Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Free
Faster access than browser!
 

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories. [1]

1463 relations: Aérospatiale, Abacus, Abolition of monarchy, Absolute monarchy, Académie des Beaux-Arts, Académie française, Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, Academic art, Academy of sciences, Adélie Land, Administrative law, Aerospace manufacturer, Age of Enlightenment, Agence France-Presse, Agnosticism, Air (band), Air France, Air-Sol Moyenne Portée, Air-to-surface missile, Airbus, Airbus A400M Atlas, Aircraft carrier, Alans, Albert Camus, Albertville, Albigensian Crusade, Alemanni, Alexandre Alexeieff, Alexandre Dumas, Alexandrine, Alfred North Whitehead, Algeria, Algerian War, Allies of World War II, Alpine climate, Alps, Alsatian dialect, Amedeo Modigliani, American Revolutionary War, Americans in France, Amiens Cathedral, Amnesty International, Amphitheatre, AMX Leclerc, Anatole Litvak, Ancien Régime, Andorra, André Derain, Andrzej Żuławski, Anglicisation, ..., Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Années folles, Anne of Austria, Anno Domini, Annual leave, Ansar Dine, Anti-imperialism, Antisemitism, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Antoine Lavoisier, Aquitani, Arabic numerals, Arc de Triomphe, Ardennes, Argentina, Arianism, Armillary sphere, Armorica, Armorican Massif, Arrondissements of France, Asian French, Association football, Association of Caribbean States, Atheism, Athens, Atlantic Ocean, Atonality, August Decrees, Auguste and Louis Lumière, Auguste Comte, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Augustus, Austria, Authority, Auvergne, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Avant-garde, Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod), AXA, Axis powers, École nationale d'administration, École Polytechnique, Édith Piaf, Édouard Lalo, Édouard Manet, Édouard Philippe, Éguzon Dam, Électricité de France, Élysée Montmartre, Élysée Treaty, Émile Durkheim, Émile Zola, Épuration légale, Étang de Soulcem, Île Amsterdam, Île Saint-Paul, Île-de-France, Baby boom, Ballon d'Or, Barbarian, Baroque, Baruch Spinoza, Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, Basilica of St Denis, Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics, Basketball at the 2000 Summer Olympics, Basque language, Bastille Day, Bastille Day military parade, Battle of Austerlitz, Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Battle of France, Battle of Hastings, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Battle of Tours, Battle of Waterloo, BBC, BBC News, Beaujolais, Beef bourguignon, Belgium, Belle Époque, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Bernard Devauchelle, Bicameralism, Big Four (Western Europe), Black Death, Blacks in France, Blaise Pascal, Blasphemy, Bluebeard, BNP Paribas, Bob Sinclar, Boléro, Bordeaux, Bordeaux wine, Bourbon Restoration, Brazil, Breach of the peace, Breton language, Bretons, Brie, Britannicus, British Empire, Brittany, Brittany (administrative region), Bronze, Burgundy, Burgundy wine, Cadastre, Café liégeois, Camargue, Camembert, Cameroon, Cameroonian Independence War, Camille Pissarro, Camille Saint-Saëns, Camino de Santiago, Canal du Midi, Cannes Film Festival, Cantons of France, Capital city, Capitole de Toulouse, Carbon tax, Carcassonne, Cardinal Mazarin, Cardinal Richelieu, Carmen, Carnac stones, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Empire, Casablanca, Case law, Cassoulet, Castle, Catalan Countries, Catalan language, Catalans Dragons, Cathar castles, Catharism, Cathedral, Catholic Church, Côte d'Albâtre, Cello Concerto (Lalo), Celtic Britons, Celtic polytheism, Celts, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Central Powers, Centre des monuments nationaux, Centre Georges Pompidou, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CERN, CFP franc, Chad, Chamonix, Champagne, Championship (rugby league), Chanel, Channel Tunnel, Chanson, Chanson de geste, Charlemagne, Charles Aznavour, Charles de Gaulle, Charles de Gaulle Airport, Charles Gounod, Charles IV of France, Charles Martel, Charles Perrault, Charles the Bald, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charlie Hebdo, Chartres Cathedral, Château, Château d'Amboise, Château d'Angers, Château d'Ussé, Château de Chambord, Château de Chantilly, Château de Chenonceau, Château de Chinon, Château de Montsoreau, Château de Villandry, Château de Vincennes, Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg, Childhood obesity, Choucroute garnie, Chrétien de Troyes, Christian, Christian de Portzamparc, Christian Dior SE, Christian Lacroix, Christianity, Chromaticism, Chronic condition, Church (building), Cinderella, Cinema of the United States, Circus (building), Citizenship, Citroën, Civil Constitution of the Clergy, Civil law (common law), Civil law (legal system), Civil solidarity pact, Claude Debussy, Claude Lorrain, Claude Montana, Clay court, Clipperton Island, Clock, Clovis I, Cluny Abbey, Cold War, Collective memory, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Colonies in antiquity, Columbia University, Combustion, Common Agricultural Policy, Common sense, Commoner, Communes of France, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Concert champêtre, Concordat in Alsace-Moselle, Conscription, Conseil d'État (France), Constantine the Great, Constitution of France, Constitution of the Year XII, Constitutional law, Constitutional republic, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA, Contemporary art, Contemporary classical music, Continental climate, Copper, Corporatization, Corsica, Count of Toulouse, County of Nice, Coup of 18 Brumaire, Court of Cassation (France), Courtier, Crème brûlée, Crédit Agricole, Crêpe, Credit rating agency, Crimean War, Criminal law, Cromwell (play), Croque-monsieur, Crown lands of France, Crozet Islands, Crusader states, Crusades, Cult, Cultural assimilation, Cultural exception, Culture of the United States, Cystic fibrosis, Daft Punk, Dalida, Damascus, Danse macabre (Saint-Saëns), Dante Alighieri, Daphnis et Chloé, DASA, Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D, Dassault nEUROn, Dassault Rafale, Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard, Dauphiné, David Guetta, David Hume, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Declaration of Pillnitz, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Decline of newspapers, Deficit spending, Demographics of France, Denis Diderot, Deportation of Roma migrants from France, Developed country, Development aid, Dialogues of the Carmelites, Diamant, Diesel engine, Diplomatic mission, Directorate-General for External Security, Disneyland Paris, Disneyland Park (Paris), Django Reinhardt, Dominique Perrault, Duchy of Savoy, Duel, Dutch language, Early modern France, East Francia, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Ecotourism, Edgar Degas, Edgardo Cozarinsky, Edict of Fontainebleau, Edict of Nantes, Edmund Burke, Education Index, Edward Gibbon, Edward III of England, Eiffel Tower, Eight-hour day, Electricity, Elite One Championship, Elitism, Elle (magazine), Emmanuel Macron, Empire style, Encyclopédie, Endurance racing (motorsport), English Channel, Entente Cordiale, Environmental Performance Index, Erik Satie, Essays (Montaigne), Estates General (France), Estates General of 1789, Estates of the realm, Ethnic groups in Europe, Etymologiae, Eugène Delacroix, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Euro, Euro banknotes, Euro coins, EuroBasket 2013, Eurockéennes, Eurocopter Tiger, Eurofighter Typhoon, Euronext, Euronext Paris, Europe, Europe 1, European and American voyages of scientific exploration, European Commission, European Economic Community, European Single Market, European Space Agency, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, European Union, Eurostar, Eurotunnel Shuttle, Eurozone, Events preceding World War II in Europe, Ex post facto law, Exclusive economic zone, Execution of Louis XVI, Existentialism, Exocet, Extermination camp, Fable, Face transplant, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Family reunification, Faust (opera), Fauvism, Fête de la Musique, Fencing, Feudalism, Fields Medal, FIFA World Cup, Filmmaking, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, First French Empire, First Indochina War, First language, Flag of France, Flemish painting, Flight to Varennes, Fluid mechanics, Foie gras, Force de dissuasion, Foreign direct investment, Foreign worker, Fortune Global 500, Françafrique, François Boucher, François Couperin, François de Rugy, François Rabelais, France 2, France 24, France 3, France and weapons of mass destruction, France in the American Revolutionary War, France Inter, France national basketball team, France national football team, France national rugby union team, France Télévisions, France–Germany relations, Francesco Primaticcio, Francia, Francis I of France, Francis Poulenc, Francis Veber, Francisca, Franco-Prussian War, Franco-Spanish War (1635–59), Franks, Free France, Freedom of religion, Freedom of religion in France, Freedom of speech, FREMM multipurpose frigate, French Academy in Rome, French Academy of Sciences, French Air Force, French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, French Algeria, French Alps, French Army, French art, French Évian Accords referendum, 1962, French ban on face covering, French Baroque architecture, French Basque Country, French campaign in Egypt and Syria, French colonial empire, French Constitution of 1791, French Consulate, French Development Agency, French Directory, French Fifth Republic, French First Republic, French Flanders, French Flemish, French Foreign Legion, French Fourth Republic, French franc, French Guiana, French India, French invasion of Russia, French language, French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, French Navy, French New Wave, French nobility, French onion soup, French Open, French opera, French Parliament, French people, French poetry, French Polynesia, French popular music, French Renaissance, French Resistance, French Revolution, French Revolution of 1848, French Revolutionary Wars, French Riviera, French Section of the Workers' International, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French Third Republic, French Wars of Religion, French wine, Fronde, Gabriel Fauré, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallic rooster, Gallo-Roman culture, Garabit viaduct, Gare d'Orsay, Gargantua and Pantagruel, Garonne, Gaspar Noé, Gaspard de la nuit, Gaston Bachelard, Gaul, Gaullism, Gaullist Party, Gauls, Gayssot Act, Géla Babluani, Gérard Larcher, Gendarmerie, George Berkeley, Georges Bizet, Georges Braque, Georges Brassens, Georges Seurat, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Georgia (country), German language, German military administration in occupied France during World War II, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Germany, GIGN, Gipsy Kings, Girondins, Givenchy, Glacier, GlobalPost, Gloria (Poulenc), Gojira (band), Gold, Gothic architecture, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Government of France, Grand Est, Grand Palais, Grand Slam (rugby union), Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux, Grandes écoles, Grands corps de l'État, Grasse, Great power, Greeks, Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, Greenhouse gas, Grenoble, Gross domestic product, Group of Eight, Group of Seven, Guadeloupe, Guiana Space Centre, Gustave Courbet, Gustave Eiffel, Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy, Guy Canivet, Guy de Maupassant, Gymnopédies, Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Spain, Haiphong incident, Hand transplantation, Harpsichord, Hate speech laws in France, Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Haute couture, Hautes-Pyrénées, Hauts-de-France, Head of state, Health care in France, Health in France, Health system, HEC Paris, Hector Berlioz, Henri Becquerel, Henri Bergson, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Grégoire, Henri Matisse, Henri Poincaré, Henry IV of France, Hexagon, History of France, History of the Catholic Church in France, History of the Jews in France, History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867), HIV/AIDS, Hollywood, Holocaust denial, Holy Land, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Homer, Homo, Homo sapiens, Honoré de Balzac, House of Bonaparte, House of Bourbon, House of Capet, House of Valois, Hugh Capet, Huguenots, Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais, Human Development Index, Human Rights Watch, Humanism in France, Hundred Days, Hundred Years' War, Hungary, Hunter-gatherer, Immanuel Kant, Immigration, Immigration to France, Impressionism, Impressionism in music, Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean Commission, Individualism, Industrial Revolution, Inner Six, Institut français d'opinion publique, Institut géographique national, Institut Laue–Langevin, Institut Montaigne, Institut national d'études démographiques, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Insurrection of 10 August 1792, International Affairs (journal), International Bureau of Weights and Measures, International Futures, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, International organization, International rankings of France, Internment, Interpol, Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, Invasion of Normandy, Ionia, Iraq War, Iron, Iron Age, Irreligion, Isidore of Seville, Islam, Islam in France, ISO 4217, Italian art, Italian Wars, Italians in France, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jacob Grimm, Jacobin, Jacques Cartier, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Marescaux, Jacques Offenbach, Jacques the Fatalist, Jacques Tourneur, Jacques-Louis David, January 2015 Île-de-France attacks, Jean Baudrillard, Jean Cavaillès, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Fouquet, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Jean Nouvel, Jean Racine, Jean-Antoine Watteau, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse, Jean-François Lyotard, Jean-François Millet, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Jean-Michel Dubernard, Jean-Michel Jarre, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Jeux d'eau (Ravel), Joachim du Bellay, Joan of Arc, Joseph de Maistre, Journal officiel de la République française, Judaism, Judo, Jules Ferry, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Jules Massenet, Jules Verne, Jules Vuillemin, Julius Caesar, July Monarchy, July Revolution, Junk food, Jura Mountains, Just Fontaine, Justice (band), Köppen climate classification, Kendji Girac, Kerguelen Islands, Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Kingdom of France, Kingdom of France (1791–92), Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Soissons, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar, Krzysztof Kieślowski, L'Équipe, L'Express, L'Obs, La Comédie humaine, La Croix, La Défense, La Hire, La Légende des siècles, La Madeleine, Paris, La Marseillaise, La Pléiade, La Princesse de Clèves, La République En Marche!, Laïcité, Lac de Vouglans, Lancaster House Treaties, Lancelot-Grail, Land registration, Languages of France, Languedoc, Larger urban zone, Lascaux, Last glacial period, Late antiquity, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Latin peoples, Laurent Garnier, Lausanne, Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881, Léo Ferré, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, Le Canard enchaîné, Le Cid, Le Corbusier, Le Figaro, Le Monde, Le Parisien, Le Point, Le tombeau de Couperin, Le Zénith, Legion of Honour, Legitimacy (political), Les biches, Les Contemplations, Les Invalides, Les Misérables, Les Plus Beaux Villages de France, Les Rita Mitsouko, Les Rougon-Macquart, Levant, LGBT adoption, Liberal democracy, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, Ligue 1, Ligures, Lille, Limes, Lindbergh operation, Lingua franca, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of airports in France, List of basilicas in France, List of castles in France, List of cathedrals in France, List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries and dependencies by population density, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of countries by credit rating, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by life expectancy, List of countries by military expenditure share of GDP, List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, List of diplomatic missions of France, List of English monarchs, List of French cheeses, List of French monarchs, List of French philosophers, List of French rums, List of French scientists, List of largest empires, List of Ministers of Overseas France, List of most visited art museums, List of museums in France, List of Nobel laureates by country, List of Presidents of the National Assembly of France, List of Presidents of the Senate of France, List of Remarkable Gardens of France, List of states with nuclear weapons, List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower, List of uninhabited regions, List of universities and colleges in France, List of World Heritage Sites in France, Literary genre, Local law in Alsace-Moselle, Loire, Loire Valley, London Stock Exchange, Lorraine, Lothair I, Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald, Louis Pasteur, Louis the German, Louis the Pious, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lourdes, Louvre, Louvre Palace, Louvre Pyramid, Luc Besson, Luc Montagnier, Lugdunum, Luxembourg, Luxury yacht, LVMH, Lyon, Maastricht Treaty, Macaron, Madagascar, Madame de La Fayette, Magazine, Maghreb, Maghrebis, Malagasy Uprising, Mali, Mano Negra, Manon, Marc Chagall, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Marcel Proust, Marianne, Marie Claire, Marie Curie, Marigot, Saint Martin, Marin Marais, Marine protected area, Marseille, Martial arts, Martin Solveig, Martinique, Massif Central, Mata Utu, Matter of France, Maurice de Vlaminck, Maurice Ohana, Maurice Ravel, May 1968 events in France, Mayor of the Palace, Mayotte, Meditations on First Philosophy, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Megalith, Member state of the European Union, Merovingian dynasty, Metric system, Metro International, Metropolitan France, Michael Haneke, Michel de Montaigne, Michel Foucault, Michel Platini, Michel Richard Delalande, Michelin Guide, Microbiology, Middle Ages, Middle Francia, Migration Period, Millau Viaduct, Mille-feuille, Minatec, Mines ParisTech, Minister of the Armed Forces (France), Minister of the Interior (France), Ministry of Culture (France), Ministry of Ecology, Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, Ministry of National Education (France), Mireille Mathieu, Miroirs, Mistral (wind), Mixed economy, Modern philosophy, Modest Mussorgsky, Mona Lisa, Monaco, Monocle (UK magazine), Mont Blanc, Mont Saint-Michel, Montesquieu, Montgolfier brothers, Montpellier, Monument historique, Morality, Morocco, Morvan, Mousse, Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa, Municipal arrondissements of France, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Musée d'Orsay, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Musée Picasso, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes, Museum of Grenoble, Muslim, Mylène Farmer, Nancy, France, Nanotechnology, Nantes, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Code, Napoleonic Wars, Nation branding, National Assembly (France), National Assembly (French Revolution), National Constituent Assembly (France), National Convention, National diploma (France), National Gendarmerie, National health insurance, National Legislative Assembly (France), National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, National Museum of Natural History (France), National park, National personification, NATO, Nazi Germany, Neoclassicism, Neolithic, New Caledonia, New France, New World, New York Stock Exchange, Niagara (band), Nice, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Nicolas Malebranche, Nicolas Poussin, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Literature, Noir Désir, Nolwenn Leroy, Nomad, Normandy, North Sea, Northern Mali conflict, Nouméa, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, November 2015 Paris attacks, Nuclear power, Nuclear power in France, Nuclear weapon, NYSE Euronext, Obesity, Obscurantism, Occitan language, Occitanie (administrative region), Oceanic climate, OECD, Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française, Old French, Olive oil, Olympia (Paris), Opéra Bastille, Opéra National de Lyon, Opera, Operation Dragoon, Operetta, Optics, Orange S.A., Orchestra, Order of the Solar Temple, Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Orléans, Otar Iosseliani, Ouest-France, Outline of France, Overseas collectivity, Overseas France, Overseas region, Overseas territory (France), Oxygen, Pablo Picasso, Pacific Community, Pacific Ocean, Palace of Versailles, Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, Palais des Papes, Palais Garnier, Panthéon, Papeete, Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie, Paris, Paris Commune (French Revolution), Paris Masters, Paris Match, Paris Opera, Patrick Modiano, Paul Andreu, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Paul Langevin, Paul Verlaine, Pavane (Fauré), Pétanque, Peninsula, Pepin the Short, Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Perpignan, Petty kingdom, Peugeot, Phèdre, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philip II of France, Philip IV of France, Phocaea, Phoenix (band), Piano music of Gabriel Fauré, Pictures at an Exhibition, Pied-Noir, Pierre Boulez, Pierre Corneille, Pierre Curie, Pierre de Coubertin, Pierre de Ronsard, Pierre Schaeffer, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Place Stanislas, Poles, Pont de Normandie, Pont du Gard, Pope Leo III, Pope Sylvester II, Popular Front (France), Port-aux-Français, Portugal, Portuguese people, Positivism, Postmodern philosophy, Pot-au-feu, Power behind the throne, Pragmatism, President of France, Prime Minister of France, Private law, Privateer, Prix Goncourt, Probability, Process philosophy, Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy, Programme for International Student Assessment, Protected area, Protestantism, Protests of 1968, Proto-Germanic language, Provence, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Provisional Government of the French Republic, Psychological fiction, Public law, Purchasing power parity, Puss in Boots, Puy de Dôme, Pyrenees, Quality of life, Questia Online Library, Quiche, Racism, Radical centrism, Radical Party (France), Radicalism (historical), Radio France, Radio France Internationale, Radioactive decay, Rail transport, Rail transport in France, Rail transport in Germany, Rally for the Republic, Rally of the French People, Rameau's Nephew, Rapid transit, Rapsodie espagnole, Rationalism, Raymond Kopa, Réunion, Ready-to-wear, Realism (arts), Referendum, Refugee, Regions of France, Reims, Reims Cathedral, Religion in ancient Rome, Religious law, Remote surgery, Renault, René Descartes, Rennes, Republic, Republic of Mainz, Republican marches, Republicanism, Requiem (Fauré), Reynard, Rhône, Rhine, Road bicycle racing, Road tax, Rock en Seine, Rococo, Roi fainéant, Roman Empire, Roman Forum, Roman Gaul, Roman Polanski, Roman Republic, Roman theatre (structure), Romance languages, Romanesque architecture, Romani people, Romani people in France, Romantic music, Romanticism, Rooster, Roquefort, Rosé, Rosso Fiorentino, Rouen, RTL (French radio), Rugby league in France, Rugby union, Rugby World Cup, Rule of law, Rural flight, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint-Étienne, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Saint-Pierre, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Sainte-Chapelle, Salic law, Same-sex marriage, Samson and Delilah (opera), Samuel de Champlain, Savate, Savoy, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Sétif, Sétif and Guelma massacre, Scandinavia, Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, Scholasticism, School of Fontainebleau, Sciences Po, Scientific method, Scientific Revolution, Scientology, Scorched earth, Second Empire architecture, Second French Empire, Second French intervention in Mexico, Second Italian War of Independence, Second language, Secondary education in France, Secular state, Secularism, Secularity, Sedentism, Seine, Semi-presidential system, Senate (France), Senegal, Separation of church and state, Separation of powers, Separation of powers under the United States Constitution, September Massacres, Serfdom, Serge Gainsbourg, Seven Years' War, Sexual revolution, Shaka Ponk, Simon & Schuster, Sister republic, Six Nations Championship, Ski, Sleeping Beauty, SNCF, Social integration, Social security in France, Socialist Party (France), Société Générale, Sodomy law, Soissons, Solidays, Sonia Rykiel, Soprano, South America, Sovereign court, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Spa, Spaceport, Spain, Spaniards, Special Relationship, Spiritualism (philosophy), Sports car racing, St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, Stade de France, Stade Roland Garros, Stanford University Press, Stéphane Mallarmé, Steak frites, Stendhal, Storming of the Bastille, Strasbourg, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subarctic climate, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Suebi, Sui generis, Super League, Superbus (band), Supranational union, Suriname, Switzerland, Symbolism (arts), Symphonie espagnole, Symphonie fantastique, Symphony No. 3 (Saint-Saëns), Syncretism, Tampa Bay Times, Tapenade, Telephone numbers in France, Television in France, Temperate climate, Tennis, Territorial collectivity, TF1, TGV, Thalys, Théâtre du Capitole, Théâtre du Châtelet, Théâtre Mogador, Théodore Géricault, Théophile Gautier, The Ant and the Grasshopper, The Carnival of the Animals, The Charterhouse of Parma, The Count of Monte Cristo, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Family International, The Holocaust in France, The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, The Imaginary Invalid, The Little Prince, The Misanthrope, The Miser, The Mountain, The New York Times International Edition, The Red and the Black, The Republicans (France), The Song of Roland, The Spirit of the Laws, The Tales of Hoffmann, The Three Musketeers, The Times, The World Factbook, Thermodynamics, Thierry Henry, Thierry Mugler, Tony Parker, Top 14, Torture, Total fertility rate, Toulon, Toulouse, Toulouse Olympique, Tour de France, Tourism in France, Tramontane, Treason, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Verdun, Treaty of Versailles, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trente Glorieuses, Trial of Louis XVI, Triomphant-class submarine, Triple Entente, Tristan and Iseult, Trois mouvements perpétuels, Tropical climate, Tropical rainforest climate, Tuareg rebellion (2012), Turks in France, TV5Monde, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, UEFA Euro 1984, UEFA Euro 2000, UEFA Euro 2016, UEFA European Championship, Umayyad invasion of Gaul, UNESCO, Unification Church, Union for a Popular Movement, Union of Democrats for the Republic, Union of the Peoples of Cameroon, Unitary state, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Security Council veto power, United States, Universal health care, Universal suffrage, University of Michigan Press, University of Paris, University of Sunderland, Unmanned combat aerial vehicle, Upper Paleolithic, Urban unit, Vandals, Vaux-le-Vicomte, Vercingetorix, Việt Minh, Vichy France, Victor Cousin, Victory in Europe Day, Viking expansion, Vincent van Gogh, Voltaire, Vosges, Wallis and Futuna, Walt Disney Studios Park, War in the Vendée, War of the Sixth Coalition, Wassily Kandinsky, Werther, West Francia, West Indies, Western Allied invasion of Germany, Western Bloc, Western Europe, Western literature, Western philosophy, Western Roman Empire, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, William Shakespeare, William the Conqueror, Winter Olympic Games, Wisdom, Women in government, Word play, World Health Organization, World Heritage site, World Heritage Sites by country, World Tourism rankings, World Trade Organization, World War I, World War II, Yale University, Yves Saint Laurent (designer), Zinedine Zidane, .cat, .eu, .fr, .gf, .gp, .mq, .nc, .pf, .pm, .re, .tf, .wf, .yt, 10th meridian east, 1900 Summer Olympics, 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, 1924 Summer Olympics, 1924 Winter Olympics, 1938 FIFA World Cup, 1960 European Nations' Cup, 1968 Winter Olympics, 1973 oil crisis, 1990s, 1992 Winter Olympics, 1995 Paris Métro and RER bombings, 1998 FIFA World Cup, 20 minutes (France), 2004 Madrid train bombings, 2007 Rugby World Cup, 2016 Nice attack, 2023 Rugby World Cup, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 41st parallel north, 51st parallel north, 6th meridian west. Expand index (1413 more) »

