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François Hollande

Index François Hollande

François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017. [1]

220 relations: Agnosticism, Andorra, Antoni Martí, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Argentina, Arnaud Montebourg, Atheism, Austria, École nationale d'administration, Bamako, Barack Obama, BBC News, Benjamin Netanyahu, Benoît Puga, Bernard Cazeneuve, Bernard Combes, Bertrand Delanoë, Canada, Canon (priest), Catholic Church, Central African Republic, Charlie Hebdo shooting, Closer (magazine), Co-Princes of Andorra, Collar (order), Constitutional Council (France), Corporate tax, Corrèze, Corrèze General Council, Corrèze's 1st constituency, Councillor, Court of Audit (France), Credit rating agency, Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Departmental council (France), Departments of France, Dijon, Directive (European Union), Domestic partnership, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Dutch language, Eastern Bloc, Edwy Plenel, El Khomri law, Emmanuel Macron, EU Directive 2010/63/EU, European Commission, European Council, European migrant crisis, Ex officio member, ..., First Secretary of the French Socialist Party, François Mitterrand, France, France (European Parliament constituency), France–Germany relations, French European Constitution referendum, 2005, French Fifth Republic, French legislative election, 1981, French legislative election, 1988, French legislative election, 1993, French legislative election, 1997, French legislative election, 2002, French legislative election, 2007, French presidential election, 1974, French presidential election, 1995, French presidential election, 2002, French presidential election, 2007, French presidential election, 2012, French presidential election, 2017, French regional elections, 2004, French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2011, Gaullism, General Council (Andorra), Goodluck Jonathan, Government of France, Grand Cross, Greece, Hauts-de-France, HEC Paris, Herman Van Rompuy, History of far-right movements in France, Holland, Holy See, HuffPost, Income tax, International Business Times, International Monetary Fund, Israel, Italy, Jacques Attali, Jacques Chirac, Jacques Delors, Jean-Marc Ayrault, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Jean-Pierre Dupont, Joan Enric Vives Sicília, José Manuel Barroso, Julie Gayet, Kazakhstan, L'Obs, La Vie, Law 2013-404, Le Bourget, Le Mans Congress, Le Monde, Le Parisien, Legion of Honour, LGBT adoption, Lionel Jospin, List of heads of government of Andorra, List of mayors of Paris, List of mayors of Tulle, List of Presidents of Corrèze General Council, Lycée Pasteur (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Mali, Manila, Manuel Valls, Martine Aubry, Max Gallo, Mayor (France), Member of the European Parliament, Miller, Monaco, Morocco, National Assembly (France), National Order of Mali, National Order of Merit (France), National Order of Quebec, NATO, Netherlands, Neuilly-sur-Seine, New York v. Strauss-Kahn, Nicolas Sarkozy, November 2015 Paris attacks, Nuclear power in France, Open market operation, Operation Barkhane, Operation Serval, Order of Central African Merit, Order of chivalry, Order of Friendship (Kazakhstan), Order of Isabella the Catholic, Order of King Abdulaziz, Order of Liberty, Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, Order of Ouissam Alaouite, Order of Saint-Charles, Order of the Bath, Order of the Liberator General San Martín, Order of the Netherlands Lion, Order of the Redeemer, Order of the Republic (Tunisia), Order of the Star of Romania, Order of the White Double Cross, Order of the White Eagle (Poland), Orléans, Otorhinolaryngology, Panthéon-Assas University, Paris Match, Passbook, Pensions in France, Pierre Moscovici, Pierre-René Lemas, Plouvain, Poland, Portugal, President of France, President of the European Commission, Prime Minister of France, Proportional representation, Public housing in France, Radical Party of the Left, Rally for the Republic, Raymond-Max Aubert, Regions of France, Renewable energy, Retirement age, Romania, Rouen, Royal Order of the Seraphim, Same-sex marriage in France, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Ségolène Royal, Sciences Po, Senate (France), Sixty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly, Slovakia, Small and medium-sized enterprises, Social work, Socialist Party (France), Solidarity tax on wealth, Sophie Dessus, Spain, St. Peter's Basilica, State visit, Stéphane Le Foll, Sweden, Sylvie Hubac, Taxation in France, Télé 7 Jours, TF1, Thank You for This Moment, The Guardian, The New York Times, Tourism in France, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Tulle, Tunisia, Two-round system, United Kingdom, Ussel, Corrèze, Valérie Trierweiler, Vicenç Mateu Zamora, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), 2011 military intervention in Libya, 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2016 Nice attack, 2024 Summer Olympics. Expand index (170 more) »

Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Andorra

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.

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Antoni Martí

Antoni Martí Petit (born 30 July 1963) is an Andorran architect and politician who has been the Prime Minister of Andorra since May 2011, when he was elected on the ticket of the Democrats for Andorra.

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Archbasilica of St. John Lateran

The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Arnaud Montebourg

Arnaud Montebourg (born 30 October 1962) is a French politician who served in the government of France as Minister of Industrial Renewal from May 2012 to August 2014.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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École nationale d'administration

The École nationale d'administration (generally referred to as ÉNA;; National School of Administration) is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle, and principal author of the French Constitution, Michel Debré, to democratise access to the senior civil service.

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Bamako

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 1.8 million (2009 census, provisional).

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Benjamin Netanyahu

Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999.

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Benoît Puga

Benoît Puga (born 30 January 1953 in Saint-Mandé) is a French Général d'armée of the French Army and Grand Chancellor G.C. of the Légion d'honneur L.H (Grand Chancelier de la Légion d'honneur).

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Bernard Cazeneuve

Bernard Guy Georges Cazeneuve (born 2 June 1963) is a French politician and lawyer who served as Prime Minister of France from December 2016 to May 2017.

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Bernard Combes

Bernard Combes (born 13 March 1960) is a French politician.

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Bertrand Delanoë

Bertrand Delanoë (born 30 May 1950) is a retired French politician who was Mayor of Paris from 25 March 2001 to 5 April 2014.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canon (priest)

A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Charlie Hebdo shooting

On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30 local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris.

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Closer (magazine)

Closer is a British tabloid magazine published by Bauer Media Group.

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Co-Princes of Andorra

The Co-Princes of Andorra or Co-Monarchs of Andorra are jointly the head of state (Cap de l'Estat) of the Principality of Andorra, a landlocked microstate lying in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain.

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Collar (order)

A collar is an ornate chain, often made of gold and enamel, and set with precious stones, which is worn about the neck as a symbol of membership in various chivalric orders.

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Constitutional Council (France)

The Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel) is the highest constitutional authority in France.

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Corporate tax

A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.

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Corrèze

Corrèze (Corresa) is a department in south-western France, named after the river Corrèze which runs though it.

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Corrèze General Council

The Corrèze General Council is the general council of Corrèze (France).

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Corrèze's 1st constituency

The 1st constituency of the Corrèze is a French legislative constituency in the Corrèze department (Limousin).

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Councillor

A Councillor is a member of a local government council.

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Court of Audit (France)

The Court of Auditors (in French Cour des comptes) is a French administrative court charged with conducting financial and legislative audits of most public institutions and some private institutions, including the central Government, national public corporations, social security agencies (since 1950), and public services (since 1976).

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Credit rating agency

A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.

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Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria

The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich) is a national honour awarded by the Republic of Austria.

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Departmental council (France)

The departmental councils (French: conseil départemental) of France are assemblies of the departments, elected by universal suffrage.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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Dijon

Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.

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Directive (European Union)

A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.

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Domestic partnership

A domestic partnership is an interpersonal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are not married (to each other or to anyone else), but they receive a lot of benefits that guarantee rights of survivor ship, hospital visitation and others.

