319 relations: Adamson v. California, Adkins v. Children's Hospital, Affirmative action, Afroyim v. Rusk, Akhil Amar, Alabama, Alien (law), Allgeyer v. Louisiana, American Civil War, Andrew Johnson, Apportionment (politics), Arkansas, Arthur Goldberg, Baker v. Carr, Bancroft Treaties, Barron v. Baltimore, Benton v. Maryland, Berea College v. Kentucky, Birth control, Birth tourism, Black Codes (United States), Black people, BMW of North America, Inc. v. Gore, Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett, Bolling v. Sharpe, Brown v. Board of Education, Bruce Bartlett, Buchanan v. Warley, Burton v. Wilmington Parking Authority, Bush v. Gore, California, Caperton v. A.T. Massey Coal Co., Charles Sumner, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. v. City of Chicago, Chinese Americans, Citizenship Clause, City of Boerne v. Flores, Civil and political rights, Civil Rights Act of 1866, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Cases, Clarence Thomas, Columbia Law Review, Columbia Law School, Confederate States of America, Conflict of interest, Congressional Research Service, Connecticut, Cornell Law School, Corporate personhood, ..., CQ Press, Craig v. Boren, Cultural diversity, Da Capo Press, Delaware, Democratic Party (United States), Desegregation busing, Dictum, Dred Scott v. Sandford, Due Process Clause, Duncan v. Louisiana, Eisenstadt v. Baird, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Elk v. Wilkins, Emancipation Proclamation, Engblom v. Carey, Equal Protection Clause, Eric Foner, Erwin Chemerinsky, Espionage Act of 1917, Examining Board v. Flores de Otero, Felony disenfranchisement, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fisher v. University of Texas (2013), Flagg Bros., Inc. v. Brooks, Florida, Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board v. College Savings Bank, Foreign Affairs Manual, Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Freedom of contract, Freedom of movement, Furman v. Georgia, Garrett Epps, Georgetown Law Journal, Georgia (U.S. state), Gideon v. Wainwright, Gitlow v. New York, Gold Clause Cases, Goldberg v. Kelly, Goss v. Lopez, Gratz v. Bollinger, Gregg v. Georgia, Griswold v. Connecticut, Grutter v. Bollinger, Harry Blackmun, Hernandez v. Texas, HighBeam Research, History of the United States Republican Party, Holden v. Hardy, Hugo Black, Hunter v. Underwood, Hurtado v. California, Illegal immigration, Illinois, Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, Indian Citizenship Act, Indiana, Intermediate scrutiny, Iowa, Jack Balkin, Jackson v. Metropolitan Edison Co., Jacob M. Howard, James Rood Doolittle, Jefferson Davis, Jeffrey Rosen, John Bingham, John Conness, John Marshall Harlan II, Joseph P. Bradley, JSTOR, Judicial disqualification, Jurisdiction, Jury, Kansas, Katzenbach v. Morgan, Kentucky, Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents, Korematsu v. United States, Latino, Lawrence v. Texas, League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry, Legal Information Institute, Levy v. Louisiana, List of common misconceptions, Lochner v. New York, Loss of citizenship, Louisiana, Loving v. Virginia, Lyman Trumbull, Maine, Malloy v. Hogan, Mapp v. Ohio, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mathews v. Eldridge, Maxwell v. Dow, McDonald v. City of Chicago, Mexican Americans, Meyer v. Nebraska, Michigan, Michigan Law Review, Minnesota, Minor v. Happersett, Misdemeanor, Mississippi, Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan, Missouri, Morrison Waite, Mugler v. Kansas, Muller v. Oregon, Munn v. Illinois, National Archives and Records Administration, National debt of the United States, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Native Americans in the United States, Naturalization, Nebbia v. New York, Nebraska, Negro, Nevada, Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York (state), North Carolina, O'Connor v. Donaldson, Obergefell v. Hodges, Ohio, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., One man, one vote, Oregon, Oxford University Press, Oyama v. California, Palko v. Connecticut, Palmer v. Thompson, Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives, Pennsylvania, Perez v. Brownell, Pierce v. Society of Sisters, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, Plessy v. Ferguson, Plyler v. Doe, Poe v. Ullman, Political question, Poll tax, Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Co. of Puerto Rico, Powell v. Alabama, President of the United States, Privacy laws of the United States, Privileges and Immunities Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Procedural due process, Promulgation, Public university, Racial quota, Racial segregation, Racism, Radical Republican, Railroad Retirement Board, Randy Barnett, Reconstruction Acts, Reconstruction Amendments, Reconstruction era, Reed v. Reed, Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke, Reitman v. Mulkey, Reverdy Johnson, Reynolds v. Sims, Rhode Island, Richardson v. Ramirez, Right to privacy, Robert E. Lee, Robinson v. California, Rochin v. California, Roe v. Wade, Romer v. Evans, Saenz v. Roe, Salon (website), Samuel Freeman Miller, San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Co., Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, SCOTUSblog, Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Separate