Aérospatiale

Aérospatiale, sometimes styled Aerospatiale, was a French state-owned aerospace manufacturer that built both civilian and military aircraft, rockets and satellites.

New!!: France and Aérospatiale · See more »

Abacus

The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

New!!: France and Abacus · See more »

Abolition of monarchy

The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in the government of a country.

New!!: France and Abolition of monarchy · See more »

Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.

New!!: France and Absolute monarchy · See more »

Académie des Beaux-Arts

The Académie des Beaux-Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) is a French learned society.

New!!: France and Académie des Beaux-Arts · See more »

Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

New!!: France and Académie française · See more »

Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture

The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was the premier art institution in France in the eighteenth century.

New!!: France and Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture · See more »

Academic art

Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.

New!!: France and Academic art · See more »

Academy of sciences

An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences that may or may not be state funded.

New!!: France and Academy of sciences · See more »

Adélie Land

Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica.

New!!: France and Adélie Land · See more »

Administrative law

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.

New!!: France and Administrative law · See more »

Aerospace manufacturer

An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.

New!!: France and Aerospace manufacturer · See more »

Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

New!!: France and Age of Enlightenment · See more »

Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Agence France-Presse · See more »

Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

New!!: France and Agnosticism · See more »

Air (band)

Air are a French electronic music duo from Versailles, France, consisting of Nicolas Godin and Jean-Benoît Dunckel.

New!!: France and Air (band) · See more »

Air France

Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France.

New!!: France and Air France · See more »

Air-Sol Moyenne Portée

The Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (ASMP; medium-range air to surface missile) is a French nuclear air-launched cruise missile.

New!!: France and Air-Sol Moyenne Portée · See more »

Air-to-surface missile

An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft at targets on land or sea.

New!!: France and Air-to-surface missile · See more »

Airbus

Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.

New!!: France and Airbus · See more »

Airbus A400M Atlas

The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.

New!!: France and Airbus A400M Atlas · See more »

Aircraft carrier

An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.

New!!: France and Aircraft carrier · See more »

Alans

The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

New!!: France and Alans · See more »

Albert Camus

Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.

New!!: France and Albert Camus · See more »

Albertville

Albertville (Arpitan: Arbèrtvile) is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

New!!: France and Albertville · See more »

Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.

New!!: France and Albigensian Crusade · See more »

Alemanni

The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.

New!!: France and Alemanni · See more »

Alexandre Alexeieff

Alexandre Alexandrovitch Alexeieff (Russian: Александр Александрович Алексеев Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekseyev (sometimes credited as Alexander Alexeieff or Alexander Alexeïeff or Alexandre Alexieff); 18 April 1901 – 9 August 1982) was a Russian Empire-born artist, filmmaker and illustrator who lived and worked mainly in Paris.

New!!: France and Alexandre Alexeieff · See more »

Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.

New!!: France and Alexandre Dumas · See more »

Alexandrine

Alexandrine is a name used for several distinct types of verse line with related metrical structures, most of which are ultimately derived from the classical French alexandrine.

New!!: France and Alexandrine · See more »

Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

New!!: France and Alfred North Whitehead · See more »

Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

New!!: France and Algeria · See more »

Algerian War

No description.

New!!: France and Algerian War · See more »

Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

New!!: France and Allies of World War II · See more »

Alpine climate

Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

New!!: France and Alpine climate · See more »

Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

New!!: France and Alps · See more »

Alsatian dialect

Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.

New!!: France and Alsatian dialect · See more »

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian-Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France.

New!!: France and Amedeo Modigliani · See more »

American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

New!!: France and American Revolutionary War · See more »

Americans in France

Americans in France consists of immigrants and expatriates from the United States as well as French people of American ancestry.

New!!: France and Americans in France · See more »

Amiens Cathedral

The Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Amiens (Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens), or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic church.

New!!: France and Amiens Cathedral · See more »

Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

New!!: France and Amnesty International · See more »

Amphitheatre

An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.

New!!: France and Amphitheatre · See more »

AMX Leclerc

The Char Leclerc is a main battle tank (MBT) built by GIAT, now Nexter of France.

New!!: France and AMX Leclerc · See more »

Anatole Litvak

Anatole Litvak (Анато́ль Литва́к; May 21, 1902 – December 15, 1974) was a Russian-born American filmmaker who wrote, directed, and produced films in various countries and languages.

New!!: France and Anatole Litvak · See more »

Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.

New!!: France and Ancien Régime · See more »

Andorra

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.

New!!: France and Andorra · See more »

André Derain

André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.

New!!: France and André Derain · See more »

Andrzej Żuławski

Andrzej Żuławski (22 November 1940 – 17 February 2016) was a Polish film director and writer.

New!!: France and Andrzej Żuławski · See more »

Anglicisation

Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

New!!: France and Anglicisation · See more »

Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.

