1979.

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Volkswagen Passat

The Volkswagen Passat is a large family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1973, and now in its eighth generation.

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Volkswagen Phaeton

The Volkswagen Phaeton (Typ 3D) is a full-size (F-segment in Europe) luxury sedan/saloon manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen, described by Volkswagen as their "premium class" vehicle.

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Volkswagen Schwimmwagen

The VW Type 128 and 166 Schwimmwagen (literally Floating/Swimming Car) were amphibious four-wheel drive off-roaders, used extensively by German ground forces during the Second World War.

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Volkswagen Tiguan

The Volkswagen Tiguan is a compact crossover vehicle (CUV) manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen.

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Volkswagen Touareg

The Volkswagen Touareg (German pronunciation) is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 2002 at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant.

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Volvo

The Volvo Group (Volvokoncernen; legally Aktiebolaget Volvo, shortened to AB Volvo) (stylized as VOLVO) is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg.

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Volvo 850

The Volvo 850 is a compact executive car that was produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo Cars from 1991 to 1997.

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Wheel hub motor

The wheel hub motor (also called wheel motor, wheel hub drive, hub motor or in-wheel motor) is an electric motor that is incorporated into the hub of a wheel and drives it directly.

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Willys

Willys was a brand name used by Willys-Overland Motors, an American automobile company best known for its design and production of military Jeeps (MBs) and civilian versions (CJs) during the 20th century.

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Willys Jeep Truck

The Willys Jeep Truck is a truck made by Willys-Overland Motors from 1947 to 1965.

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Willys MB

The Willys MB and the Ford GPW, both formally called the U.S. Army Truck, 1/4 ton, 4x4, Command Reconnaissance, commonly known as Jeep or jeep, and sometimes referred to as '''G503''' According to its U.S. Army Ordnance Corps Supply Catalog designation — a group number for ordering parts, based on a standard nomenclature list.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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Wisconsin

Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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1969 British Grand Prix

The 1969 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Silverstone Circuit on 19 July 1969.

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24 Hours of Le Mans

The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France.

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4Matic

4Matic (stylized as 4MATIC) is the marketing name of an AWD four-wheel drive system developed by Mercedes-Benz.

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4motion

4motion is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG, used exclusively on Volkswagen-branded automobiles with four-wheel drive (4WD) systems.

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6×4 (drivetrain)

A 6×4 drivetrain (six-by-four) is a vehicle with a drivetrain of three axles delivering power to two wheel ends on two of them.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-wheel_drive

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