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Dominique Strauss-Kahn

Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn (born 25 April 1949) is a French politician, former managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and a controversial figure in the French Socialist Party due to his involvement in several financial and sexual scandals.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Edwy Plenel

Hervé Edwy Plenel (born 31 August 1952) is a French political journalist.

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El Khomri law

The loi n° 2016-1088 du 8 août 2016 relative au travail, à la modernisation du dialogue social et à la sécurisation des parcours professionnels is a piece of national legislation in France relating to employment.

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Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.

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EU Directive 2010/63/EU

EU Directive 2010/63/EU is the European Union (EU) legislation "on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes" and is one of the most stringent ethical and welfare standards worldwide.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Council

The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.

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European migrant crisis

The European migrant crisis, or the European refugee crisis, is a term given to a period beginning in 2015 when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union (EU), travelling across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.

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Ex officio member

An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.

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First Secretary of the French Socialist Party

The First Secretary of the Socialist Party is the most senior politician within the Socialist Party in France.

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France (European Parliament constituency)

In European elections, France was a constituency of the European Parliament.

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France–Germany relations

The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Ulrich Krotz, has three grand periods: 'hereditary enmity' (down to 1945), 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (Amitié franco-allemande; Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft).

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French European Constitution referendum, 2005

The French referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was held on 29 May 2005 to decide whether France should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union.

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French Fifth Republic

The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.

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French legislative election, 1981

French legislative elections took place on 14 June and 21 June 1981 to elect the seventh National Assembly of the Fifth Republic.

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French legislative election, 1988

French legislative elections took place on 5 June and 12 June 1988, to elect the ninth National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, one month after the re-election of François Mitterrand as President of France.

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French legislative election, 1993

French legislative elections took place on 21 and 28 March 1993 to elect the tenth National Assembly of the Fifth Republic.

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French legislative election, 1997

A French legislative election took place on 25 May and 1 June 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic.

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French legislative election, 2002

The French legislative elections took place on 9 June and 16 June 2002 to elect the 12th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, in a context of political crisis.

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French legislative election, 2007

The French legislative elections took place on 10 June and 17 June 2007 to elect the 13th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, a few weeks after the French presidential election run-off on 6 May.

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French presidential election, 1974

Presidential elections were held in:France in 1974, following the death of President Georges Pompidou.

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French presidential election, 1995

Presidential elections took place in France on 23 April and 7 May 1995, to elect the fifth president of the Fifth Republic.

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French presidential election, 2002

The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002.

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French presidential election, 2007

The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France (and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra) for a five-year term.

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French presidential election, 2012

A presidential election was held in France on 22 April 2012 (or 21 April in some overseas departments and territories), with a second round run-off held on 6 May (or 5 May for those same territories) to elect the President of France (who is also ex officio one of the two joint heads of state of Andorra, a sovereign state).

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French presidential election, 2017

The 2017 French presidential election was held on 23 April and 7 May 2017.

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French regional elections, 2004

Regional elections in were held in France on 21 and 28 March 2004.

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French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2011

The 2011 French Socialist Party presidential primary was the first open primary (primaires citoyennes) of the French Socialist Party and Radical Party of the Left for selecting their candidate for the 2012 presidential election.

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Gaullism

Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.

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General Council (Andorra)

The General Council (Consell General d'Andorra) is the unicameral parliament of Andorra.

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Goodluck Jonathan

Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan (born 20 November 1957)Lawson Heyford,, The Source (Lagos), 11 December 2006.

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Government of France

The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.

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Grand Cross

Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, and manifested in its insignia.

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Greece

No description.

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Hauts-de-France

Hauts-de-France (translates to "Upper France" in English; Heuts-d'Franche) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy.

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HEC Paris

HEC Paris (École des hautes études commerciales de Paris) is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France.