New!!: France and Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain · See more »

Années folles

The term Années folles ("crazy years" in French) refers to the decade of the 1920s in France.

New!!: France and Années folles · See more »

Anne of Austria

Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.

New!!: France and Anne of Austria · See more »

Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

New!!: France and Anno Domini · See more »

Annual leave

Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.

New!!: France and Annual leave · See more »

Ansar Dine

Ansar Dine (أنصار الدين ʾAnṣār ad-Dīn, also transliterated Ançar Deen; meaning "helpers of the (Islamic) religion" or "defenders of the faith") also known as Ansar al-Din (abbreviated as AAD) is a militant Islamist group led by Iyad Ag Ghaly, one of the most prominent leaders of the Tuareg Rebellion (1990–1995) who is suspected of having ties to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, which is led by his cousin Hamada Ag Hama.

New!!: France and Ansar Dine · See more »

Anti-imperialism

Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.

New!!: France and Anti-imperialism · See more »

Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

New!!: France and Antisemitism · See more »

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French writer, poet, aristocrat, journalist, and pioneering aviator.

New!!: France and Antoine de Saint-Exupéry · See more »

Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

New!!: France and Antoine Lavoisier · See more »

Aquitani

The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.

New!!: France and Aquitani · See more »

Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

New!!: France and Arabic numerals · See more »

Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.

New!!: France and Arc de Triomphe · See more »

Ardennes

The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.

New!!: France and Ardennes · See more »

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

New!!: France and Argentina · See more »

Arianism

Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).

New!!: France and Arianism · See more »

Armillary sphere

An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.

New!!: France and Armillary sphere · See more »

Armorica

Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.

New!!: France and Armorica · See more »

Armorican Massif

The Armorican Massif (Massif armoricain) is a geologic massif that covers a large area in the northwest of France, including Brittany, the western part of Normandy and the Pays de la Loire.

New!!: France and Armorican Massif · See more »

Arrondissements of France

An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France.

New!!: France and Arrondissements of France · See more »

Asian French

Asians in France or Asian French are either foreign residents or French citizens of Asian origin living in France.

New!!: France and Asian French · See more »

Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

New!!: France and Association football · See more »

Association of Caribbean States

The Association of Caribbean States (ACS; Asociación de Estados del Caribe; Association des États de la Caraïbe) is a union of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin.

New!!: France and Association of Caribbean States · See more »

Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

New!!: France and Atheism · See more »

Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

New!!: France and Athens · See more »

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

New!!: France and Atlantic Ocean · See more »

Atonality

Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.

New!!: France and Atonality · See more »

August Decrees

The August Decrees were nineteen decrees made in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution.

New!!: France and August Decrees · See more »

Auguste and Louis Lumière

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.

New!!: France and Auguste and Louis Lumière · See more »

Auguste Comte

Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.

New!!: France and Auguste Comte · See more »

Augustin-Jean Fresnel

Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.

New!!: France and Augustin-Jean Fresnel · See more »

Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

New!!: France and Augustus · See more »

Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

New!!: France and Austria · See more »

Authority

Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

New!!: France and Authority · See more »

Auvergne

Auvergne (Auvergnat (occitan): Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha) is a former administrative region of France.

New!!: France and Auvergne · See more »

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (Ôvèrgne-Rôno-Ârpes, Auvèrnhe Ròse Aups, Alvernia-Rodano-Alpi) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014; it resulted from the merger of Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes.

New!!: France and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes · See more »

Avant-garde

The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.

New!!: France and Avant-garde · See more »

Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod)

Ave Maria is a popular and much-recorded setting of the Latin prayer Ave Maria, originally published in 1853 as Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach.

New!!: France and Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod) · See more »

AXA

AXA is a French multinational insurance firm headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that engages in global insurance, investment management, and other financial services.

New!!: France and AXA · See more »

Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

New!!: France and Axis powers · See more »

École nationale d'administration

The École nationale d'administration (generally referred to as ÉNA;; National School of Administration) is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle, and principal author of the French Constitution, Michel Debré, to democratise access to the senior civil service.

New!!: France and École nationale d'administration · See more »

École Polytechnique

École Polytechnique (also known as EP or X) is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris.

New!!: France and École Polytechnique · See more »

Édith Piaf

Édith Piaf (19 December 1915 – 10 October 1963; nee Édith Giovanna Gassion) was a French singer, songwriter, cabaret performer and film actress noted as France's national chanteuse and one of the country's most widely known international stars.

New!!: France and Édith Piaf · See more »

Édouard Lalo

Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo (27 January 182322 April 1892) was a French composer.

New!!: France and Édouard Lalo · See more »

Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.

New!!: France and Édouard Manet · See more »

Édouard Philippe

Édouard Charles Philippe (born 28 November 1970) is a French lawyer and politician serving as Prime Minister of France since 15 May 2017.

New!!: France and Édouard Philippe · See more »

Éguzon Dam

The Éguzon dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Creuse River in central France.

New!!: France and Éguzon Dam · See more »

Électricité de France

Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.

New!!: France and Électricité de France · See more »

Élysée Montmartre

Élysée Montmartre (L'Élysée Montmartre) is a music venue located at 72 Boulevard de Rochechouart, Paris, France.

New!!: France and Élysée Montmartre · See more »

Élysée Treaty

The Élysée Treaty was a treaty of friendship between France and West Germany, signed by President Charles de Gaulle and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer on 22 January 1963 at the Élysée Palace in Paris.

New!!: France and Élysée Treaty · See more »

Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

New!!: France and Émile Durkheim · See more »

Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

New!!: France and Émile Zola · See more »

Épuration légale

The épuration légale (French "legal purge") was the wave of official trials that followed the Liberation of France and the fall of the Vichy Regime.

New!!: France and Épuration légale · See more »

Étang de Soulcem

Étang de Soulcem is a large artificial lake in the Pyrenees mountains in Ariège, France.

New!!: France and Étang de Soulcem · See more »

Île Amsterdam

Île Amsterdam (also known as Amsterdam Island, New Amsterdam, or Nouvelle Amsterdam, is an island named after the ship Nieuw Amsterdam, in turn named after the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam that later became New York City in the United States. It lies in the southern Indian Ocean. It is part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and, together with neighbouring Île Saint-Paul to the south, forms one of the five districts of the territory. The Martin-de-Viviès research station, first called Camp Heurtin and then La Roche Godon, is the only settlement on the island and is home to about thirty seasonal inhabitants involved in biological, meteorological and geomagnetic studies.

New!!: France and Île Amsterdam · See more »

Île Saint-Paul

Île Saint-Paul (Saint Paul Island) is an island forming part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) in the Indian Ocean, with an area of.

New!!: France and Île Saint-Paul · See more »

Île-de-France

Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.

New!!: France and Île-de-France · See more »

Baby boom

A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate.

New!!: France and Baby boom · See more »

Ballon d'Or

The Ballon d'Or ("Golden Ball") is an annual football award presented by France Football.

New!!: France and Ballon d'Or · See more »

Barbarian

A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.

New!!: France and Barbarian · See more »

Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

New!!: France and Baroque · See more »

Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

New!!: France and Baruch Spinoza · See more »

Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse

The Basilica of Saint-Sernin (Occitan: Basilica de Sant Sarnin) is a church in Toulouse, France, the former abbey church of the Abbey of Saint-Sernin or St Saturnin.

New!!: France and Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse · See more »

Basilica of St Denis

The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.

New!!: France and Basilica of St Denis · See more »

Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics was the second appearance of the sport as an official medal event.

New!!: France and Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics · See more »

Basketball at the 2000 Summer Olympics

Basketball contests at the 2000 Olympic Games were held from 16 September 2000 to 1 October 2000.

New!!: France and Basketball at the 2000 Summer Olympics · See more »

Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

New!!: France and Basque language · See more »

Bastille Day

Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries/lands to the French National Day, which is celebrated on the 14th of July each year.

New!!: France and Bastille Day · See more »

Bastille Day military parade

The Bastille Day Military Parade (or 14 July Military Parade, translation of the French name of Défilé militaire du 14 Juillet) is a French military parade that has been held on the morning of 14 July each year in Paris since 1880, almost without exception.

New!!: France and Bastille Day military parade · See more »

Battle of Austerlitz

The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.

New!!: France and Battle of Austerlitz · See more »

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.

New!!: France and Battle of Dien Bien Phu · See more »

Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

New!!: France and Battle of France · See more »

Battle of Hastings

The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.

New!!: France and Battle of Hastings · See more »

Battle of Jena–Auerstedt

The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.

New!!: France and Battle of Jena–Auerstedt · See more »

Battle of Tours

The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.

New!!: France and Battle of Tours · See more »

Battle of Waterloo

The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.

New!!: France and Battle of Waterloo · See more »

BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

New!!: France and BBC · See more »

BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

New!!: France and BBC News · See more »

Beaujolais

Beaujolais is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) wine generally made of the Gamay grape which has a thin skin and is low in tannins.

New!!: France and Beaujolais · See more »

Beef bourguignon

Beef bourguignon or bœuf bourguignon, also called beef Burgundy, and bœuf à la Bourguignonne,Random House Dictionary is a beef stew braised in red wine, often red Burgundy, and beef broth, generally flavoured with carrots, onions, garlic, and a bouquet garni, and garnished with pearl onions, mushrooms, and bacon.

New!!: France and Beef bourguignon · See more »

Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

New!!: France and Belgium · See more »

Belle Époque

The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.

New!!: France and Belle Époque · See more »

Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs

The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.

New!!: France and Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs · See more »

Bernard Devauchelle

Dr.

New!!: France and Bernard Devauchelle · See more »

Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

New!!: France and Bicameralism · See more »

Big Four (Western Europe)

The Big Four, also known as G4 or EU4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.

New!!: France and Big Four (Western Europe) · See more »

Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

New!!: France and Black Death · See more »

Blacks in France

French Black people or Black people in France (French: Noirs de France) are people who are of black African, Afro-Caribbean, or Melanesian ancestry.

New!!: France and Blacks in France · See more »

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

New!!: France and Blaise Pascal · See more »

Blasphemy

Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.

New!!: France and Blasphemy · See more »

Bluebeard

"Bluebeard" (French: Barbe bleue) is a French folktale, the most famous surviving version of which was written by Charles Perrault and first published by Barbin in Paris in 1697 in Histoires ou contes du temps passé.

New!!: France and Bluebeard · See more »

BNP Paribas

BNP Paribas is a French international banking group.

New!!: France and BNP Paribas · See more »

Bob Sinclar

Christophe Le Friant (born 10 May 1969), better known by his stage name Bob Sinclar, is a French record producer, house music DJ, remixer and the owner of the record label Yellow Productions.

New!!: France and Bob Sinclar · See more »

Boléro

Boléro is a one-movement orchestral piece by the French composer Maurice Ravel (1875–1937).

New!!: France and Boléro · See more »

Bordeaux

Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.

New!!: France and Bordeaux · See more »

Bordeaux wine

A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of southwest France, centred on the city of Bordeaux on the Garonne River, to the north of the city the Dordogne River joins the Garonne forming the broad estuary called the Gironde and covering the whole area of the Gironde department,with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France.

New!!: France and Bordeaux wine · See more »

Bourbon Restoration

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

New!!: France and Bourbon Restoration · See more »

Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

New!!: France and Brazil · See more »

Breach of the peace

Breach of the peace, or disturbing the peace, is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom.

New!!: France and Breach of the peace · See more »

Breton language

Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.

New!!: France and Breton language · See more »

Bretons

The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.

New!!: France and Bretons · See more »

Brie

Brie is a soft cow's-milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated (roughly corresponding to the modern département of Seine-et-Marne).

New!!: France and Brie · See more »

Britannicus

Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (c. 12 February AD 41 – 11 February AD 55), usually called Britannicus, was the son of Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina.

New!!: France and Britannicus · See more »

British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

New!!: France and British Empire · See more »

Brittany

Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

New!!: France and Brittany · See more »

Brittany (administrative region)

Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.

New!!: France and Brittany (administrative region) · See more »

Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

New!!: France and Bronze · See more »

Burgundy

Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.

New!!: France and Burgundy · See more »

Burgundy wine

Burgundy wine (Bourgogne or vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône.

New!!: France and Burgundy wine · See more »

Cadastre

A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.

New!!: France and Cadastre · See more »

Café liégeois

Café liégeois is a cold dessert of French origin, made from lightly sweetened coffee, coffee flavour ice cream and chantilly cream.

New!!: France and Café liégeois · See more »

Camargue

The Camargue (Provençal Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône delta.

New!!: France and Camargue · See more »

Camembert

Camembert is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese.

New!!: France and Camembert · See more »

Cameroon

No description.

New!!: France and Cameroon · See more »

Cameroonian Independence War

The Cameroonian Independence War, often known as guerre cachée, or the Hidden War, is the name of the independence struggle between Cameroon's nationalist movement and France.

New!!: France and Cameroonian Independence War · See more »

Camille Pissarro

Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies).

New!!: France and Camille Pissarro · See more »

Camille Saint-Saëns

Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (9 October 183516 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era.

New!!: France and Camille Saint-Saëns · See more »

Camino de Santiago

The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.

New!!: France and Camino de Santiago · See more »

Canal du Midi

The Canal du Midi (meaning canal of the two seas) is a long canal in Southern France (le Midi).

New!!: France and Canal du Midi · See more »

Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.

New!!: France and Cannes Film Festival · See more »

Cantons of France

The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's arrondissements and departments.

New!!: France and Cantons of France · See more »

Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

New!!: France and Capital city · See more »

Capitole de Toulouse

The Capitole back side The Capitole (French for "capitol") is the heart of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse and its city hall.

New!!: France and Capitole de Toulouse · See more »

Carbon tax

A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.

New!!: France and Carbon tax · See more »

Carcassonne

Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.

New!!: France and Carcassonne · See more »

Cardinal Mazarin

Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin, 1st Duke of Rethel, Mayenne and Nevers (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarino, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death.

New!!: France and Cardinal Mazarin · See more »

Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.

New!!: France and Cardinal Richelieu · See more »

Carmen

Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.

New!!: France and Carmen · See more »

Carnac stones

The Carnac stones (Breton: Steudadoù Karnag) are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac in Brittany, consisting of alignments, dolmens, tumuli and single menhirs.

New!!: France and Carnac stones · See more »

Carolingian dynasty

The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

New!!: France and Carolingian dynasty · See more »

Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.

New!!: France and Carolingian Empire · See more »

Casablanca

Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.

New!!: France and Casablanca · See more »

Case law

Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.

New!!: France and Case law · See more »

Cassoulet

Cassoulet (from Occitan caçolet) is a rich, slow-cooked casserole originating in the south of France, containing meat (typically pork sausages, goose, duck and sometimes mutton), pork skin (couennes) and white beans (haricots blancs).

New!!: France and Cassoulet · See more »

Castle

A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

New!!: France and Castle · See more »

Catalan Countries

The Catalan Countries (Els Països Catalans),, refers to those territories where the Catalan language, or a variant of it, is spoken.

New!!: France and Catalan Countries · See more »

Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

New!!: France and Catalan language · See more »

Catalans Dragons

The Catalans Dragons (French and Catalan: Dragons Catalans) are a professional rugby league club in Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales, France.