but equal, Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, Shaw v. Reno, Shelby County v. Holder, Shelley v. Kraemer, Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Skinner v. Oklahoma, Slaughter-House Cases, Social Security (United States), Socialist Party of America, South Carolina, Southern United States, Standing (law), State actor, State constitution (United States), State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. v. Campbell, Strauder v. West Virginia, Substantive due process, Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia, Supreme Court of the United States, Susan B. Anthony, Tennessee, Tennessee v. Lane, Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Texas, Thaddeus Stevens, The Washington Post, Third Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Three-Fifths Compromise, Time (magazine), Timothy Geithner, Tom DeLay, Treason, Twining v. 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Wong Kim Ark, University of California, Irvine School of Law, University of Chicago Press, University of Maryland School of Law, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, Unseated members of the United States Congress, Vance v. Terrazas, Vermont, Victor L. Berger, Virginia, Virginia Law Review, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Washington v. Glucksberg, Wendell Phillips, Wesberry v. Sanders, West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, West Virginia, Western Kentucky University, William H. Seward, William O. Douglas, Wisconsin, Women's suffrage in the United States, Wong Wing v. United States, Woodrow Wilson, Yale Law Journal, Yale University, Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 1870 United States Census. Expand index (269 more) » « Shrink index
Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46 (1947), was a United States Supreme Court case regarding the incorporation of the Fifth Amendment of the Bill of Rights.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923), is a United States Supreme Court opinion that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract, as protected by the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967), is a major United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that citizens of the United States may not be deprived of their citizenship involuntarily.
Akhil Reed Amar (born September 6, 1958) is an American legal scholar, an expert on constitutional law and criminal procedure.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
In law, an alien is a person who is not a national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree.
Allgeyer v. Louisiana,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which a unanimous court struck down a Louisiana statute for violating an individual's liberty of contract.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Apportionment is the process by which seats in a legislative body are distributed among administrative divisions entitled to representation.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Arthur Joseph Goldberg (August 8, 1908January 19, 1990) was an American statesman and jurist who served as the 9th U.S. Secretary of Labor, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the 6th United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Baker v. Carr,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that redistricting (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide redistricting cases.
The Bancroft treaties, also called the Bancroft conventions, were a series of agreements made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries between the United States and other countries.
Barron v. Baltimore,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court case in 1833, which helped define the concept of federalism in US constitutional law.
Benton v. Maryland,, is a Supreme Court of the United States decision concerning double jeopardy.
Berea College v. Kentucky, was a significant case argued before the United States Supreme Court that upheld the rights of states to prohibit private educational institutions chartered as corporations from admitting both black and white students.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Birth tourism is travel to another country for the purpose of giving birth in that country.
The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
BMW of North America, Inc.
Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett, 531 U.S. 356 (2001), was a United States Supreme Court case about Congress's enforcement powers under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case which deals with civil rights, specifically, segregation in the District of Columbia's public schools.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Bruce Reeves Bartlett (born October 11, 1951) is an American historian whose area of expertise is supply-side economics.
Buchanan v. Warley,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States addressed civil government-instituted racial segregation in residential areas.
Burton v. Wilmington Parking Authority, 365 U.S. 715 (1961),.
Bush v. Gore,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Co., 556 U.S. 868 (2009),.
Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts.