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Herman Van Rompuy

Herman Achille, Count Van Rompuy (Herman Achille, Graaf Van Rompuy,; born 31 October 1947) is a Belgian politician, who formerly served as Prime Minister of Belgium and then as the first President of the European Council.

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History of far-right movements in France

The far-right tradition in France finds its origins in the Third Republic with Boulangism and the Dreyfus Affair.

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Holland

Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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HuffPost

HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jacques Attali

Jacques Attali (born 1 November 1943) is a French economic and social theorist, writer, political adviser and senior civil servant, who served as a counselor to President François Mitterrand from 1981 to 1991 and was the first head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 1991-1993.

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Jacques Chirac

Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.

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Jacques Delors

Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born 20 July 1925) is a French politician who served as the 8th President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995.

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Jean-Marc Ayrault

Jean-Marc Ayrault (born 25 January 1950) is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 16 May 2012 to 31 March 2014.

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Jean-Marie Le Pen

Jean-Marie Le Pen (born 20 June 1928) is a French politician who has served as Honorary President of the National Front since January 2011 and a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from France since 2004, previously between 1984 and 2003.

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Jean-Pierre Dupont

Jean-Pierre Dupont (born 19 June 1933) is a member of the National Assembly of France.

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Joan Enric Vives Sicília

Joan-Enric Vives i Sicília (born 24 July 1949) is the current Bishop of Urgell, a Catholic diocese, and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra.

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José Manuel Barroso

José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese politician who is the current non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International.

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Julie Gayet

Julie Gayet (born 3 June 1972) is a French film actress and film producer.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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L'Obs

L’Obs, previously known as Le Nouvel Observateur (1964–2014), is a weekly French news magazine.

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La Vie

La Vie is a weekly French Roman Catholic magazine, edited by Malesherbes Publications, a member of the Groupe La Vie-Le Monde.

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Law 2013-404

The law opening marriage to same-sex couples, no.

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Le Bourget

Le Bourget is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Le Mans Congress

The Le Mans Congress was the twenty-first national congress of the French Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS).

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Le Monde

Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.

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Le Parisien

Le Parisien (French for "The Parisian") is a French daily newspaper covering both international and national news, and local news of Paris and its suburbs.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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LGBT adoption

LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.

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Lionel Jospin

Lionel Jospin (born 12 July 1937) is a French politician, who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997 to 2002.

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List of heads of government of Andorra

The Head of Government of the Principality of Andorra, alternatively known as the Prime Minister of Andorra, is the chief executive of the government of Andorra.

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List of mayors of Paris

The Mayor of Paris (Maire de Paris) is the chief executive of Paris, the capital and largest city in the France.

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List of mayors of Tulle

The office of the Mayor of Tulle is a directly elected position.

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List of Presidents of Corrèze General Council

In French politics, The President of Corrèze General Council prepares and supervises the spending of the budget and the decisions voted by the general councillors.

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Lycée Pasteur (Neuilly-sur-Seine)

The Lycée Pasteur (French: Lycée Pasteur de Neuilly-sur-Seine) is a French state-run secondary school in Neuilly-sur-Seine, on the outskirts of Paris.

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Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Manila

Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Manuel Valls

Manuel Carlos Valls Galfetti (born 13 August 1962) is a French politician of Spanish origin who served as Prime Minister of France from 2014 until 2016.

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Martine Aubry

Martine Louise Marie Aubry (née Delors; born 8 August 1950) is a French politician.

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Max Gallo

Max Gallo (7 January 1932 – 18 July 2017) was a French writer, historian and politician.

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Mayor (France)

In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters.

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Member of the European Parliament

A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

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Miller

A miller is a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour.

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Monaco

Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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National Assembly (France)

The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).

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National Order of Mali

The National Order of Mali is the highest of honorific orders of Mali.

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National Order of Merit (France)

The National Order of Merit (Ordre national du Mérite) is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle.

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National Order of Quebec

The National Order of Quebec, termed officially in French as l'Ordre national du Québec, and in English abbreviation as the Order of Quebec, is a civilian honour for merit in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Neuilly-sur-Seine

Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine.

