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Four causes

Index Four causes

The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?". [1]

69 relations: Adaptation, Aggression, Aletheia, Ancient Greek law, Anthropic principle, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Asa Gray, Biosemiotics, Causality, Charles Darwin, Concept, Convergent evolution, Developmental biology, Edward Feser, Empirical evidence, Ernst Mayr, Ethology, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Four causes, Four discourses, Francis Bacon, Francis Darwin, Francisco J. Ayala, Function (biology), George Holmes Howison, Greek language, Hippocratic Corpus, Jacques Lacan, James G. Lennox, Martin Heidegger, Mechanism (biology), Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Moral responsibility, Natural selection, Nature (philosophy), Nikolaas Tinbergen, Novum Organum, Octave, On Ancient Medicine, Ontogeny, Organism, Phylogenetic tree, Physical law, Physics, Physics (Aristotle), Physis, Plato, ..., Poiesis, Potentiality and actuality, Proximate and ultimate causation, Science, Socrates, Stafford Beer, Substance theory, Techne, Teleology, Teleology in biology, Testosterone, The Advancement of Learning, The purpose of a system is what it does, The Question Concerning Technology, Theory of forms, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomism, Tinbergen's four questions, Veritas. Expand index (19 more) »

Adaptation

In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Aggression

Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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Aletheia

Aletheia (Ancient Greek: ἀλήθεια) is revolution or rising in philosophy.

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Ancient Greek law

Ancient Greek law consists of the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece.

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Anthropic principle

The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.

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Aristotelianism

Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Asa Gray

Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 – January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.

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Biosemiotics

Biosemiotics (from the Greek βίος bios, "life" and σημειωτικός sēmeiōtikos, "observant of signs) is a field of semiotics and biology that studies the prelinguistic meaning-making, or production and interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm.

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Causality

Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Concept

Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Edward Feser

Edward Feser (born April 16, 1968) is an American philosopher, writer, and academic.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Ernst Mayr

Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.

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Ethology

Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Four causes

The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?".

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Four discourses

Four discourses is a concept developed by French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Francis Darwin

Sir Francis "Frank" Darwin,, FRSE LLD (16 August 1848 – 19 September 1925), was a son of the British naturalist and scientist Charles Darwin.

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Francisco J. Ayala

Francisco José Ayala Pereda (born March 12, 1934) is a Spanish-American evolutionary biologist and philosopher who was a longtime faculty member at the University of California, Irvine.

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Function (biology)

In biology, function has been defined in many ways.

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George Holmes Howison

George Holmes Howison (1834–1916) was an American philosopher who established the philosophy department at the University of California, Berkeley and held the position there of Mills Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy and Civil Polity.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hippocratic Corpus

The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.

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Jacques Lacan

Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".

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James G. Lennox

James G. Lennox (born January 11, 1948) is a professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, United States, with secondary appointments in the departments of Classics and Philosophy.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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Mechanism (biology)

In the science of biology, a mechanism is a system of causally interacting parts and processes that produce one or more effects.

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Metaphysics

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Metaphysics (Aristotle)

Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.

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Moral responsibility

In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nature (philosophy)

Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.

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Nikolaas Tinbergen

Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen (15 April 1907 – 21 December 1988) was a Dutch biologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns in animals.

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Novum Organum

The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.

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Octave

In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.

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On Ancient Medicine

The treatise On Ancient Medicine (Περὶ Ἀρχαίας Ἰατρικῆς; Latin: De vetere medicina) is perhaps the most intriguing and compelling work of the Hippocratic Corpus.

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Ontogeny

Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physics (Aristotle)

The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.

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Physis

Physis (Greek: italic phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Poiesis

In philosophy, poiesis (from ποίησις) is "the activity in which a person brings something into being that did not exist before." Poiesis is etymologically derived from the ancient Greek term ποιεῖν, which means "to make".

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Potentiality and actuality

In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.

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Proximate and ultimate causation

A proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Socrates

Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Stafford Beer

Stafford Beer (born Anthony Stafford Beer, 25 September 1926 – 23 August 2002) was a British theorist, consultant and professor at the Manchester Business School.

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Substance theory

Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.

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Techne

"Techne" is a term, etymologically derived from the Greek word τέχνη, that is often translated as "craftsmanship", "craft", or "art".

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Teleology

Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Teleology in biology

Teleology in biology is the use of the language of goal-directedness in accounts of evolutionary adaptation, which some biologists and philosophers of science find problematic.

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Testosterone

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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The Advancement of Learning

Title page The Advancement of Learning (full title: Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human) is a 1605 book by Francis Bacon.

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The purpose of a system is what it does

The purpose of a system is what it does (POSIWID) is a systems thinking heuristic coined by Stafford Beer.

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The Question Concerning Technology

The Question Concerning Technology (Die Frage nach der Technik) is a work by Martin Heidegger, in which the author discusses the essence of technology.

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Theory of forms

The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Thomism

Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.

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Tinbergen's four questions

Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and based on Aristotle's four causes, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour.

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Veritas

In Roman mythology, Veritas, meaning truth, is the goddess of truth, a daughter of Chronos, the God of Time (who has been identified with Saturn-Cronus, perhaps first by Plutarch), and the mother of Virtus.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_causes

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