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co.
Chinese Americans, which includes American-born Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Chinese ancestry.
The Citizenship Clause is the first sentence of Section 1 in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which was adopted on July 9, 1868.
City of Boerne v. Flores,, was a US Supreme Court case concerning the scope of Congress's enforcement power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866,, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The Civil Rights Cases,,. were a group of five US Supreme Court constitutional law cases.
Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Columbia Law Review is a law review edited and published by students at Columbia Law School.
Columbia Law School (often referred to as Columbia Law or CLS) is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Cornell Law School is the law school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York.
Corporate personhood is the legal notion that a corporation, separately from its associated human beings (like owners, managers, or employees), has at least some of the legal rights and responsibilities enjoyed by natural persons (physical humans).
CQ Press, a division of SAGE Publications, publishes books, directories, periodicals, and electronic products on American government and politics, with an expanding list in international affairs and journalism and mass communication.
Craig v. Boren,, was the first case in which a majority of the United States Supreme Court determined that statutory or administrative sex classifications were subject to intermediate scrutiny under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.
Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay.
Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools so as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.
In general usage, a dictum (from Latin, "something that has been said"; plural dicta) is an authoritative or dogmatic statement.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.
Duncan v. Louisiana,, was a significant United States Supreme Court decision which incorporated the Sixth Amendment right to a jury trial and applied it to the states.
Eisenstadt v. Baird,, is a United States Supreme Court case that established the right of unmarried people to possess contraception on the same basis as married couples.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.
Elk v. Wilkins,, was a United States Supreme Court case respecting the citizenship status of Indians.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Engblom v. Carey, 677 F.2d 957 (2d Cir. 1982), on rem. 572 F. Supp.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943) is an American historian.
Erwin Chemerinsky (born May 14, 1953) is an American lawyer and scholar known for his studies in United States constitutional law and federal civil procedure.
The Espionage Act of 1917 is a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years.
Examining Board v. Flores de Otero, 426 U.S. 572 (1976), was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated a state law that excluded aliens from the practice of civil engineering.
Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote (known as disfranchisement) due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes: felonies (crimes of incarceration for a duration of more than a year).
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
Fisher v. University of Texas,, also known as Fisher I (to distinguish it from the 2016 case), is a United States Supreme Court case concerning the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Texas at Austin.
Flagg Bros., Inc.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board v. College Savings Bank,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States relating to the doctrine of sovereign immunity.
The Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) is published by the United States Department of State and can be accessed on the Department's website.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
Freedom of contract is the freedom of private or public individuals and groups (of any legal entity) to form nonviolent contracts without government restrictions.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
Furman v. Georgia, was a criminal case in which the United States Supreme Court struck down all death penalty schemes in the United States in a 5–4 decision, with each member of the majority writing a separate opinion.
Garrett Epps (born 1950 in Richmond, Virginia) is an American legal scholar, novelist, and journalist.
The Georgetown Law Journal is a student-edited scholarly journal published at Georgetown University Law Center.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Gideon v. Wainwright,, is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history.
Gitlow v. New York,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the reach of certain limitations on federal government authority set forth in the First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states.
The Gold Clause Cases were a series of actions brought before the Supreme Court of the United States, in which the court narrowly upheld restrictions on the ownership of gold implemented by the administration of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in order to fight the Great Depression.
Goldberg v. Kelly,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution requires an evidentiary hearing before a recipient of certain government welfare benefits can be deprived of such benefits.
Goss v. Lopez,, was a US Supreme Court case.
Gratz v. Bollinger, was a United States Supreme Court case regarding the University of Michigan undergraduate affirmative action admissions policy.
Gregg v. Georgia, Proffitt v. Florida, Jurek v. Texas, Woodson v. North Carolina, and Roberts v. Louisiana,, reaffirmed the United States Supreme Court's acceptance of the use of the death penalty in the United States, upholding, in particular, the death sentence imposed on Troy Leon Gregg.
Griswold v. Connecticut,, is a landmark case in the United States about access to contraception.
Grutter v. Bollinger,, was a landmark case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School.
Harry Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908March 4, 1999) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994.