New!!: France and Catalans Dragons · See more »

Cathar castles

Cathar castles (in French Châteaux cathares) is a modern term used by the tourism industry (following the example of Pays Cathare – Cathar Country) to denote a number of medieval castles of the Languedoc region.

New!!: France and Cathar castles · See more »

Catharism

Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.

New!!: France and Catharism · See more »

Cathedral

A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

New!!: France and Cathedral · See more »

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

New!!: France and Catholic Church · See more »

Côte d'Albâtre

The Côte d'Albâtre (literally the Alabaster Coast) is part of the French coast of the English Channel, corresponding to the coastline of Pays de Caux and forming almost all of the coastline of Seine-Maritime.

New!!: France and Côte d'Albâtre · See more »

Cello Concerto (Lalo)

Édouard Lalo wrote his Cello Concerto in D minor in 1876, in collaboration with the Belgian cellist Adolphe Fischer.

New!!: France and Cello Concerto (Lalo) · See more »

Celtic Britons

The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).

New!!: France and Celtic Britons · See more »

Celtic polytheism

Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.

New!!: France and Celtic polytheism · See more »

Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

New!!: France and Celts · See more »

Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

New!!: France and Central European Summer Time · See more »

Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

New!!: France and Central European Time · See more »

Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

New!!: France and Central Powers · See more »

Centre des monuments nationaux

The Centre des monuments nationaux (CMN, National monuments centre) is a French government body (Établissement public à caractère administratif) which conserves, restores, and manages historic buildings and sites which are the property of the French state.

New!!: France and Centre des monuments nationaux · See more »

Centre Georges Pompidou

Centre Georges Pompidou, commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou and also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, and the Marais.

New!!: France and Centre Georges Pompidou · See more »

Centre national de la recherche scientifique

The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.

New!!: France and Centre national de la recherche scientifique · See more »

CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

New!!: France and CERN · See more »

CFP franc

The CFP franc (called the franc in everyday use) is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities (collectivités d’outre-mer, or COM) of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna.

New!!: France and CFP franc · See more »

Chad

Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

New!!: France and Chad · See more »

Chamonix

Chamonix-Mont-Blanc,.

New!!: France and Chamonix · See more »

Champagne

Champagne is sparkling wine or, in EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France.

New!!: France and Champagne · See more »

Championship (rugby league)

The Championship is a professional rugby league competition.

New!!: France and Championship (rugby league) · See more »

Chanel

Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.

New!!: France and Chanel · See more »

Channel Tunnel

The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.

New!!: France and Channel Tunnel · See more »

Chanson

A chanson ("song", from Latin cantio, gen. cantionis) is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.

New!!: France and Chanson · See more »

Chanson de geste

The chanson de geste, Old French for "song of heroic deeds" (from gesta: Latin: "deeds, actions accomplished"), is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature.

New!!: France and Chanson de geste · See more »

Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

New!!: France and Charlemagne · See more »

Charles Aznavour

Charles Aznavour (born Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնավուրեան; 22 May 1924) is a French, later naturalised Armenian, singer, lyricist, actor, public activist and diplomat.

New!!: France and Charles Aznavour · See more »

Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

New!!: France and Charles de Gaulle · See more »

Charles de Gaulle Airport

Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle), also known as Roissy Airport (name of the local district), is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe.

New!!: France and Charles de Gaulle Airport · See more »

Charles Gounod

Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.

New!!: France and Charles Gounod · See more »

Charles IV of France

Charles IVIn the standard numbering of French Kings, which dates to the reign of Charlemagne, he is actually the fifth such king to rule France, following Charlemagne (Charles the Great), Charles the Bald, Charles the Fat, and Charles the Simple.

New!!: France and Charles IV of France · See more »

Charles Martel

Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.

New!!: France and Charles Martel · See more »

Charles Perrault

Charles Perrault (12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie Française.

New!!: France and Charles Perrault · See more »

Charles the Bald

Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).

New!!: France and Charles the Bald · See more »

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

New!!: France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor · See more »

Charlie Hebdo

Charlie Hebdo (French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly magazine, featuring cartoons, reports, polemics, and jokes.

New!!: France and Charlie Hebdo · See more »

Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), is a Roman Catholic church of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about southwest of Paris.

New!!: France and Chartres Cathedral · See more »

Château

A château (plural châteaux; in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.

New!!: France and Château · See more »

Château d'Amboise

The royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.

New!!: France and Château d'Amboise · See more »

Château d'Angers

The Château d'Angers is a castle in the city of Angers in the Loire Valley, in the département of Maine-et-Loire, in France.

New!!: France and Château d'Angers · See more »

Château d'Ussé

Ussé is a castle in the Indre-et-Loire département, in France.

New!!: France and Château d'Ussé · See more »

Château de Chambord

The Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France, is one of the most recognisable châteaux in the world because of its very distinctive French Renaissance architecture which blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Renaissance structures.

New!!: France and Château de Chambord · See more »

Château de Chantilly

The Château de Chantilly is a historic château located in the town of Chantilly, France, about 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of Paris.

New!!: France and Château de Chantilly · See more »

Château de Chenonceau

The Château de Chenonceau is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.

New!!: France and Château de Chenonceau · See more »

Château de Chinon

Château de Chinon is a castle located on the bank of the Vienne river in Chinon, France.

New!!: France and Château de Chinon · See more »

Château de Montsoreau

The Château de Montsoreau is a Renaissance style castle in the Loire Valley, directly built in the Loire riverbed.

New!!: France and Château de Montsoreau · See more »

Château de Villandry

The Château de Villandry is a grand country house located in Villandry, in the département of Indre-et-Loire, France.

New!!: France and Château de Villandry · See more »

Château de Vincennes

The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.

New!!: France and Château de Vincennes · See more »

Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg

The Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (Hohkönigsburg) is a medieval castle located in the commune of Orschwiller in the Bas-Rhin département of France,Ministry of Culture: - Ministry of Culture: in the Vosges mountains just west of Sélestat.

New!!: France and Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg · See more »

Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.

New!!: France and Childhood obesity · See more »

Choucroute garnie

Choucroute garnie (French for dressed sauerkraut) is a famous Alsatian recipe for preparing sauerkraut with sausages and other salted meats and charcuterie, and often potatoes.

New!!: France and Choucroute garnie · See more »

Chrétien de Troyes

Chrétien de Troyes was a late-12th-century French poet and trouvère known for his work on Arthurian subjects, and for originating the character Lancelot.

New!!: France and Chrétien de Troyes · See more »

Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

New!!: France and Christian · See more »

Christian de Portzamparc

Christian de Portzamparc (born 5 May 1944) is a French architect and urbanist.

New!!: France and Christian de Portzamparc · See more »

Christian Dior SE

Christian Dior SE, commonly known as Dior, is a European luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who also heads LVMH – the world's largest luxury group.

New!!: France and Christian Dior SE · See more »

Christian Lacroix

Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (born 16 May 1951) is a French fashion designer.

New!!: France and Christian Lacroix · See more »

Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

New!!: France and Christianity · See more »

Chromaticism

Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.

New!!: France and Chromaticism · See more »

Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

New!!: France and Chronic condition · See more »

Church (building)

A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.

New!!: France and Church (building) · See more »

Cinderella

Cinderella (Cenerentola, Cendrillon, Aschenputtel), or The Little Glass Slipper, is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression and triumphant reward.

New!!: France and Cinderella · See more »

Cinema of the United States

The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.

New!!: France and Cinema of the United States · See more »

Circus (building)

The Roman circus (from Latin, "circle") was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire.

New!!: France and Circus (building) · See more »

Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

New!!: France and Citizenship · See more »

Citroën

Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).

New!!: France and Citroën · See more »

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy ("Constitution civile du clergé") was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France to the French government.

New!!: France and Civil Constitution of the Clergy · See more »

Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law.

New!!: France and Civil law (common law) · See more »

Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

New!!: France and Civil law (legal system) · See more »

Civil solidarity pact

In France, a civil solidarity pact (pacte civil de solidarité), commonly known as a PACS, is a contractual form of civil union between two adults for organising their joint life.

New!!: France and Civil solidarity pact · See more »

Claude Debussy

Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.

New!!: France and Claude Debussy · See more »

Claude Lorrain

Claude Lorrain (born Claude Gellée, called le Lorrain in French; traditionally just Claude in English; c. 1600 – 23 November 1682) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher of the Baroque era.

New!!: France and Claude Lorrain · See more »

Claude Montana

Claude Montana is a French fashion designer.

New!!: France and Claude Montana · See more »

Clay court

A clay court is one of many different types of tennis court.

New!!: France and Clay court · See more »

Clipperton Island

Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America.

New!!: France and Clipperton Island · See more »

Clock

A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.

New!!: France and Clock · See more »

Clovis I

Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.

New!!: France and Clovis I · See more »

Cluny Abbey

Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.

New!!: France and Cluny Abbey · See more »

Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

New!!: France and Cold War · See more »

Collective memory

Collective memory is the shared pool of knowledge and information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.

New!!: France and Collective memory · See more »

Collectivity of Saint Martin

Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies in the Caribbean.

New!!: France and Collectivity of Saint Martin · See more »

Colonies in antiquity

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

New!!: France and Colonies in antiquity · See more »

Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

New!!: France and Columbia University · See more »

Combustion

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

New!!: France and Combustion · See more »

Common Agricultural Policy

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.

New!!: France and Common Agricultural Policy · See more »

Common sense

Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.

New!!: France and Common sense · See more »

Commoner

The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.

New!!: France and Commoner · See more »

Communes of France

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.

New!!: France and Communes of France · See more »

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.

New!!: France and Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty · See more »

Concert champêtre

Concert champêtre (Pastoral Concerto), FP 49, is a harpsichord concerto by Francis Poulenc, which also exists in a version for piano solo with very slight changes in the solo part.

New!!: France and Concert champêtre · See more »

Concordat in Alsace-Moselle

The Concordat in Alsace-Moselle is the part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle relating to the official status accorded to certain religions in these territories.

New!!: France and Concordat in Alsace-Moselle · See more »

Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

New!!: France and Conscription · See more »

Conseil d'État (France)

In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.

New!!: France and Conseil d'État (France) · See more »

Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.

New!!: France and Constantine the Great · See more »

Constitution of France

The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.

New!!: France and Constitution of France · See more »

Constitution of the Year XII

The Constitution of the Year XII was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year XII of the French Revolutionary Calendar (1804 in the Gregorian calendar).

New!!: France and Constitution of the Year XII · See more »

Constitutional law

Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.

New!!: France and Constitutional law · See more »

Constitutional republic

A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.

New!!: France and Constitutional republic · See more »

Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA

Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) was a Spanish aircraft manufacturer that was founded in 1923 and began manufacturing aircraft the following year.

New!!: France and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA · See more »

Contemporary art

Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.

New!!: France and Contemporary art · See more »

Contemporary classical music

Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.

New!!: France and Contemporary classical music · See more »

Continental climate

Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.

New!!: France and Continental climate · See more »

Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

New!!: France and Copper · See more »

Corporatization

Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.

New!!: France and Corporatization · See more »

Corsica

Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.

New!!: France and Corsica · See more »

Count of Toulouse

The Count of Toulouse was the ruler of Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries.

New!!: France and Count of Toulouse · See more »

County of Nice

The County of Nice (Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Countèa de Nissa/Paìs Nissart) is a historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern department of Alpes-Maritimes.

New!!: France and County of Nice · See more »

Coup of 18 Brumaire

The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Coup of 18 Brumaire · See more »

Court of Cassation (France)

The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.

New!!: France and Court of Cassation (France) · See more »

Courtier

A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.

New!!: France and Courtier · See more »

Crème brûlée

Crème brûlée, also known as burnt cream or Trinity cream, is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of caramelized sugar.

New!!: France and Crème brûlée · See more »

Crédit Agricole

Crédit Agricole Group, sometimes called "la banque verte" (the green bank) due to its historical ties to farming, is a French network of cooperative and mutual banks comprising Crédit Agricole local banks, the 39 Crédit Agricole regional banks and a central institute Crédit Agricole S.A..

New!!: France and Crédit Agricole · See more »

Crêpe

A crêpe or crepe (or,, Quebec French) is a type of very thin pastry.

New!!: France and Crêpe · See more »

Credit rating agency

A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.

New!!: France and Credit rating agency · See more »

Crimean War

The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.

New!!: France and Crimean War · See more »

Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

New!!: France and Criminal law · See more »

Cromwell (play)

Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo, written in 1827.

New!!: France and Cromwell (play) · See more »

Croque-monsieur

A croque monsieur (French for "mister crunch") is a baked or fried boiled ham and cheese sandwich.

New!!: France and Croque-monsieur · See more »

Crown lands of France

The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France.

New!!: France and Crown lands of France · See more »

Crozet Islands

The Crozet Islands (Îles Crozet; or, officially, Archipel Crozet) are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean.

New!!: France and Crozet Islands · See more »

Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

New!!: France and Crusader states · See more »

Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

New!!: France and Crusades · See more »

Cult

The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal.

New!!: France and Cult · See more »

Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

New!!: France and Cultural assimilation · See more »

Cultural exception

Cultural exception (l’exception culturelle) is a political concept introduced by France in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations in 1993 to treat culture differently from other commercial products.

New!!: France and Cultural exception · See more »

Culture of the United States

The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.

New!!: France and Culture of the United States · See more »

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

New!!: France and Cystic fibrosis · See more »

Daft Punk

Daft Punk are a French electronic music duo from Paris formed in 1993 by Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter.

New!!: France and Daft Punk · See more »

Dalida

Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti (17 January 1933 – 3 May 1987), better known as Dalida (داليدا), was a French-Italian-Egyptian singer and actress who spent most of her career in France.

New!!: France and Dalida · See more »

Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

New!!: France and Damascus · See more »

Danse macabre (Saint-Saëns)

Danse macabre, Op. 40, is a tone poem for orchestra, written in 1874 by the French composer Camille Saint-Saëns.

New!!: France and Danse macabre (Saint-Saëns) · See more »

Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

New!!: France and Dante Alighieri · See more »

Daphnis et Chloé

Daphnis et Chloé is a ballet in one act with three parts (scenes) by Maurice Ravel described as a "symphonie chorégraphique" (choreographic symphony).

New!!: France and Daphnis et Chloé · See more »

DASA

DASA (officially Deutsche Aerospace AG, later Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, then DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG), was the former aerospace subsidiary of Daimler-Benz AG (later DaimlerChrysler) from 1989. In July 2000, DASA merged with Aérospatiale-Matra and CASA to form EADS.

New!!: France and DASA · See more »

Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D

The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike.

New!!: France and Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D · See more »

Dassault nEUROn

The Dassault nEUROn is an experimental unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) being developed with international cooperation, led by the French company Dassault Aviation.

New!!: France and Dassault nEUROn · See more »

Dassault Rafale

The Dassault Rafale (literally meaning "gust of wind", and "burst of fire" in a more military sense) is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation.

New!!: France and Dassault Rafale · See more »

Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard

The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard (Étendard is French for "battle flag", cognate to English "standard") is a French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.

