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# Frame of reference

In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements. [1]

92 relations: Acceleration, Algebra, Analytical mechanics, Applied mechanics, Arc length, Atomic clock, Axiomatic system, Banach space, Basis (linear algebra), Cartesian coordinate system, Center-of-momentum frame, Centrifugal force, Centripetal force, Classical mechanics, Configuration space (physics), Constitutive equation, Coordinate system, Coordinate time, Coriolis force, Curvilinear coordinates, Dynamics (mechanics), Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Entropic gravity, Euler force, Fictitious force, Fourier series, Frame fields in general relativity, Free particle, Frenet–Serret formulas, Galilean invariance, Galilean transformation, General relativity, Generalized coordinates, Generalized forces, Geodesic, Geometry, Gravitational time dilation, Gravity, Hamilton's principle, Hausdorff space, Inertial frame of reference, International Celestial Reference Frame, International Terrestrial Reference System, Karl Schwarzschild, Kilogram, Kinematics, Laboratory frame of reference, Lagrangian and Eulerian specification of the flow field, Lagrangian mechanics, Lie group, ... Expand index (42 more) »

## Acceleration

In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

## Analytical mechanics

In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, analytical mechanics, or theoretical mechanics is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics.

## Applied mechanics

Applied mechanics (also engineering mechanics) is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics.

## Arc length

Determining the length of an irregular arc segment is also called rectification of a curve.

## Atomic clock

An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.

## Axiomatic system

In mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logically derive theorems.

## Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced) is a complete normed vector space.

## Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

## Center-of-momentum frame

In physics, the center-of-momentum frame (also zero-momentum frame or COM frame) of a system is the unique (up to velocity but not origin) inertial frame in which the total momentum of the system vanishes.

## Centrifugal force

In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.

## Centripetal force

A centripetal force (from Latin centrum, "center" and petere, "to seek") is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.

## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

## Configuration space (physics)

In classical mechanics, the parameters that define the configuration of a system are called generalized coordinates, and the vector space defined by these coordinates is called the configuration space of the physical system.

## Constitutive equation

In physics and engineering, a constitutive equation or constitutive relation is a relation between two physical quantities (especially kinetic quantities as related to kinematic quantities) that is specific to a material or substance, and approximates the response of that material to external stimuli, usually as applied fields or forces.

## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

## Coordinate time

In the theory of relativity, it is convenient to express results in terms of a spacetime coordinate system relative to an implied observer.

## Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

## Curvilinear coordinates

In geometry, curvilinear coordinates are a coordinate system for Euclidean space in which the coordinate lines may be curved.

## Dynamics (mechanics)

Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.

## Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

## Entropic gravity

Entropic gravity, also known as emergent gravity, is a theory in modern physics that describes gravity as an entropic force—a force with macro-scale homogeneity but which is subject to quantum-level disorder—and not a fundamental interaction.

## Euler force

In classical mechanics, the Euler force is the fictitious tangential force that is felt in reaction to any angular acceleration.

## Fictitious force

A fictitious force (also called a pseudo force, d'Alembert force, or inertial force) is an apparent force that acts on all masses whose motion is described using a non-inertial frame of reference, such as a rotating reference frame.

## Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.

## Frame fields in general relativity

In general relativity, a frame field (also called a tetrad or vierbein) is a set of four orthonormal vector fields, one timelike and three spacelike, defined on a Lorentzian manifold that is physically interpreted as a model of spacetime.

## Free particle

In physics, a free particle is a particle that, in some sense, is not bound by an external force, or equivalently not in a region where its potential energy varies.

## Frenet–Serret formulas

In differential geometry, the Frenet–Serret formulas describe the kinematic properties of a particle moving along a continuous, differentiable curve in three-dimensional Euclidean space ℝ3, or the geometric properties of the curve itself irrespective of any motion.

## Galilean invariance

Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames.

## Galilean transformation

In physics, a Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian physics.

## General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

## Generalized coordinates

In analytical mechanics, specifically the study of the rigid body dynamics of multibody systems, the term generalized coordinates refers to the parameters that describe the configuration of the system relative to some reference configuration.