Hernandez v. Texas, was a landmark case, "the first and only Mexican-American civil-rights case heard and decided by the United States Supreme Court during the post-World War II period." In a unanimous ruling, the court held that Mexican Americans and all other nationality groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
Holden v. Hardy,, is a US labor law case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that a limitation on working time for miners and smelters was constitutional.
Hugo Lafayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971.
Hunter v. Underwood,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court invalidated the criminal disenfranchisement provision of § 182 of the Alabama Constitution as a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Hurtado v. California,, was a case decided on by the United States Supreme Court.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States, called "Indians" in this Act.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
Intermediate scrutiny, in U.S. constitutional law, is the second level of deciding issues using judicial review.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Jack M. Balkin (born August 13, 1956) is an American legal scholar.
Jackson v. Metropolitan Edison Co., 419 U.S. 345 (1974), is an administrative law case of the Supreme Court of the United States holding that extensive state regulation of a public utility does not transform its acts into state action that is reviewable by a federal court under the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Jacob Merritt Howard (July 10, 1805April 2, 1871) was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan during and after the American Civil War.
James Rood Doolittle (January 3, 1815July 27, 1897) was an American politician who served as a senator from Wisconsin from March 4, 1857, to March 4, 1869.
Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865.
Jeffrey Rosen (born February 13, 1964) is an American academic and commentator on legal affairs.
John Armor Bingham (January 21, 1815 – March 19, 1900) was an American Republican Representative from Ohio, an assistant to Judge Advocate General in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination, and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson.
John Conness (September 22, 1821 – January 10, 1909) was a first-generation Irish-American businessman who served as a U.S. Senator (1863–1869) from California during the American Civil War and the early years of Reconstruction.
John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971.
Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813 – January 22, 1892) was an American jurist best known for his service on the United States Supreme Court, and on the Electoral Commission that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Judicial disqualification, also referred to as recusal, is the act of abstaining from participation in an official action such as a legal proceeding due to a conflict of interest of the presiding court official or administrative officer.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Katzenbach v. Morgan,, was a United States Supreme Court case regarding the power of Congress, pursuant to Section 5 of the 14th Amendment, to enact laws that enforce and interpret provisions of the Constitution.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents,, was a United States Supreme Court case that determined that the Congress's enforcement powers under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution did not extend to the abrogation of state sovereign immunity under the Eleventh Amendment where the discrimination complained of was rationally based on age.
Korematsu v. United States,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
Latino is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin America, in contrast to Hispanic which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.
Lawrence v. Texas,.
League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry, 548 U.S. 399 (2006), is a Supreme Court of the United States case in which the Court ruled that only District 23 of the 2003 Texas redistricting violated the Voting Rights Act.
The Legal Information Institute (LII) is a non-profit, public service of Cornell Law School that provides no-cost access to current American and international legal research sources online at.
Levy v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 68 (1968), is a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States.
This list of common misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics.
Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905), was a landmark U.S. labor law case in the US Supreme Court, holding that limits to working time violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
Loss of citizenship, also referred to as loss of nationality, is the event of ceasing to be a citizen of a country under the nationality law of that country.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Lyman Trumbull (October 12, 1813 – June 25, 1896) was a United States Senator from Illinois and the co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Malloy v. Hogan,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States deemed defendants' Fifth Amendment privilege not to be compelled to be witnesses against themselves was applicable within state courts as well as federal courts, overruling the decision in Twining v. New Jersey (1908).
Mapp v. Ohio,, was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Mathews v. Eldridge,, is a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that individuals have a statutorily granted property right in Social Security benefits, and the termination of such benefits implicates due process but does not require a pre-termination hearing.
Maxwell v. Dow,, is a United States Supreme Court decision which addressed two questions relating to the Due Process Clause.
McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. (2010), is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that found that the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" as protected under the Second Amendment is incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment against the states.
Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.
Meyer v. Nebraska,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that held that a 1919 Nebraska law restricting foreign-language education violated the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The Michigan Law Review is an American law review that was established in 1902 and is completely run by law students.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Minor v. Happersett,, is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the Constitution did not grant anyone, and in this case specifically a female citizen of the state of Missouri, a right to vote even when a state law granted rights to vote to a certain class of citizens.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan,, was a case decided 5-4 by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was an attorney, judge, and politician from Ohio.