New!!: France and Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard · See more »

Dauphiné

The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois, formerly Dauphiny in English, is a former province in southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, and Hautes-Alpes.

New!!: France and Dauphiné · See more »

David Guetta

Pierre David Guetta (born 7 November 1967) is a French DJ, songwriter, record producer and remixer who has sold over nine million albums and thirty million singles worldwide.

New!!: France and David Guetta · See more »

David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

New!!: France and David Hume · See more »

Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical laïcité policies.

New!!: France and Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution · See more »

Declaration of Pillnitz

The Declaration of Pilnite, more commonly referred to as the Declaration of Pillnitz, was a statement issued on 27 August 1791 at Pillnitz Castle near Dresden (Saxony) by Frederick William II of Prussia and the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II who was Marie Antoinette's brother.

New!!: France and Declaration of Pillnitz · See more »

Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789

The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 · See more »

Decline of newspapers

The decline of newspapers has been widely debated, as the industry has faced slumping ad sales, the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation.

New!!: France and Decline of newspapers · See more »

Deficit spending

Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.

New!!: France and Deficit spending · See more »

Demographics of France

The demography of France is monitored by the Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) and the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE).

New!!: France and Demographics of France · See more »

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

New!!: France and Denis Diderot · See more »

Deportation of Roma migrants from France

In 2009, France deported 10,000 Romani back to Romania and Bulgaria.

New!!: France and Deportation of Roma migrants from France · See more »

Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

New!!: France and Developed country · See more »

Development aid

Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.

New!!: France and Development aid · See more »

Dialogues of the Carmelites

Dialogues des Carmélites (Dialogues of the Carmelites) is a French opera in three acts, divided into twelve scenes with linking orchestral interludes, with music and libretto by Francis Poulenc, completed in 1956.

New!!: France and Dialogues of the Carmelites · See more »

Diamant

The Diamant rocket (Diamant is French for "diamond") was the first exclusively French expendable launch system and at the same time the first satellite launcher not built by either the United States or USSR.

New!!: France and Diamant · See more »

Diesel engine

The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).

New!!: France and Diesel engine · See more »

Diplomatic mission

A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.

New!!: France and Diplomatic mission · See more »

Directorate-General for External Security

The General Directorate for External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure, DGSE) is France's external intelligence agency.

New!!: France and Directorate-General for External Security · See more »

Disneyland Paris

Disneyland Paris, originally Euro Disney Resort, is an entertainment resort in Marne-la-Vallée, a new town located east of the centre of Paris, and is the most visited theme park in all of Europe.

New!!: France and Disneyland Paris · See more »

Disneyland Park (Paris)

Disneyland Park, originally Euro Disney, is a theme park found at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallée, France.

New!!: France and Disneyland Park (Paris) · See more »

Django Reinhardt

Jean Reinhardt (or; 23 January 1910 – 16 May 1953) stage name Django Reinhardt, was a Belgian-born Romani French jazz guitarist, musician and composer, regarded as one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century.

New!!: France and Django Reinhardt · See more »

Dominique Perrault

Dominique Perrault (1953, Clermont-Ferrand) is a French architect and urban planner.

New!!: France and Dominique Perrault · See more »

Duchy of Savoy

From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy (Duché de Savoie, Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe.

New!!: France and Duchy of Savoy · See more »

Duel

A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.

New!!: France and Duel · See more »

Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

New!!: France and Dutch language · See more »

Early modern France

The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).

New!!: France and Early modern France · See more »

East Francia

East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.

New!!: France and East Francia · See more »

Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

New!!: France and Eastern Bloc · See more »

Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

New!!: France and Eastern Europe · See more »

Ecotourism

Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.

New!!: France and Ecotourism · See more »

Edgar Degas

Edgar Degas (or; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas,; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.

New!!: France and Edgar Degas · See more »

Edgardo Cozarinsky

Edgardo Cozarinsky (born 1939 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a writer and filmmaker.

New!!: France and Edgardo Cozarinsky · See more »

Edict of Fontainebleau

The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

New!!: France and Edict of Fontainebleau · See more »

Edict of Nantes

The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.

New!!: France and Edict of Nantes · See more »

Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

New!!: France and Edmund Burke · See more »

Education Index

The United Nations publishes a Human Development Index every year, which consists of the Education index, GDP Index and Life Expectancy Index.

New!!: France and Education Index · See more »

Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.

New!!: France and Edward Gibbon · See more »

Edward III of England

Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.

New!!: France and Edward III of England · See more »

Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Eiffel Tower · See more »

Eight-hour day

The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.

New!!: France and Eight-hour day · See more »

Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

New!!: France and Electricity · See more »

Elite One Championship

The Elite One Championship (French: Le Championnat de France Elite) is the top level rugby league competition in France.

New!!: France and Elite One Championship · See more »

Elitism

Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.

New!!: France and Elitism · See more »

Elle (magazine)

Elle is a worldwide lifestyle magazine of French origin that focuses on fashion, beauty, health, and entertainment.

New!!: France and Elle (magazine) · See more »

Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.

New!!: France and Emmanuel Macron · See more »

Empire style

The Empire style (style Empire) is an early-nineteenth-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts, representing the second phase of Neoclassicism.

New!!: France and Empire style · See more »

Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

New!!: France and Encyclopédie · See more »

Endurance racing (motorsport)

Endurance racing is a form of motorsport racing which is meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of participants.

New!!: France and Endurance racing (motorsport) · See more »

English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

New!!: France and English Channel · See more »

Entente Cordiale

The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Republic which saw a significant improvement in Anglo-French relations.

New!!: France and Entente Cordiale · See more »

Environmental Performance Index

The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.

New!!: France and Environmental Performance Index · See more »

Erik Satie

Éric Alfred Leslie Satie (17 May 18661 July 1925), who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist.

New!!: France and Erik Satie · See more »

Essays (Montaigne)

The Essays (Essais) of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length.

New!!: France and Essays (Montaigne) · See more »

Estates General (France)

In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.

New!!: France and Estates General (France) · See more »

Estates General of 1789

The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate).

New!!: France and Estates General of 1789 · See more »

Estates of the realm

The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.

New!!: France and Estates of the realm · See more »

Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

New!!: France and Ethnic groups in Europe · See more »

Etymologiae

Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.

New!!: France and Etymologiae · See more »

Eugène Delacroix

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

New!!: France and Eugène Delacroix · See more »

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc

Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (27 January 1814 – 17 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc · See more »

Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

New!!: France and Euro · See more »

Euro banknotes

Banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone, have been in circulation since the first series was issued in 2002.

New!!: France and Euro banknotes · See more »

Euro coins

There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).

New!!: France and Euro coins · See more »

EuroBasket 2013

EuroBasket 2013 was the 38th edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organized by FIBA Europe.

New!!: France and EuroBasket 2013 · See more »

Eurockéennes

The Eurockéennes de Belfort is one of France's largest rock music festivals.

New!!: France and Eurockéennes · See more »

Eurocopter Tiger

The Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters) Tiger is a four-bladed, twin-engined attack helicopter which first entered service in 2003.

New!!: France and Eurocopter Tiger · See more »

Eurofighter Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.

New!!: France and Eurofighter Typhoon · See more »

Euronext

Euronext NV is a European stock exchange seated in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon, Dublin and Paris.

New!!: France and Euronext · See more »

Euronext Paris

Euronext Paris is France's securities market, formerly known as the Paris Bourse, which merged with the Amsterdam, Lisbon and Brussels exchanges in September 2000 to form Euronext NV, which is the second largest exchange in Europe behind the UK's London Stock Exchange Group.

New!!: France and Euronext Paris · See more »

Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

New!!: France and Europe · See more »

Europe 1

Europe 1, formerly known as Europe n° 1, is a privately owned radio station created in 1955.

New!!: France and Europe 1 · See more »

European and American voyages of scientific exploration

The era of European and American voyages of scientific exploration followed the Age of Discovery and were inspired by a new confidence in science and reason that arose in the Age of Enlightenment.

New!!: France and European and American voyages of scientific exploration · See more »

European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

New!!: France and European Commission · See more »

European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

New!!: France and European Economic Community · See more »

European Single Market

The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).

New!!: France and European Single Market · See more »

European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

New!!: France and European Space Agency · See more »

European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa).

New!!: France and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility · See more »

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

New!!: France and European Union · See more »

Eurostar

Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Amsterdam, Avignon, Brussels, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Paris and Rotterdam.

New!!: France and Eurostar · See more »

Eurotunnel Shuttle

Eurotunnel Le Shuttle (sometimes shortened to Le Shuttle or The Shuttle) is a railway shuttle service between Coquelles (near Calais) in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France and Cheriton (near Folkestone) in Kent, United Kingdom.

New!!: France and Eurotunnel Shuttle · See more »

Eurozone

No description.

New!!: France and Eurozone · See more »

Events preceding World War II in Europe

The events preceding World War II in Europe are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany.

New!!: France and Events preceding World War II in Europe · See more »

Ex post facto law

An ex post facto law (corrupted from) is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.

New!!: France and Ex post facto law · See more »

Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

New!!: France and Exclusive economic zone · See more »

Execution of Louis XVI

The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution ("Revolution Square", formerly Place Louis XV, and renamed Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris.

New!!: France and Execution of Louis XVI · See more »

Existentialism

Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

New!!: France and Existentialism · See more »

Exocet

The Exocet (French for "flying fish" The missile's name was given by M. Guillot, then technical director at Nord Aviation, after the French name for flying fish.) is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

New!!: France and Exocet · See more »

Extermination camp

Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").

New!!: France and Extermination camp · See more »

Fable

Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.

New!!: France and Fable · See more »

Face transplant

A face transplant is a medical procedure to replace all or part of a person's face using tissue from a cadaver.

New!!: France and Face transplant · See more »

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

New!!: France and Fall of the Western Roman Empire · See more »

Family reunification

Family reunification is a recognized reason for immigration in many countries because of the presence of one or more family members in a certain country, therefore, enables the rest of the divided family or only specific members of the family to immigrate to that country as well.

New!!: France and Family reunification · See more »

Faust (opera)

Faust is a grand opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part One.

New!!: France and Faust (opera) · See more »

Fauvism

Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.

New!!: France and Fauvism · See more »

Fête de la Musique

The Fête de la Musique, also known as Music Day, Make Music Day or World Music Day, is an annual music celebration that takes place on 21 June.

New!!: France and Fête de la Musique · See more »

Fencing

Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.

New!!: France and Fencing · See more »

Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

New!!: France and Feudalism · See more »

Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

New!!: France and Fields Medal · See more »

FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

New!!: France and FIFA World Cup · See more »

Filmmaking

Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.

New!!: France and Filmmaking · See more »

Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

New!!: France and Financial crisis of 2007–2008 · See more »

Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

New!!: France and Financial Times · See more »

First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

New!!: France and First French Empire · See more »

First Indochina War

The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.

New!!: France and First Indochina War · See more »

First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

New!!: France and First language · See more »

Flag of France

The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.

New!!: France and Flag of France · See more »

Flemish painting

Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century, gradually becoming distinct from the painting of the rest of the Low Countries, especially the modern Netherlands.

New!!: France and Flemish painting · See more »

Flight to Varennes

The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.

New!!: France and Flight to Varennes · See more »

Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.

New!!: France and Fluid mechanics · See more »

Foie gras

Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.

New!!: France and Foie gras · See more »

Force de dissuasion

The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961,Gunston, Bill.

New!!: France and Force de dissuasion · See more »

Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

New!!: France and Foreign direct investment · See more »

Foreign worker

A foreign worker or guest worker is a human who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.

New!!: France and Foreign worker · See more »

Fortune Global 500

The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.

New!!: France and Fortune Global 500 · See more »

Françafrique

Françafrique is France's relationship with its former African colonies.

New!!: France and Françafrique · See more »

François Boucher

François Boucher (29 September 1703 – 30 May 1770) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher, who worked in the Rococo style.

New!!: France and François Boucher · See more »

François Couperin

François Couperin (10 November 1668 – 11 September 1733) was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist.

New!!: France and François Couperin · See more »

François de Rugy

François Henri Goullet de Rugy (born 6 December 1973) is a French politician serving as President of the National Assembly of France since 2017.

New!!: France and François de Rugy · See more »

François Rabelais

François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.

New!!: France and François Rabelais · See more »

France 2

France 2 is a French public national television channel.

New!!: France and France 2 · See more »

France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

New!!: France and France 24 · See more »

France 3

France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.

New!!: France and France 3 · See more »

France and weapons of mass destruction

France is one of the five "Nuclear Weapons States" under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, but is not known to possess or develop any chemical or biological weapons.

New!!: France and France and weapons of mass destruction · See more »

France in the American Revolutionary War

French involvement in the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, when France, a rival of the British Empire, secretly shipped supplies to the Continental Army.

New!!: France and France in the American Revolutionary War · See more »

France Inter

France Inter is a major French public radio channel and part of Radio France.

New!!: France and France Inter · See more »

France national basketball team

The French national basketball team is administered by the Fédération Française de Basket-Ball (French Basketball Federation).

New!!: France and France national basketball team · See more »

France national football team

The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football and is controlled by the French Football Federation, also known as FFF, or in Fédération française de football.

New!!: France and France national football team · See more »

France national rugby union team

The France national rugby union team competes annually against England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales in the Six Nations Championship.

New!!: France and France national rugby union team · See more »

France Télévisions

France Télévisions (stylized as France.tv) is the French public national television broadcaster.

New!!: France and France Télévisions · See more »

France–Germany relations

The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Ulrich Krotz, has three grand periods: 'hereditary enmity' (down to 1945), 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (Amitié franco-allemande; Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft).

New!!: France and France–Germany relations · See more »

Francesco Primaticcio

Francesco Primaticcio (April 30, 1504 – 1570) was an Italian Mannerist painter, architect and sculptor who spent most of his career in France.

New!!: France and Francesco Primaticcio · See more »

Francia

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

New!!: France and Francia · See more »

Francis I of France

Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.

New!!: France and Francis I of France · See more »

Francis Poulenc

Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (7 January 189930 January 1963) was a French composer and pianist.

New!!: France and Francis Poulenc · See more »

Francis Veber

Francis Paul Veber (born 28 July 1937) is a French film director, screenwriter and producer, and playwright.

New!!: France and Francis Veber · See more »

Francisca

The francisca (or francesca) is a throwing axe used as a weapon during the Early Middle Ages by the Franks, among whom it was a characteristic national weapon at the time of the Merovingians from about 500 to 750 and is known to have been used during the reign of Charlemagne (768–814).

New!!: France and Francisca · See more »

Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

New!!: France and Franco-Prussian War · See more »

Franco-Spanish War (1635–59)

The Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War.

New!!: France and Franco-Spanish War (1635–59) · See more »

Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

New!!: France and Franks · See more »

Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.