## Generalized forces

Generalized forces find use in Lagrangian mechanics, where they play a role conjugate to generalized coordinates.

## Geodesic

In differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".

## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

## Gravitational time dilation

Gravitational time dilation is a form of time dilation, an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers situated at varying distances from a gravitating mass.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Hamilton's principle

In physics, Hamilton's principle is William Rowan Hamilton's formulation of the principle of stationary action (see that article for historical formulations).

## Hausdorff space

In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space, separated space or T2 space is a topological space in which distinct points have disjoint neighbourhoods.

## Inertial frame of reference

An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.

## International Celestial Reference Frame

In astrometry, an International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is a realization of the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) using reference celestial sources observed at radio wavelengths.

## International Terrestrial Reference System

The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface.

## Karl Schwarzschild

Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German physicist and astronomer.

## Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

## Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.

## Laboratory frame of reference

In physics, the laboratory frame of reference, or lab frame for short, is a frame of reference centered on the laboratory in which the experiment (either real or thought experiment) is done.

## Lagrangian and Eulerian specification of the flow field

In classical field theory the Lagrangian specification of the field is a way of looking at fluid motion where the observer follows an individual fluid parcel as it moves through space and time.

## Lagrangian mechanics

Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.

## Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

## Line (geometry)

The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.

## Linguistic frame of reference

Linguistic frame of reference is a frame of reference as it is expressed in a language.

A mechanical linkage is an assembly of bodies connected to manage forces and movement.

## Lorentz transformation

In physics, the Lorentz transformations (or transformation) are coordinate transformations between two coordinate frames that move at constant velocity relative to each other.

## Mach's principle

In theoretical physics, particularly in discussions of gravitation theories, Mach's principle (or Mach's conjecture) is the name given by Einstein to an imprecise hypothesis often credited to the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach.

## Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.

## Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

## Measurement in quantum mechanics

The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement.

## Measurement problem

The measurement problem in quantum mechanics is the problem of how (or whether) wave function collapse occurs.

## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

## Metric tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.

## Metrology

Metrology is the science of measurement.

## Model theory

In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic.

## Moving frame

In mathematics, a moving frame is a flexible generalization of the notion of an ordered basis of a vector space often used to study the extrinsic differential geometry of smooth manifolds embedded in a homogeneous space.

## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

## Non-inertial reference frame

A non-inertial reference frame is a frame of reference that is undergoing acceleration with respect to an inertial frame.

## Normal mode

A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.

## Observer (special relativity)

In special relativity, an observer is a frame of reference from which a set of objects or events are being measured.

## Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

## Orthogonal coordinates

In mathematics, orthogonal coordinates are defined as a set of d coordinates q.

## Phase space

In dynamical system theory, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Principle of relativity

In physics, the principle of relativity is the requirement that the equations describing the laws of physics have the same form in all admissible frames of reference.

## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

## Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

## Quantum reference frame

A quantum reference frame is a reference frame which is treated quantum theoretically.

## Rapidity

In relativity, rapidity is commonly used as a measure for relativistic velocity.

## Relative velocity

The relative velocity \vec_ (also \vec_ or \vec_) is the velocity of an object or observer B in the rest frame of another object or observer A.

## Representation theory

Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.

## Representation theory of the Galilean group

In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, an account can be given of the existence of mass and spin (normally explained in Wigner's classification of relativistic mechanics) in terms of the representation theory of the Galilean group, which is the spacetime symmetry group of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.

## Representation theory of the Poincaré group

In mathematics, the representation theory of the Poincaré group is an example of the representation theory of a Lie group that is neither a compact group nor a semisimple group.

## Robotics

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

## Rod and frame test

The rod and frame test is a psychophysical method of testing perception.

## Rotating reference frame

A rotating frame of reference is a special case of a non-inertial reference frame that is rotating relative to an inertial reference frame.

## Second

The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.

## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

## Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

## Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

## Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

## Vacuum

Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

## References

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