Mugler v. Kansas,, was an important United States Supreme Court case in which the 8–1 opinion of Associate Justice John Marshall Harlan and the lone partial dissent by Associate Justice Stephen Johnson Field laid the foundation for the Supreme Court's later acceptance and defense during the Lochner era of Justice Field's theory of economic substantive due process under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Muller v. Oregon, 208 U.S. 412 (1908), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court.
Munn v. Illinois, 94 U.S. 113 (1876), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the power of government to regulate private industries.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The national debt of the United States is the public debt carried by the federal government of the United States, which is measured as the face value of the currently outstanding Treasury securities that have been issued by the Treasury and other federal government agencies.
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a privately funded, nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., that works in the field of historic preservation in the United States.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Nebbia v. New York, 291 U.S. 502 (1934), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States decided that New York State could regulate the price of milk for dairy farmers, dealers, and retailers.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs, 538 U.S. 721 (2003), was a United States Supreme Court case which held that the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 was "narrowly targeted" at "sex-based overgeneralization" and was thus a "valid exercise of power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment."See Hibbs, 538 U.S. at 726-27 & n.1.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
O'Connor v. Donaldson,, was a landmark decision in mental health law.
Obergefell v. Hodges,, is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in a 5–4 decision that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.
One man, one vote (or one person, one vote) is a slogan used by advocates of political equality through various electoral reforms such as universal suffrage, proportional representation, or the elimination of plurality voting, malapportionment, or gerrymandering.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oyama v. State of California,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court decided that specific provisions of the 1913 and 1920 California Alien Land Laws abridged the rights and privileges guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to Fred Oyama, a citizen of the United States in whose name his father, who held Japanese citizenship, had purchased land.
Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319 (1937), was a United States Supreme Court case concerning the incorporation of the Fifth Amendment protection against double jeopardy.
Palmer v. Thompson, 403 U.S. 217 (1971),.
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No.
Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives, also known as floor leaders, are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Perez v. Brownell,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court affirmed Congress's right to revoke United States citizenship as a result of a citizen's voluntary performance of specified actions, even in the absence of any intent or desire on the person's part to lose citizenship.
Pierce, Governor of Oregon, et al.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state statutory provisions regarding abortion was challenged.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
Plyler v. Doe,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down both a state statute denying funding for education to undocumented children and a municipal school district's attempt to charge undocumented immigrants an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each immigrant student to compensate for the lost state funding.
Poe v. Ullman,, was a United States Supreme Court case that held that plaintiffs lacked standing to challenge a Connecticut law that banned the use of contraceptives, and banned doctors from advising their use, because the law had never been enforced.
In American Constitutional law, the political question doctrine is closely linked to the concept of justiciability, as it comes down to a question of whether or not the court system is an appropriate forum in which to hear the case.
A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates, dba Condado Holiday Inn v. Tourism Company of Puerto Rico et al.; 106 S. Ct 2968; 92 L. Ed.
In Powell v. Alabama, the United States Supreme Court reversed the convictions of nine young black men for allegedly raping two white women on a freight train near Scottsboro, Alabama.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The privacy laws of the United States deal with several different legal concepts.
The Privileges and Immunities Clause (U.S. Constitution, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1, also known as the Comity Clause) prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.
The Privileges or Immunities Clause is Amendment XIV, Section 1, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution.
Procedural due process is a legal doctrine in the United States that requires government officials to follow fair procedures before depriving a person of life, liberty, or property.
Promulgation is the formal proclamation or declaration that a new statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final approval.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.
The U.S. Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) is an independent agency in the executive branch of the United States government created in 1935 to administer a social insurance program providing retirement benefits to the country's railroad workers.
Randy Evan Barnett (born February 5, 1952, in Chicago) is an American lawyer, law professor at Georgetown University Law Center, where he teaches constitutional law and contracts, and legal theory.