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New York v. Strauss-Kahn

The People of the State of New York v. Strauss-Kahn was a criminal case relating to allegations of sexual assault and attempted rape made by a hotel maid, Nafissatou Diallo, against Dominique Strauss-Kahn at the Sofitel New York Hotel on 14 May 2011.

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Nicolas Sarkozy

Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.

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November 2015 Paris attacks

The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.

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Nuclear power in France

Nuclear power is a major source of energy in France, with a 40% share of energy consumption in 2015.

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Open market operation

An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks.

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Operation Barkhane

Operation Barkhane is an ongoing anti-insurgent operation in Africa's Sahel region, which commenced 1 August 2014.

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Operation Serval

Operation Serval (Opération Serval) was a French military operation in Mali.

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Order of Central African Merit

The Order of Central African Merit is the highest civil decoration of the Central African Republic.

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Order of chivalry

A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.

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Order of Friendship (Kazakhstan)

The Order of Friendship (Достық ордені) is a state award of the Republic of Kazakhstan, introduced in 1995.

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Order of Isabella the Catholic

The Order of Isabella the Catholic (Orden de Isabel la Católica) is a Spanish civil order in which membership is granted in recognition of services that benefit the country.

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Order of King Abdulaziz

The Order of King Abdulaziz is a Saudi-Arabian Order of Merit.

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Order of Liberty

The Order of Liberty, or the Order of Freedom (Ordem da Liberdade), is a Portuguese honorific civil order that distinguishes relevant services to the cause of democracy and freedom, in the defense of the values of civilization and human dignity.

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Order of Merit of the Italian Republic

The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Ordine al merito della Repubblica Italiana) was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951.

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Order of Ouissam Alaouite

The Order of Ouissam Alaouite or the Sharifian Order of Al-Alaoui is a military decoration of Morocco which is bestowed by the King of Morocco upon those civilians and military officers who have displayed heroism in combat or have contributed meritorious service to the Moroccan state.

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Order of Saint-Charles

The Order of Saint-Charles (Ordre de Saint-Charles) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in Monaco on 15 March 1858.

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Order of the Bath

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.

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Order of the Liberator General San Martín

The Order of the Liberator General San Martin (Orden del Libertador General San Martín) is the highest decoration in Argentina.

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Order of the Netherlands Lion

The Order of the Netherlands Lion, also referred to as the Order of the Lion of the Netherlands (De Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, L'Ordre du Lion Néerlandais) is a Dutch order of chivalry founded by King William I of the Netherlands on 29 September 1815.

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Order of the Redeemer

The Order of the Redeemer (translit), also known as the Order of the Saviour, is an order of merit of Greece.

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Order of the Republic (Tunisia)

The Order of the Republic is an order of Tunisia.

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Order of the Star of Romania

The Order of the Star of Romania (Romanian: Ordinul Steaua României) is Romania's highest civil Order and second highest State decoration after the defunct Order of Michael the Brave.

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Order of the White Double Cross

The Order of the White Double Cross (Rad Bieleho dvojkríža) is the highest state decoration of the Republic of Slovakia.

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Order of the White Eagle (Poland)

The Order of the White Eagle (Order Orła Białego) is Poland's highest order awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits.

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Orléans

Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.

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Otorhinolaryngology

Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.

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Panthéon-Assas University

Panthéon-Assas University (Université Panthéon-Assas ynivɛʁsite pɑ̃teɔ̃ asas, also referred to as "Assas" asas, "Paris II" paʁi dø, or "Sorbonne Law School") is a public university in Paris, France.

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Paris Match

Paris Match is a French-language weekly news magazine.

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Passbook

A passbook or bankbook is a paper book used to record bank, or building society transactions on a deposit account.

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Pensions in France

Pensions in France fall into five major divisions;.

