78 relations: A. Hyatt Mayor, Arsenal, Athenaeum (magazine), Banknote, Bast fibre, Berthold Laufer, Bi Sheng, Bourgeoisie, Cai Lun, Capitalism, Cast iron, Charles Wentworth Dilke, Chinese alchemy, Chinese characters, Chinese culture, Compass, Diamond Sutra, Dream Pool Essays, Early modern warfare, Elixir of life, Fishnet, Five Elders, Floruit, Four Beauties, Four Books and Five Classics, Four Great Books of Song, Four Great Classical Novels, Frederick Denison Maurice, Han dynasty, Hand grenade, Hemp, History of China, History of gunpowder, History of printing in East Asia, History of science and technology in China, Hongkong Post, Huolongjing, Japanese people, Jiao Yu, Jikji, Joseph Edkins, Joseph Needham, Karl Marx, Li (unit), List of Chinese inventions, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Morus (plant), Movable type, Nitrate, Old master print, ..., Papermaking, Playing card, Print culture, Printing press, Qing dynasty, Round shot, Routledge, Science, Science and technology of the Han dynasty, Science and technology of the Song dynasty, Shen Kuo, Sinology, Song dynasty, Tang dynasty, Tea bag, Technology, Textile, The Isis Magazine, Thomas Kibble Hervey, Three Hundred Tang Poems, Toilet paper, Wang Zhen (official), Weiyang District, Yangzhou, William Hepworth Dixon, Woodblock printing, Wujing Zongyao, Yuan dynasty, 2008 Summer Olympics. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned.
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The Athenaeum was a literary magazine published in London, England from 1828 to 1921.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
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Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.
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Berthold Laufer (October 11, 1874 – September 13, 1934) was an anthropologist and historical geographer with an expertise in East Asian languages.
Bi Sheng (990–1051 AD) was the Chinese inventor of the first known movable type technology.
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The bourgeoisie (Eng.), is a polysemous French term, because it means.
Cai Lun (ca. 50 AD – 121), courtesy name Jingzhong (敬仲), was a Han dynasty Chinese eunuch and official.
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Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.
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Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
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Charles Wentworth Dilke (1789–1864) was an English liberal critic and writer on literature.
Chinese alchemy is a Chinese culture approach to alchemy, a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions, or "points".
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The Diamond Sūtra is a Mahāyāna (Buddhist) sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā, or "Perfection of Wisdom" genre, and emphasizes the practice of non-abiding and non-attachment.
The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Mèng Xī Bǐ Tán; Wade-Giles: Meng⁴ Hsi¹ Pi³-t'an²; Chinese: 夢溪筆談／梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the Han Chinese polymath, genius, scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song dynasty (960-1279) of China.
Warfare of the early modern period is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and handguns; for this reason the era is also referred to as the age of gunpowder warfare (a concept introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s).
The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a mythical potion that, when drunk from a certain cup at a certain time, supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.
In the field of textiles, fishnet is hosiery with an open, diamond-shaped knit; it is most often used as a material for stockings, tights or bodystockings.
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In Southern Chinese folklore, the Five Elders of Shaolin, also known as the Five Generals are the survivors of one of the destructions of the Shaolin temple by the Qing Dynasty, variously said to have taken place in 1647, in 1674 or in 1732.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), in Latin meaning "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
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The Four Beauties or Four Great Beauties are four ancient Chinese women, renowned for their beauty.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.
The Four Great Books of Song was compiled by Li Fang (925-996) and others during the Song dynasty (960–1279).
The Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature (Chinese: 四大名著, Sìdàmíngzhù, lit. "Four Great Masterpieces") are the four novels commonly regarded by Chinese literary criticism to be the greatest and most influential of pre-modern Chinese fiction.
John Frederick Denison Maurice, often known as F. D. Maurice (29 August 1805 – 1 April 1872), was an English theologian, religious author, and prominent Christian Socialist.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.
A hand grenade is any small bomb that can be thrown by hand.
Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a commonly used term for high-growing varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed.
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Written records of the history of China can be found from as early as 1200 BC under the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC).
Gunpowder was the first physical explosive and propellant.
The history of printing in East Asia starts with the use of woodblock printing on cloth during the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) and later paper (in Imperial Court as early as the 1st century, or around 80 AD), and continued with the invention of wooden movable type by East Asian artisans in Song China by the 11th century.
+ Also, for the history of science and technology in the Republic of China (1912–49), a period of tremendous growth, see the brief section below.
Hongkong Post is a department under the Government of Hong Kong responsible for postal services, though operated as a Trading Fund.
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered by its translator into English as Fire Drake Manual; in modern English, Fire Dragon Manual) is a 14th-century military treatise that was compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) in China.
The are an ethnic group native to Japan.
Jiao Yu was a Chinese military officer loyal to Zhu Yuanzhang, who founded the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD) and became known as the Hongwu Emperor.
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Jikji is the abbreviated title of a Korean Buddhist document, whose title can be translated "Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests' Zen Teachings".
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Joseph Edkins (19 December 1823 – 23 April 1905) was a British Protestant missionary who spent 57 years in China, 30 of them in Beijing.
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham, CH, FRS, FBA (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995), also known as Li Yuese, was a British scientist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
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The li (里, lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.
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China has been the source of many innovations, scientific discoveries and inventions.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art (colloquially The Met), located in New York City, is the largest art museum in the United States and among the most visited art museums in the world.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation).
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO3− and a molecular mass of 62.0049 g/mol.
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An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is used universally today for writing and packaging.
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games.
Print culture embodies all forms of printed text and other printed forms of visual communication.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.
Round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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ScienceFrom Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge".
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The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) of ancient China, divided between the eras of Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE, when the capital was at Chang'an), Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (r. 9–23 CE), and Eastern Han (25–220 CE, when the capital was at Luoyang, and after 196 CE at Xuchang), witnessed some of the most significant advancements in premodern Chinese science and technology.
The Song dynasty (960–1279 CE) provided some of the most significant technological advances in Chinese history, many of which came from talented statesmen drafted by the government through imperial examinations.
Shen Kuo or Shen Gua (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
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Sinology is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
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The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Tang dynasty, was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
A tea bag is a small, porous sealed bag containing tea leaves and used with water for brewing the beverage called tea, or herbs or spices for brewing herbal teas (also known as "tisane").
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Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.
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A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.
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The Isis Magazine was established at Oxford University in 1892.
Thomas Kibble Hervey (4 February 1799 – 27 February 1859) was a British poet and critic.
The Three Hundred Tang Poems is an anthology of poems from the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) first compiled around 1763 by Sun Zhu (1722-1778), the Qing Dynasty scholar, also known as Hengtang Tuishi (衡塘退士 "Retired Master of Hengtang").
Toilet paper is a tissue paper product primarily used for cleaning the anus and surrounding area of fecal material after defecation.
Wang Zhen (fl. 1290 – 1333) was an official of the Yuan Dynasty (1271 – 1368 AD) of China.
Weiyang District was a district of the city of Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China.
William Hepworth Dixon (1821–1879) was an English historian and traveller.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
The Wujing Zongyao, or the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Mongolian:, Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008.
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