The Reconstruction Acts, or Military Reconstruction Acts, (March 2, 1867, 14 Stat. 428-430, c.153; March 23, 1867, 15 Stat. 2-5, c.6; July 19, 1867, 15 Stat. 14-16, c.30; and March 11, 1868, 15 Stat. 41, c.25) were four statutes passed during the Reconstruction Era by the 40th United States Congress addressing requirement for Southern States to be readmitted to the Union.
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
Reed v. Reed,, was an Equal Protection case in the United States in which the Supreme Court ruled that the administrators of estates cannot be named in a way that discriminates between sexes.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke,, was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Reitman v. Mulkey,, was a United States Supreme Court decision that set an important legal precedent that held that a state could not authorize invidious discrimination by private landlords without entangling itself in the ensuing discriminatory private decisions.
Reverdy Johnson (May 21, 1796February 10, 1876) was a statesman and jurist from Maryland.
Reynolds v. Sims, was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that unlike in the election of the United States Senate, in the election of any chamber of a state legislature the electoral districts must be roughly equal in population (thus negating the traditional function of a State Senate, which was to allow rural counties to counterbalance large towns and cities).
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Richardson v. Ramirez, 418 U.S. 24 (1974), held that convicted felons could be barred from voting without violating the Fourteenth Amendment.
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
Robinson v. California,, is the first decision of the United States Supreme Court in which the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution was interpreted to prohibit criminalization of particular acts or conduct, as contrasted with prohibiting the use of a particular form of punishment for a crime.
Rochin v. California,, was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States that added behavior that "shocks the conscience" into tests of what violates due process.
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions.
Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996),.
Sáenz v. Roe, 526 U.S. 489 (1999), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States discussed whether there is a constitutional right to travel from one state to another.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 – October 13, 1890) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court who served from 1862 to 1890.
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that San Antonio Independent School District's financing system, which was based on local property taxes, was not an unconstitutional violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause. The majority opinion, reversing the District Court, stated that the appellees did not sufficiently prove a textual basis, within the US Constitution, supporting the principle that education is a fundamental right. Urging that the school financing system led to wealth-based discrimination, the plaintiffs had argued that the fundamental right to education should be applied to the States, through the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court found that there was no such fundamental right and that the unequal school financing system was not subject to strict scrutiny.
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 118 U.S. 394 (1886), is a United States corporate law case of the United States Supreme Court on taxation of railroad properties.
Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, 572 U.S. ___ (2014), was a case before the United States Supreme Court questioning whether a state violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by enshrining a ban on race- and sex-based discrimination on public university admissions in its state constitution.
SCOTUSblog is a law blog written by lawyers, law professors, and law students about the Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes abbreviated "SCOTUS").
The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted during the Reconstruction Era, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
The Seventh Amendment (Amendment VII) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights.
Shaw v. Reno,, was a United States Supreme Court case argued on April 20, 1993.
Shelby County v. Holder,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court case regarding the constitutionality of two provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965: Section 5, which requires certain states and local governments to obtain federal preclearance before implementing any changes to their voting laws or practices; and Section 4(b), which contains the coverage formula that determines which jurisdictions are subjected to preclearance based on their histories of discrimination in voting.
Shelley v. Kraemer, (1948) is a landmark United States Supreme Court case holding that the State-Action Doctrine includes the enforcement of private contracts, the Equal Protection Clause prohibits racially restrictive housing covenants, and that such covenants are unenforceable in court.
The Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal prosecutions.
Skinner v. State of Oklahoma, ex rel. Williamson,,. was the United States Supreme Court ruling that held that laws permitting the compulsory sterilization of criminals are unconstitutional if the sterilization law treats similar crimes differently.
The Slaughter-House Cases,, was the first United States Supreme Court interpretation of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment which had recently been enacted.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
In law, standing or locus standi is the term for the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case.
In United States law, a state actor is a person who is acting on behalf of a governmental body, and is therefore subject to regulation under the United States Bill of Rights, including the First, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, which prohibit the federal and state governments from violating certain rights and freedoms.
In the United States, each state has its own constitution.
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co.
Strauder v. West Virginia,, was a United States Supreme Court case about racial discrimination.