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Pierre Moscovici

Pierre Moscovici (born 16 September 1957) is a French politician currently serving as the European Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs.

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Pierre-René Lemas

Pierre-René Lemas (born 23 February 1951 in French Algeria) is a French civil servant.

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Plouvain

Plouvain is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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President of the European Commission

The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.

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Prime Minister of France

The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Public housing in France

Public housing in France (French: logement social, also called Habitations à loyer modéré, or HLM) is a central, local or social program designed to provide subsidized assistance for low-income and poor people.

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Radical Party of the Left

The Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche, PRG) was a social-liberal political party in France.

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Rally for the Republic

The Rally for the Republic (Rassemblement pour la République; RPR), was a Neo-Gaullist and conservative political party in France.

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Raymond-Max Aubert

Raymond-Max Aubert (born 15 March 1947) is a French right-wing politician who was a deputy in the National Assembly of France during the mid-1990s.

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Regions of France

France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Retirement age

This article lists the statutory retirement age in different countries.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rouen

Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Royal Order of the Seraphim

The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish: Kungliga Serafimerorden; Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star.

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Same-sex marriage in France

Same-sex marriage has been legal in France since 18 May 2013.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen

No description.

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Ségolène Royal

Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953), is a French politician and prominent member of the Socialist Party.

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Sciences Po

The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).

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Senate (France)

The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.

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Sixty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly

The sixty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly opened on 18 September 2012 and having its last scheduled meeting on 11 September 2013.

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Slovakia

Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Small and medium-sized enterprises

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, also small and medium enterprises) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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Socialist Party (France)

The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.

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Solidarity tax on wealth

The solidarity tax on wealth (Impôt de solidarité sur la fortune or ISF) is an annual direct wealth tax on those in France having assets in excess of €1,300,000, (since 2011).

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Sophie Dessus

Sophie Dessus (24 September 1955 – 3 March 2016) was a Socialist politician from Corrèze, France, representing Corrèze's First Constituency in the National Assembly, the first woman to represent Corrèze in the National Assembly.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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St. Peter's Basilica

The Papal Basilica of St.

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State visit

A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of that country's head of state, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit.

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Stéphane Le Foll

Stéphane Le Foll (born 3 February 1960) is a French politician for the Socialist Party.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Sylvie Hubac

Sylvie Hubac (born 1956) is the former Chief of Staff of President François Hollande and was the personal representative of the French Co-Prince of Andorra between 2012 and 2015.

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Taxation in France

Taxation in France is determined by the yearly budget vote by the French Parliament, which determines which kinds of taxes can be levied and which rates can be applied.

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Télé 7 Jours

Télé 7 Jours is a French weekly magazine published by Hachette Filipacchi Médias in France.

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TF1

TF1 (té effe un) is a private national French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues.

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Thank You for This Moment

Merci pour ce moment (Thank you for this moment) is a 2014 best-selling political memoir authored by Valérie Trierweiler, a French journalist and the former partner of French President François Hollande.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tourism in France

Tourism in France directly contributed 77.7 billion euros to gross domestic product, 30% of which comes from international visitors and 70% from domestic tourism spending.

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Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe

The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).

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Tulle

Tulle is a commune in central France.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Two-round system

The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Ussel, Corrèze

Ussel (Ussèl) is a commune in the Corrèze department in central France.

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Valérie Trierweiler

Valérie Trierweiler (née Massonneau; born 16 February 1965) is a French journalist and author.

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Vicenç Mateu Zamora

Viçenc Mateu Zamora (born 3 December 1961) is an Andorran diplomat and politician.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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2011 military intervention in Libya

On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.

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2014 Israel–Gaza conflict

The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.

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2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015.

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2016 Nice attack

On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19 tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and the injury of 458 others.

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2024 Summer Olympics

The 2024 Summer Olympics (Jeux olympiques d'été de 2024), officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, and commonly known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/François_Hollande

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