New!!: France and Free France · See more »

Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

New!!: France and Freedom of religion · See more »

Freedom of religion in France

Freedom of religion in France is guaranteed by the constitutional rights set forth in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

New!!: France and Freedom of religion in France · See more »

Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

New!!: France and Freedom of speech · See more »

FREMM multipurpose frigate

The FREMM ("European multi-purpose frigate"; French: Frégate européenne multi-mission; Italian: Fregata europea multi-missione) is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by Naval Group/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy.

New!!: France and FREMM multipurpose frigate · See more »

French Academy in Rome

The French Academy in Rome (Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio (Pincian Hill) in Rome, Italy.

New!!: France and French Academy in Rome · See more »

French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

New!!: France and French Academy of Sciences · See more »

French Air Force

The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).

New!!: France and French Air Force · See more »

French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale).

New!!: France and French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle · See more »

French Algeria

French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.

New!!: France and French Algeria · See more »

French Alps

The French Alps are the portions of the Alps mountain range that stand within France, located in the Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur regions.

New!!: France and French Alps · See more »

French Army

The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

New!!: France and French Army · See more »

French art

French art consists of the visual and plastic arts (including architecture, woodwork, textiles, and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of France.

New!!: France and French art · See more »

French Évian Accords referendum, 1962

A referendum to approve the Évian Accords ending the Algerian War and granting self-determination to Algeria was held in France on 8 April 1962.

New!!: France and French Évian Accords referendum, 1962 · See more »

French ban on face covering

The French ban on face covering (LOI n° 2010-1192: Loi interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public, "Law of 2010-1192: Act prohibiting concealment of the face in public space") is an act of parliament passed by the Senate of France on 14 September 2010, resulting in the ban on the wearing of face-covering headgear, including masks, helmets, balaclavas, niqābs and other veils covering the face in public places, except under specified circumstances.

New!!: France and French ban on face covering · See more »

French Baroque architecture

French Baroque architecture, sometimes called French classicism, was a style of architecture during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610–43), Louis XIV (1643–1715) and Louis XV (1715–74).

New!!: France and French Baroque architecture · See more »

French Basque Country

The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.

New!!: France and French Basque Country · See more »

French campaign in Egypt and Syria

The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.

New!!: France and French campaign in Egypt and Syria · See more »

French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

New!!: France and French colonial empire · See more »

French Constitution of 1791

The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.

New!!: France and French Constitution of 1791 · See more »

French Consulate

The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.

New!!: France and French Consulate · See more »

French Development Agency

French Development Agency (Agence française de développement, AFD) is a public financial institution that implements the policy defined by the French Government.

New!!: France and French Development Agency · See more »

French Directory

The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.

New!!: France and French Directory · See more »

French Fifth Republic

The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.

New!!: France and French Fifth Republic · See more »

French First Republic

In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.

New!!: France and French First Republic · See more »

French Flanders

French Flanders (La Flandre française; Frans-Vlaanderen) is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings and the Dutch were traditionally the dominant ethnic groups and where Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken.

New!!: France and French Flanders · See more »

French Flemish

French Flemish (French Flemish: Fransch vlaemsch, Standard Dutch: Frans-Vlaams, flamand français) is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France.

New!!: France and French Flemish · See more »

French Foreign Legion

The French Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) (FFL; Légion étrangère, L.É.) is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831.

New!!: France and French Foreign Legion · See more »

French Fourth Republic

The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.

New!!: France and French Fourth Republic · See more »

French franc

The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.

New!!: France and French franc · See more »

French Guiana

French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.

New!!: France and French Guiana · See more »

French India

French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.

New!!: France and French India · See more »

French invasion of Russia

The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

New!!: France and French invasion of Russia · See more »

French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

New!!: France and French language · See more »

French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools

The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (e.g., government-operated) primary and secondary schools.

New!!: France and French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools · See more »

French Navy

The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.

New!!: France and French Navy · See more »

French New Wave

New Wave (La Nouvelle Vague) is often referred to as one of the most influential movements in the history of cinema.

New!!: France and French New Wave · See more »

French nobility

The French nobility (la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790.

New!!: France and French nobility · See more »

French onion soup

French onion soup (French: soupe à l’oignon) is a type of soup usually based on meat stock and onions, and often served gratinéed with croutons and cheese on top or a large piece of bread.

New!!: France and French onion soup · See more »

French Open

The French Open (Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), officially called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France.

New!!: France and French Open · See more »

French opera

French opera is one of Europe's most important operatic traditions, containing works by composers of the stature of Rameau, Berlioz, Gounod, Bizet, Massenet, Debussy, Ravel, Poulenc and Messiaen.

New!!: France and French opera · See more »

French Parliament

The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).

New!!: France and French Parliament · See more »

French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

New!!: France and French people · See more »

French poetry

French poetry is a category of French literature.

New!!: France and French poetry · See more »

French Polynesia

French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).

New!!: France and French Polynesia · See more »

French popular music

French popular music is a music of France belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and mostly distributed commercially.

New!!: France and French popular music · See more »

French Renaissance

The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries.

New!!: France and French Renaissance · See more »

French Resistance

The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.

New!!: France and French Resistance · See more »

French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

New!!: France and French Revolution · See more »

French Revolution of 1848

The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.

New!!: France and French Revolution of 1848 · See more »

French Revolutionary Wars

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.

New!!: France and French Revolutionary Wars · See more »

French Riviera

The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.

New!!: France and French Riviera · See more »

French Section of the Workers' International

The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).

New!!: France and French Section of the Workers' International · See more »

French Southern and Antarctic Lands

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.

New!!: France and French Southern and Antarctic Lands · See more »

French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

New!!: France and French Third Republic · See more »

French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.

New!!: France and French Wars of Religion · See more »

French wine

French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles.

New!!: France and French wine · See more »

Fronde

The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.

New!!: France and Fronde · See more »

Gabriel Fauré

Gabriel Urbain Fauré (12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher.

New!!: France and Gabriel Fauré · See more »

Gallia Narbonensis

Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

New!!: France and Gallia Narbonensis · See more »

Gallic rooster

The Gallic rooster (coq gaulois) is an unofficial national symbol of France as a nation, as opposed to Marianne representing France as a State, and its values: the Republic.

New!!: France and Gallic rooster · See more »

Gallo-Roman culture

The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.

New!!: France and Gallo-Roman culture · See more »

Garabit viaduct

The Garabit Viaduct (Viaduc de Garabit in French) is a railway arch bridge spanning the Truyère, near Ruynes-en-Margeride, Cantal, France, in the mountainous Massif Central region.

New!!: France and Garabit viaduct · See more »

Gare d'Orsay

Gare d'Orsay is a former Paris railway station and hotel, built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard; it served as a terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans (Paris-Orléans Railway).

New!!: France and Gare d'Orsay · See more »

Gargantua and Pantagruel

The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel (La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel) is a pentalogy of novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais, which tells of the adventures of two giants, Gargantua and his son Pantagruel. The text is written in an amusing, extravagant, and satirical vein, and features much crudity, scatological humor, and violence (lists of explicit or vulgar insults fill several chapters).

New!!: France and Gargantua and Pantagruel · See more »

Garonne

The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.

New!!: France and Garonne · See more »

Gaspar Noé

Gaspar Noé (born December 27, 1963) is an Argentine filmmaker living in France.

New!!: France and Gaspar Noé · See more »

Gaspard de la nuit

Gaspard de la nuit (subtitled Trois poèmes pour piano d'après Aloysius Bertrand), M. 55 is a suite of piano pieces by Maurice Ravel, written in 1908.

New!!: France and Gaspard de la nuit · See more »

Gaston Bachelard

Gaston Bachelard (27 June 1884 – 16 October 1962) was a French philosopher.

New!!: France and Gaston Bachelard · See more »

Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

New!!: France and Gaul · See more »

Gaullism

Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.

New!!: France and Gaullism · See more »

Gaullist Party

In France, the Gaullist Party is usually used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist.

New!!: France and Gaullist Party · See more »

Gauls

The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

New!!: France and Gauls · See more »

Gayssot Act

The Gayssot Act or Gayssot Law (Loi Gayssot), enacted on 13 July 1990, makes it an offense in France to question the existence or size of the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, on the basis of which Nazi leaders were convicted by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945-46 (art.9).

New!!: France and Gayssot Act · See more »

Géla Babluani

Géla Babluani (გელა ბაბლუანი) (born 1979) is a Georgian–French film director.

New!!: France and Géla Babluani · See more »

Gérard Larcher

Gérard Philippe René André Larcher (born 14 September 1949) is a French politician serving as President of the Senate since 2014, previously holding the position from 2008 to 2011.

New!!: France and Gérard Larcher · See more »

Gendarmerie

Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.

New!!: France and Gendarmerie · See more »

George Berkeley

George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

New!!: France and George Berkeley · See more »

Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.

New!!: France and Georges Bizet · See more »

Georges Braque

Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.

New!!: France and Georges Braque · See more »

Georges Brassens

Georges Brassens (22 October 1921 – 29 October 1981) was a French singer-songwriter and poet.

New!!: France and Georges Brassens · See more »

Georges Seurat

Georges-Pierre Seurat (2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist painter and draftsman.

New!!: France and Georges Seurat · See more »

Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.

New!!: France and Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon · See more »

Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

New!!: France and Georgia (country) · See more »

German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

New!!: France and German language · See more »

German military administration in occupied France during World War II

The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.

New!!: France and German military administration in occupied France during World War II · See more »

Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

New!!: France and Germanic languages · See more »

Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

New!!: France and Germanic peoples · See more »

Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

New!!: France and Germany · See more »

GIGN

GIGN (Groupe d'intervention de la Gendarmerie nationale; National Gendarmerie Intervention Group) is the elite police tactical unit of the French National Gendarmerie.

New!!: France and GIGN · See more »

Gipsy Kings

The Gipsy Kings are a group of flamenco, salsa and pop musicians from Arles and Montpellier in the south of France, who perform in Andalusian Spanish.

New!!: France and Gipsy Kings · See more »

Girondins

The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Girondins · See more »

Givenchy

Givenchy is a French luxury fashion and perfume house.

New!!: France and Givenchy · See more »

Glacier

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

New!!: France and Glacier · See more »

GlobalPost

GlobalPost is an online US digital journalism company that focuses on international news founded on January 12, 2009 by Philip S. Balboni and Charles M. Sennott.

New!!: France and GlobalPost · See more »

Gloria (Poulenc)

The Gloria by Francis Poulenc, FP 177, scored for soprano solo, large orchestra, and chorus, is a setting of the Gloria text from the mass ordinary.

New!!: France and Gloria (Poulenc) · See more »

Gojira (band)

Gojira are a French heavy metal band from Bayonne.

New!!: France and Gojira (band) · See more »

Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

New!!: France and Gold · See more »

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

New!!: France and Gothic architecture · See more »

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

New!!: France and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz · See more »

Government of France

The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.

New!!: France and Government of France · See more »

Grand Est

Grand Est (Great East, Großer Osten — both in the Alsatian and the Lorraine Franconian dialect), previously Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine (ACAL or less commonly, ALCA), is an administrative region in eastern France.

New!!: France and Grand Est · See more »

Grand Palais

The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English: Great Palace), is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.

New!!: France and Grand Palais · See more »

Grand Slam (rugby union)

In rugby union, a Grand Slam (Irish: Caithréim Mhór. Welsh: Y Gamp Lawn. French: Grand Chelem) occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations predecessor) manages to beat all the others during one year's competition.

New!!: France and Grand Slam (rugby union) · See more »

Grand Slam (tennis)

The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.

New!!: France and Grand Slam (tennis) · See more »

Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux

Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux, is a theatre in Bordeaux, France, first inaugurated on 17 April 1780.

New!!: France and Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux · See more »

Grandes écoles

The Grandes Écoles (literally in French "Great Schools") of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system.

New!!: France and Grandes écoles · See more »

Grands corps de l'État

The grands corps de l'État (Grand Corps of the State) are a feature of the French state as envisaged in the reforms of Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

New!!: France and Grands corps de l'État · See more »

Grasse

Grasse (Provençal Grassa in classical norm or Grasso in Mistralian norm; traditional Grassa) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department (of which it is a sub-prefecture), on the French Riviera.

New!!: France and Grasse · See more »

Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

New!!: France and Great power · See more »

Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

New!!: France and Greeks · See more »

Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul

The Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul have a significant history of settlement, trade, cultural influence, and armed conflict in the Celtic territory of Gaul (modern France), starting from the 6th century BC during the Greek Archaic period.

New!!: France and Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul · See more »

Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

New!!: France and Greenhouse gas · See more »

Grenoble

Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.

New!!: France and Grenoble · See more »

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

New!!: France and Gross domestic product · See more »

Group of Eight

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.

New!!: France and Group of Eight · See more »

Group of Seven

The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

New!!: France and Group of Seven · See more »

Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.

New!!: France and Guadeloupe · See more »

Guiana Space Centre

The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport to the northwest of Kourou in French Guiana.

New!!: France and Guiana Space Centre · See more »

Gustave Courbet

Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.

New!!: France and Gustave Courbet · See more »

Gustave Eiffel

Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (born Bönickhausen;;; 15 December 183227 December 1923) was a French civil engineer.

New!!: France and Gustave Eiffel · See more »

Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy

Gustavia is the main town and capital of the island of Saint Barthélemy.

New!!: France and Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy · See more »

Guy Canivet

Guy Canivet (born 23 September 1943 in Lons-le-Saunier) is a French judge.

New!!: France and Guy Canivet · See more »

Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

New!!: France and Guy de Maupassant · See more »

Gymnopédies

The Gymnopédies, published in Paris starting in 1888, are three piano compositions written by French composer and pianist Erik Satie.

New!!: France and Gymnopédies · See more »

Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

New!!: France and Habsburg Monarchy · See more »

Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).

New!!: France and Habsburg Spain · See more »

Haiphong incident

The Haiphong Incident or the Haiphong Massacre occurred on November 23, 1946, when the French cruiser bombarded the Vietnamese coastal city of Haiphong overnight, killing 6,000 Vietnamese people.

New!!: France and Haiphong incident · See more »

Hand transplantation

Hand transplantation is a surgical procedure to transplant a hand from one human to another.

New!!: France and Hand transplantation · See more »

Harpsichord

A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.

New!!: France and Harpsichord · See more »

Hate speech laws in France

The hate speech laws in France are matters of both civil law and criminal law.

New!!: France and Hate speech laws in France · See more »

Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.

New!!: France and Haussmann's renovation of Paris · See more »

Haute couture

Haute couture (French for "high sewing" or "high dressmaking" or "high fashion") is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing.

New!!: France and Haute couture · See more »

Hautes-Pyrénées

Hautes-Pyrénées (Gascon/Occitan: Nauts Pirenèus / Hauts Pirenèus; Altos Pirineos; Alts Pirineus) is a department in southwestern France.

New!!: France and Hautes-Pyrénées · See more »

Hauts-de-France

Hauts-de-France (translates to "Upper France" in English; Heuts-d'Franche) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy.

New!!: France and Hauts-de-France · See more »

Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

New!!: France and Head of state · See more »

Health care in France

The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.

New!!: France and Health care in France · See more »

Health in France

Average life expectancy in France at birth is 81 years.