Substantive due process, in United States constitutional law, is a principle allowing courts to protect certain fundamental rights from government interference, even if procedural protections are present or the rights are not specifically mentioned elsewhere in the US Constitution.
The Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia is the state supreme court of the state of West Virginia, the highest of West Virginia's state courts.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Susan B. Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Tennessee v. Lane,, was a case in the Supreme Court of the United States involving Congress's enforcement powers under section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Third Amendment (Amendment III) to the United States Constitution places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent, forbidding the practice in peacetime.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timothy Franz Geithner (born August 18, 1961) is a former American central banker who served as the 75th United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Barack Obama from 2009 to 2013.
Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1985 until 2006.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Twining v. New Jersey,, was an early case of the U.S. Supreme Court.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The Joint Committee on Reconstruction, also known as the Joint Committee of Fifteen, was a joint committee of the 39th United States Congress that played a major role in Reconstruction in the wake of the American Civil War.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Constitution contains several provisions regarding the law of criminal procedure.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (in case citations, 4th Cir.) is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia, with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.
The United States debt-ceiling crisis of 2011 was a stage in the ongoing political debate in the United States Congress about the appropriate level of government spending and its effect on the national debt and deficit.
The 2013 United States debt-ceiling crisis centered on the raising of the federal government debt ceiling, and is part of an ongoing political debate in the United States Congress about federal government spending and the national debt.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
United States labor law sets the rights and duties for employees, labor unions, and employers in the United States.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 21 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation.
United States v. Morrison,, is a United States Supreme Court decision which held that parts of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 were unconstitutional because they exceeded congressional power under the Commerce Clause and under section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
United States v. Virginia,, is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down the long-standing male-only admission policy of the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in a 7–1 decision. (Justice Clarence Thomas, whose son was enrolled at VMI at the time, recused himself.).
United States v. Wheeler, 254 U.S. 281 (1920),United States v. Wheeler,.
United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898),.
The University of California, Irvine School of Law is the law school at the University of California, Irvine.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law (formerly University of Maryland School of Law; sometimes shortened to Maryland Law or Maryland Carey Law) is the law school of the University of Maryland, Baltimore and is located in Baltimore City, Maryland, U.S. Founded in 1816 as the Maryland Law Institute with regular instruction beginning in 1824, it is the second-oldest law school in the United States, only behind William & Mary Law School and ahead of Harvard Law School.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law is a scholarly journal focusing on issues of constitutional law published in print and electronically by an organization of second- and third-year J.D. students at the University of Pennsylvania Law School.
Both houses of the United States Congress have refused to seat new members based on Article I, Section 5 of the United States Constitution which states that, "Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide." This had been interpreted that members of the House of Representatives and of the Senate could refuse to recognize the election or appointment of a new representative or senator for any reason, often political heterodoxy or criminal record.
Vance v. Terrazas, was a United States Supreme Court decision that established that a United States citizen cannot have his or her citizenship taken away unless he or she has acted with an intent to give up that citizenship.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Victor Luitpold Berger (February 28, 1860 – August 7, 1929) was a founding member of the Social Democratic Party of America and its successor, the Socialist Party of America.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia Law Review is a law review edited and published by students at University of Virginia School of Law.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
Washington v. Glucksberg,, was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously held that a right to assisted suicide in the United States was not protected by the Due Process Clause.
Wendell Phillips (November 29, 1811 – February 2, 1884) was an American abolitionist, advocate for Native Americans, orator, and attorney.
Wesberry v. Sanders,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case involving U.S. Congressional districts in the state of Georgia.
West Coast Hotel Co.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
Western Kentucky University is a public university in Bowling Green, Kentucky, United States.
William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator.
William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
Women's suffrage in the United States of America, the legal right of women to vote, was established over the course of several decades, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, and then nationally in 1920.
Wong Wing v. United States, 163 U.S. 228 (1896), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court found that the 5th and 6th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution forbid the imprisonment at hard labor without a jury trial for non citizens convicted of illegal entry to or presence in the United States.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The Yale Law Journal is a student-run law review affiliated with the Yale Law School.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356 (1886),.
The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census.
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