New!!: France and Health in France · See more »

Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

New!!: France and Health system · See more »

HEC Paris

HEC Paris (École des hautes études commerciales de Paris) is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France.

New!!: France and HEC Paris · See more »

Hector Berlioz

Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.

New!!: France and Hector Berlioz · See more »

Henri Becquerel

Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.

New!!: France and Henri Becquerel · See more »

Henri Bergson

Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.

New!!: France and Henri Bergson · See more »

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901), also known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist, and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing, elegant, and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, affairs of those times.

New!!: France and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec · See more »

Henri Grégoire

Henri Jean-Baptiste Grégoire (4 December 1750 – 28 May 1831), often referred to as Abbé Grégoire, was a French Roman Catholic priest, constitutional bishop of Blois and a revolutionary leader.

New!!: France and Henri Grégoire · See more »

Henri Matisse

Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.

New!!: France and Henri Matisse · See more »

Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

New!!: France and Henri Poincaré · See more »

Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

New!!: France and Henry IV of France · See more »

Hexagon

In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.

New!!: France and Hexagon · See more »

History of France

The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.

New!!: France and History of France · See more »

History of the Catholic Church in France

The history of the Catholic Church in France is inseparable from the history of France, and should be analyzed in its peculiar relationship with the State, with which it was progressively confused, confronted, and separated.

New!!: France and History of the Catholic Church in France · See more »

History of the Jews in France

The history of the Jews in France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.

New!!: France and History of the Jews in France · See more »

History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867)

The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

New!!: France and History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867) · See more »

HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

New!!: France and HIV/AIDS · See more »

Hollywood

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

New!!: France and Hollywood · See more »

Holocaust denial

Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.

New!!: France and Holocaust denial · See more »

Holy Land

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

New!!: France and Holy Land · See more »

Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).

New!!: France and Holy Roman Emperor · See more »

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

New!!: France and Holy Roman Empire · See more »

Homer

Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

New!!: France and Homer · See more »

Homo

Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.

New!!: France and Homo · See more »

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

New!!: France and Homo sapiens · See more »

Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.

New!!: France and Honoré de Balzac · See more »

House of Bonaparte

The House of Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) was an imperial and royal European dynasty founded in 1804 by Italian noble Carlo Buonaparte and his son Napoleon I, a French military leader of Italian heritage who had risen to notability out of the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his ''coup d'état'' of November 1799.

New!!: France and House of Bonaparte · See more »

House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

New!!: France and House of Bourbon · See more »

House of Capet

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.

New!!: France and House of Capet · See more »

House of Valois

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.

New!!: France and House of Valois · See more »

Hugh Capet

Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.

New!!: France and Hugh Capet · See more »

Huguenots

Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.

New!!: France and Huguenots · See more »

Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais

Hugues-Félicité Robert de Lamennais (or De La Mennais) (19 June 1782 – 27 February 1854) was a French Catholic priest, philosopher and political theorist.

New!!: France and Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais · See more »

Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

New!!: France and Human Development Index · See more »

Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

New!!: France and Human Rights Watch · See more »

Humanism in France

Humanism in France found its way from Italy, but did not become a distinct movement until the 16th century was well on its way.

New!!: France and Humanism in France · See more »

Hundred Days

The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).

New!!: France and Hundred Days · See more »

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

New!!: France and Hundred Years' War · See more »

Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

New!!: France and Hungary · See more »

Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

New!!: France and Hunter-gatherer · See more »

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

New!!: France and Immanuel Kant · See more »

Immigration

Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

New!!: France and Immigration · See more »

Immigration to France

According to the French national institute of statistics INSEE, the 2014 census counted nearly 6 million immigrants (foreign-born people) in France, representing 9.1% of the total population.

New!!: France and Immigration to France · See more »

Impressionism

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

New!!: France and Impressionism · See more »

Impressionism in music

Impressionism in music was a movement among various composers in Western classical music (mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries) whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere, "conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed tone‐picture".

New!!: France and Impressionism in music · See more »

Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

New!!: France and Indian Ocean · See more »

Indian Ocean Commission

The Indian Ocean Commission (Commission de l'Océan Indien, COI) is an intergovernmental organization that was created in 1982 at Port Louis, Mauritius and institutionalized in 1984 by the Victoria Agreement in Seychelles.

New!!: France and Indian Ocean Commission · See more »

Individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

New!!: France and Individualism · See more »

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

New!!: France and Industrial Revolution · See more »

Inner Six

The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.

New!!: France and Inner Six · See more »

Institut français d'opinion publique

The Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) (French Institute of Public Opinion) is an international polling and market research firm, whose motto is "Connection creates value".

New!!: France and Institut français d'opinion publique · See more »

Institut géographique national

The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière (National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information), previously Institut géographique national (National Geographic Institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940 to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories.

New!!: France and Institut géographique national · See more »

Institut Laue–Langevin

The Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) is an internationally financed scientific facility, situated on the Polygone Scientifique in Grenoble, France.

New!!: France and Institut Laue–Langevin · See more »

Institut Montaigne

Founded in 2000, Institut Montaigne is a nonprofit, transpartisan think tank based in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Institut Montaigne · See more »

Institut national d'études démographiques

The French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) is a French research institute specialized in demography and population studies in general.

New!!: France and Institut national d'études démographiques · See more »

Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques

The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.

New!!: France and Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques · See more »

Insurrection of 10 August 1792

The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Insurrection of 10 August 1792 · See more »

International Affairs (journal)

International Affairs is a leading peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations.

New!!: France and International Affairs (journal) · See more »

International Bureau of Weights and Measures

The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.

New!!: France and International Bureau of Weights and Measures · See more »

International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

New!!: France and International Futures · See more »

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

New!!: France and International Monetary Fund · See more »

International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.

New!!: France and International Olympic Committee · See more »

International organization

An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.

New!!: France and International organization · See more »

International rankings of France

The following are International rankings of France.

New!!: France and International rankings of France · See more »

Internment

Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.

New!!: France and Internment · See more »

Interpol

The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.

New!!: France and Interpol · See more »

Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso

The Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso in A minor (Introduction et Rondo capriccioso en la mineur), Op. 28, is a composition for violin and orchestra written in 1863 by Camille Saint-Saëns for the virtuoso violinist Pablo de Sarasate.

New!!: France and Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso · See more »

Invasion of Normandy

The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.

New!!: France and Invasion of Normandy · See more »

Ionia

Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.

New!!: France and Ionia · See more »

Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

New!!: France and Iraq War · See more »

Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

New!!: France and Iron · See more »

Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

New!!: France and Iron Age · See more »

Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

New!!: France and Irreligion · See more »

Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.

New!!: France and Isidore of Seville · See more »

Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

New!!: France and Islam · See more »

Islam in France

Islam is the second-most widely professed religion in France behind Catholic Christianity by number of worshippers.

New!!: France and Islam in France · See more »

ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

New!!: France and ISO 4217 · See more »

Italian art

Since ancient times, Greeks, Etruscans and Celts have inhabited the south, centre and north of the Italian peninsula respectively.

New!!: France and Italian art · See more »

Italian Wars

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.

New!!: France and Italian Wars · See more »

Italians in France

Italian migration into what is today France has been going on, in different migrating cycles, for centuries, beginning in prehistoric times right to the modern age.

New!!: France and Italians in France · See more »

Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

New!!: France and Italy · See more »

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

New!!: France and Ivory Coast · See more »

Jacob Grimm

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.

New!!: France and Jacob Grimm · See more »

Jacobin

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Jacobin · See more »

Jacques Cartier

Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.

New!!: France and Jacques Cartier · See more »

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.

New!!: France and Jacques Derrida · See more »

Jacques Marescaux

Jacques Marescaux (born August 8, 1948) is a French doctor of international renown.

New!!: France and Jacques Marescaux · See more »

Jacques Offenbach

Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period.

New!!: France and Jacques Offenbach · See more »

Jacques the Fatalist

Jacques the Fatalist and his Master (Jacques le fataliste et son maître) is a novel by Denis Diderot, written during the period 1765–1780.

New!!: France and Jacques the Fatalist · See more »

Jacques Tourneur

Jacques Tourneur (November 12, 1904 – December 19, 1977) was a French film director known for the classic film noir Out of the Past and a series of low-budget horror films he made for RKO Studios, including Cat People, I Walked with a Zombie and The Leopard Man.

New!!: France and Jacques Tourneur · See more »

Jacques-Louis David

Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.

New!!: France and Jacques-Louis David · See more »

January 2015 Île-de-France attacks

From 7 January 2015 to 9 January 2015, terrorist attacks occurred across the Île-de-France region, particularly in Paris.

New!!: France and January 2015 Île-de-France attacks · See more »

Jean Baudrillard

Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.

New!!: France and Jean Baudrillard · See more »

Jean Cavaillès

Jean Cavaillès (May 15, 1903 – February 17, 1944) was a French philosopher and logician who specialized in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of science.

New!!: France and Jean Cavaillès · See more »

Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.

New!!: France and Jean de La Fontaine · See more »

Jean Fouquet

Jean (or Jehan) Fouquet (1420–1481) was a preeminent French painter of the 15th century, a master of both panel painting and manuscript illumination, and the apparent inventor of the portrait miniature.

New!!: France and Jean Fouquet · See more »

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

New!!: France and Jean le Rond d'Alembert · See more »

Jean Nouvel

Jean Nouvel (born 12 August 1945) is a French architect.

New!!: France and Jean Nouvel · See more »

Jean Racine

Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.

New!!: France and Jean Racine · See more »

Jean-Antoine Watteau

Jean-Antoine Watteau (baptised October 10, 1684 – died July 18, 1721),Wine, Humphrey, and Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies.

New!!: France and Jean-Antoine Watteau · See more »

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

New!!: France and Jean-Baptiste Colbert · See more »

Jean-Baptiste Lully

Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli,; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.

New!!: France and Jean-Baptiste Lully · See more »

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching.

New!!: France and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot · See more »

Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse

Jean François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (variant spelling of his name comte "de La Pérouse"; 23 August 17411788?) was a French Naval officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania.

New!!: France and Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse · See more »

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.

New!!: France and Jean-François Lyotard · See more »

Jean-François Millet

Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.

New!!: France and Jean-François Millet · See more »

Jean-Honoré Fragonard

Jean-Honoré Fragonard (4 April 1732 (birth/baptism certificate) – 22 August 1806) was a French painter and printmaker whose late Rococo manner was distinguished by remarkable facility, exuberance, and hedonism.

New!!: France and Jean-Honoré Fragonard · See more »

Jean-Michel Dubernard

Jean-Michel Dubernard (born 17 May 1941 in Lyon) is a medical doctor specializing in transplant surgery, as well as a former Deputy in the French National Assembly.

New!!: France and Jean-Michel Dubernard · See more »

Jean-Michel Jarre

Jean-Michel André Jarre (born 24 August 1948) is a French composer, performer and record producer.

New!!: France and Jean-Michel Jarre · See more »

Jean-Paul Gaultier

Jean-Paul Gaultier (born 24 April 1952) is a French haute couture and prêt-à-porter fashion designer.

New!!: France and Jean-Paul Gaultier · See more »

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

New!!: France and Jean-Paul Sartre · See more »

Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.

New!!: France and Jean-Philippe Rameau · See more »

Jeux d'eau (Ravel)

Jeux d’eau is a piece for solo piano by Maurice Ravel.

New!!: France and Jeux d'eau (Ravel) · See more »

Joachim du Bellay

Joachim du Bellay (also Joachim Du Bellay;; c. 1522 – 1 January 1560) was a French poet, critic, and a member of the Pléiade.

New!!: France and Joachim du Bellay · See more »

Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.

New!!: France and Joan of Arc · See more »

Joseph de Maistre

Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Joseph de Maistre · See more »

Journal officiel de la République française

The Journal officiel de la République française (JORF or JO) is the government gazette of the French Republic.

New!!: France and Journal officiel de la République française · See more »

Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

New!!: France and Judaism · See more »

Judo

was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).

New!!: France and Judo · See more »

Jules Ferry

Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.

New!!: France and Jules Ferry · See more »

Jules Hardouin-Mansart

Jules Hardouin-Mansart (16 April 1646 – 11 May 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV.

New!!: France and Jules Hardouin-Mansart · See more »

Jules Massenet

Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.

New!!: France and Jules Massenet · See more »

Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.

New!!: France and Jules Verne · See more »

Jules Vuillemin

Jules Vuillemin (15 February 1920 – 16 January 2001) was a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy of Knowledge at the prestigious Collège de France, in Paris, from 1962 to 1990, succeeding Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Professor emeritus from 1991 to 2001.

New!!: France and Jules Vuillemin · See more »

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

New!!: France and Julius Caesar · See more »

July Monarchy

The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.

New!!: France and July Monarchy · See more »

July Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.

New!!: France and July Revolution · See more »

Junk food

Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.

New!!: France and Junk food · See more »

Jura Mountains

The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.

New!!: France and Jura Mountains · See more »

Just Fontaine

Just Fontaine (born 18 August 1933) is a retired French professional footballer.

New!!: France and Just Fontaine · See more »

Justice (band)

Justice is a French electronic music duo consisting of Gaspard Augé and Xavier de Rosnay.

New!!: France and Justice (band) · See more »

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

New!!: France and Köppen climate classification · See more »

Kendji Girac

Kendji Girac (born Kendji Jason Maillié, July 3, 1996) is a French singer.

New!!: France and Kendji Girac · See more »

Kerguelen Islands

The Kerguelen Islands (or; in French commonly Îles Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen), also known as the Desolation Islands (Îles de la Désolation in French), are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two exposed parts of the mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau.

New!!: France and Kerguelen Islands · See more »

Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)

The Kingdom of Croatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Regnum Croatiae Horvát Királyság Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years.

New!!: France and Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) · See more »

Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.

New!!: France and Kingdom of France · See more »

Kingdom of France (1791–92)

The Kingdom of France as remnant of the preceding absolute Kingdom of France, was a constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792, when this constitutional monarchy was succeeded by the First Republic.

New!!: France and Kingdom of France (1791–92) · See more »

Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

New!!: France and Kingdom of Prussia · See more »

Kingdom of Sardinia

The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.

New!!: France and Kingdom of Sardinia · See more »

Kingdom of Soissons

In historiography, the Kingdom or Domain of Soissons refers to a rump state of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul, between the Somme and the Seine, that lasted for some twenty-five years during Late Antiquity.

New!!: France and Kingdom of Soissons · See more »

Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).

New!!: France and Kingdom of the Netherlands · See more »

Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.

New!!: France and Knights Hospitaller · See more »

Knights Templar

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.

New!!: France and Knights Templar · See more »

Krzysztof Kieślowski

Krzysztof Kieślowski (27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was a Polish film director and screenwriter.

New!!: France and Krzysztof Kieślowski · See more »

L'Équipe

L'Équipe (French for "the team") is a French nationwide daily newspaper devoted to sport, owned by Éditions Philippe Amaury.

New!!: France and L'Équipe · See more »

L'Express

L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris.

New!!: France and L'Express · See more »

L'Obs

L’Obs, previously known as Le Nouvel Observateur (1964–2014), is a weekly French news magazine.

New!!: France and L'Obs · See more »

La Comédie humaine

La Comédie humaine (The Human Comedy) is the title of Honoré de Balzac's (1799–1850) multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration (1815-1830) and the July Monarchy (1830–1848).

New!!: France and La Comédie humaine · See more »

La Croix

La Croix (English: The Cross) is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009.

New!!: France and La Croix · See more »

La Défense

La Défense is a major business district, three kilometres west of the city limits of Paris.

New!!: France and La Défense · See more »

La Hire

Étienne de Vignolles, called La Hire (Préchacq-les-Bains, Landes, 1390 – 11 January 1443 in Montauban), was a French military commander during the Hundred Years' War.

New!!: France and La Hire · See more »

La Légende des siècles

La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages) is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, conceived as an immense depiction of the history and evolution of humanity.

New!!: France and La Légende des siècles · See more »

La Madeleine, Paris

L'église de la Madeleine (Madeleine Church; more formally, L'église Sainte-Marie-Madeleine; less formally, just La Madeleine) is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris.

New!!: France and La Madeleine, Paris · See more »

La Marseillaise

"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.

New!!: France and La Marseillaise · See more »

La Pléiade

La Pléiade is the name given to a group of 16th-century French Renaissance poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf.

New!!: France and La Pléiade · See more »

La Princesse de Clèves

La Princesse de Clèves is a French novel which was published anonymously in March 1678.

New!!: France and La Princesse de Clèves · See more »

La République En Marche!

La République En Marche! (frequently abbreviated REM, LRM or LREM; officially LaREM), sometimes called by its old name En Marche! (English translation: "Forward!", "Onward!", "Working!" or "On The Move!"), is a centrist, liberal and social-liberal political party in France.

New!!: France and La République En Marche! · See more »

Laïcité

Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.

New!!: France and Laïcité · See more »

Lac de Vouglans

The Lac de Vouglans is the reservoir of the hydro-electric power station at Vouglans on the River Ain in the département of Jura in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

New!!: France and Lac de Vouglans · See more »

Lancaster House Treaties

The Lancaster House Treaties of 2010 are two treaties between the United Kingdom and France for defence and security cooperation.

New!!: France and Lancaster House Treaties · See more »

Lancelot-Grail

The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the Prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend written in French.

New!!: France and Lancelot-Grail · See more »

Land registration

Land registration generally describes systems by which matters concerning ownership, possession or other rights in land can be recorded (usually with a government agency or department) to provide evidence of title, facilitate transactions and to prevent unlawful disposal.

New!!: France and Land registration · See more »

Languages of France

Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.

New!!: France and Languages of France · See more »

Languedoc

Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.

New!!: France and Languedoc · See more »

Larger urban zone

The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.

New!!: France and Larger urban zone · See more »

Lascaux

Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.

New!!: France and Lascaux · See more »

Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

New!!: France and Last glacial period · See more »

Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

New!!: France and Late antiquity · See more »

Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

New!!: France and Late Middle Ages · See more »

Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

New!!: France and Latin · See more »

Latin peoples

Latin peoples, also called Romance peoples, is a term used broadly to refer to those societies heavily influenced by Roman culture that, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, started to diverge from the spoken Vulgar Latin language, creating localized versions which nowadays make up the Romance languages.

New!!: France and Latin peoples · See more »

Laurent Garnier

Laurent Garnier (born 1 February 1966 in Boulogne-Billancourt, France), also known as Choice, is a French electronic music producer and DJ.

New!!: France and Laurent Garnier · See more »

Lausanne

Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.

New!!: France and Lausanne · See more »

Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881

The Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 (Loi sur la liberté de la presse du 29 juillet 1881), often called the Press Law of 1881 or the Lisbonne Law after its rapporteur, Eugène Lisbonne, is a law that defines the freedoms and responsibilities of the media and publishers in France.

New!!: France and Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 · See more »

Léo Ferré

Léo Ferré (24 August 1916 – 14 July 1993) was a French-born Monégasque poet and composer, and a dynamic and controversial live performer, whose career in France dominated the years after the Second World War until his death.

New!!: France and Léo Ferré · See more »

Le Bourgeois gentilhomme

Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman or The Middle-Class Aristocrat or The Would-Be Noble) is a five-act comédie-ballet—a play intermingled with music, dance and singing—written by Molière, first presented on 14 October 1670 before the court of Louis XIV at the Château of Chambord by Molière's troupe of actors.

New!!: France and Le Bourgeois gentilhomme · See more »

Le Canard enchaîné

Le Canard enchaîné (English: The Chained Duck or The Chained Paper, as "canard" is French slang meaning "newspaper"), is a satirical weekly newspaper in France.

New!!: France and Le Canard enchaîné · See more »

Le Cid

Le Cid is a five-act French tragicomedy written by Pierre Corneille, first performed in December 1636 at the Théâtre du Marais in Paris and published the same year.

New!!: France and Le Cid · See more »

Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.

New!!: France and Le Corbusier · See more »

Le Figaro

Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.

New!!: France and Le Figaro · See more »

Le Monde

Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.

New!!: France and Le Monde · See more »

Le Parisien

Le Parisien (French for "The Parisian") is a French daily newspaper covering both international and national news, and local news of Paris and its suburbs.

New!!: France and Le Parisien · See more »

Le Point

Le Point is a French weekly political and news magazine published in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Le Point · See more »

Le tombeau de Couperin

Le Tombeau de Couperin is a suite for solo piano by Maurice Ravel, composed between 1914 and 1917, in six movements based on those of a traditional Baroque suite.

New!!: France and Le tombeau de Couperin · See more »

Le Zénith

Le Zénith is the name given to a series of indoor arenas in France.

New!!: France and Le Zénith · See more »

Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

New!!: France and Legion of Honour · See more »

Legitimacy (political)

In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

New!!: France and Legitimacy (political) · See more »

Les biches

Les biches) ("The Hinds" or "The Does") is a one-act ballet to music by Francis Poulenc, choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska and premiered by the Ballets Russes on 6 January 1924 at Monte Carlo. Nijinska danced the central role of the Hostess. The ballet has no story, and depicts the random interactions of a group of mainly young people in a house party on a summer afternoon. The ballet was seen in Paris and London within a year of its premiere, and has been frequently revived there; it was not produced in New York until 1950. Nijinska directed revivals of the ballet for several companies in the four decades after its creation. Les biches, with recreations of Marie Laurencin's original costumes and scenery, remains in the repertoire of the Paris Opera Ballet, the Royal Ballet and other companies. The music has been used for later ballets, although they have not followed Nijinska's in gaining a place in the regular repertoire. The music for the original ballet contains three choral numbers. Poulenc made the choral lines optional when he revised the score in 1939–1940, and the work is usually given with wholly orchestral accompaniment. The composer extracted a five-movement suite from the score, for concert performance. The suite has been recorded for LP and CD from the 1950s onwards.

New!!: France and Les biches · See more »

Les Contemplations

Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) is a collection of poetry by Victor Hugo, published in 1856.

New!!: France and Les Contemplations · See more »

Les Invalides

Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.

New!!: France and Les Invalides · See more »

Les Misérables

Les Misérables is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.

New!!: France and Les Misérables · See more »

Les Plus Beaux Villages de France

Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (meaning “the most beautiful villages of France”) is an independent association, created in 1982, for the promotion of the tourist appeal of small rural villages with a rich cultural heritage.

New!!: France and Les Plus Beaux Villages de France · See more »

Les Rita Mitsouko

Les Rita Mitsouko (The Rita Mitsoukos) was a French pop rock group formed by the guitarist Fred Chichin and the singer Catherine Ringer.

New!!: France and Les Rita Mitsouko · See more »

Les Rougon-Macquart

Les Rougon-Macquart is the collective title given to a cycle of twenty novels by French writer Émile Zola.

New!!: France and Les Rougon-Macquart · See more »

Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

New!!: France and Levant · See more »

LGBT adoption

LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.

New!!: France and LGBT adoption · See more »

Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

New!!: France and Liberal democracy · See more »

Liberté, égalité, fraternité

Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.

New!!: France and Liberté, égalité, fraternité · See more »

Ligue 1

Ligue 1, also called Ligue 1 Conforama for sponsorship reasons with Conforama, is a French professional league for men's association football clubs.

New!!: France and Ligue 1 · See more »

Ligures

The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.

New!!: France and Ligures · See more »

Lille

Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.

New!!: France and Lille · See more »

Limes

Originally the Latin noun līmes (Latin līmitēs) had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference.

New!!: France and Limes · See more »

Lindbergh operation

The Lindbergh operation was a complete tele-surgical operation carried out by a team of French surgeons located in New York on a patient in Strasbourg, France (over a distance of several thousand miles) using telecommunications solutions based on high-speed services and sophisticated Zeus surgical robot.

New!!: France and Lindbergh operation · See more »

Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

New!!: France and Lingua franca · See more »

Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

New!!: France and Liquefied petroleum gas · See more »

List of airports in France

Below is a list of airports in France, grouped by department and sorted by commune.

New!!: France and List of airports in France · See more »

List of basilicas in France

Basilica churches, many of great architectural significance, can be found throughout France.

New!!: France and List of basilicas in France · See more »

List of castles in France

This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department.

New!!: France and List of castles in France · See more »

List of cathedrals in France

This is a list of cathedrals in France and in the French overseas departments, territories and collectivities, including both actual and former diocesan cathedrals (seats of bishops).

New!!: France and List of cathedrals in France · See more »

List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants

Below is a list of communes in France (Overseas departments included) with a population over 20,000 at the 2013 census.

New!!: France and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants · See more »

List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

New!!: France and List of countries and dependencies by area · See more »

List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

New!!: France and List of countries and dependencies by population · See more »

List of countries and dependencies by population density

This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.

New!!: France and List of countries and dependencies by population density · See more »

List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on the EDGAR database created by European Commission and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency released in 2015.

New!!: France and List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions · See more »

List of countries by credit rating

This is a list of countries by credit rating, showing long-term foreign currency credit ratings for sovereign bonds as reported by the three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's.

New!!: France and List of countries by credit rating · See more »

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

New!!: France and List of countries by GDP (nominal) · See more »

List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).

New!!: France and List of countries by GDP (PPP) · See more »

List of countries by life expectancy

This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.

New!!: France and List of countries by life expectancy · See more »

List of countries by military expenditure share of GDP

This is a list of countries by military expenditure share of GDP, the amount spent by a nation on its military as a share of its GDP.

New!!: France and List of countries by military expenditure share of GDP · See more »

List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.

New!!: France and List of countries by military expenditures · See more »

List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel

This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.

New!!: France and List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel · See more »

List of diplomatic missions of France

This is a list of diplomatic missions of France, excluding honorary consulates.

New!!: France and List of diplomatic missions of France · See more »

List of English monarchs

This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.

New!!: France and List of English monarchs · See more »

List of French cheeses

This is a list of cheeses from France.

New!!: France and List of French cheeses · See more »

List of French monarchs

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

New!!: France and List of French monarchs · See more »

List of French philosophers

A list of notable French language philosophers: Philosophers French.

New!!: France and List of French philosophers · See more »

List of French rums

France produces many different kind of rums on several different locations.

New!!: France and List of French rums · See more »

List of French scientists

This is a list of notable French scientists.

New!!: France and List of French scientists · See more »

List of largest empires

This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.

New!!: France and List of largest empires · See more »

List of Ministers of Overseas France

The following is a list of ministers of Overseas France.

New!!: France and List of Ministers of Overseas France · See more »

List of most visited art museums

This article lists the most visited art museums in the world, as listed by Art Newspaper Review Visitor Figures Survey (April 2018) and the Museum Index of the Themed Entertainment Association (TEA) and engineering firm (AECOM).

New!!: France and List of most visited art museums · See more »

List of museums in France

List of museums in France by location.

New!!: France and List of museums in France · See more »

List of Nobel laureates by country

This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country.

New!!: France and List of Nobel laureates by country · See more »

List of Presidents of the National Assembly of France

This article lists Presidents of the French Parliament or, as the case may be, of its lower chamber.

New!!: France and List of Presidents of the National Assembly of France · See more »

List of Presidents of the Senate of France

The Senate of France is the upper house of the French Parliament.

New!!: France and List of Presidents of the Senate of France · See more »

List of Remarkable Gardens of France

The Remarkable Gardens of France is intended to be a list and description, by region, of the more than three hundred gardens classified as "Jardins remarquables" by the French Ministry of Culture and the Comité des Parcs et Jardins de France.

New!!: France and List of Remarkable Gardens of France · See more »

List of states with nuclear weapons

There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

New!!: France and List of states with nuclear weapons · See more »

List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower

On the Eiffel Tower, seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions.

New!!: France and List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower · See more »

List of uninhabited regions

The list of uninhabited regions includes a number of places around the globe.

New!!: France and List of uninhabited regions · See more »

List of universities and colleges in France

This List of universities and colleges in France includes universities and other higher education institutes that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities.

New!!: France and List of universities and colleges in France · See more »

List of World Heritage Sites in France

This is a list of World Heritage Sites in France with properties of cultural and natural heritage in France as inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List or as on the country's tentative list.

New!!: France and List of World Heritage Sites in France · See more »

Literary genre

A literary genre is a category of literary composition.

New!!: France and Literary genre · See more »

Local law in Alsace-Moselle

The territory of the former Alsace-Lorraine, legally known as Alsace-Moselle, is a region in the eastern part of France, bordering with Germany.

New!!: France and Local law in Alsace-Moselle · See more »

Loire

The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.

New!!: France and Loire · See more »

Loire Valley

The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.

New!!: France and Loire Valley · See more »

London Stock Exchange

The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.

New!!: France and London Stock Exchange · See more »

Lorraine

Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.

New!!: France and Lorraine · See more »

Lothair I

Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).

New!!: France and Lothair I · See more »

Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (12 November 1729 – 31 August 1811) was a French admiral and explorer.

New!!: France and Louis Antoine de Bougainville · See more »

Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald

Louis de Bonald, properly Louis Gabriel Ambroise, Vicomte de Bonald (2 October 1754 – 23 November 1840), was a French counter-revolutionary philosopher and politician.

New!!: France and Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald · See more »

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

New!!: France and Louis Pasteur · See more »

Louis the German

Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 805-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia.

New!!: France and Louis the German · See more »

Louis the Pious

Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.

New!!: France and Louis the Pious · See more »

Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

New!!: France and Louis XIII of France · See more »

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

New!!: France and Louis XIV of France · See more »

Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

New!!: France and Louis XV of France · See more »

Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

New!!: France and Louis XVI of France · See more »

Louis-Ferdinand Céline

Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches (27 May 1894 – 1 July 1961), a French novelist, pamphleteer and physician.

New!!: France and Louis-Ferdinand Céline · See more »

Lourdes

Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a small market town lying in the foothills of the Pyrenees.

New!!: France and Lourdes · See more »

Louvre

The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Louvre · See more »

Louvre Palace

The Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois.

New!!: France and Louvre Palace · See more »

Louvre Pyramid

The Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid designed by Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) in Paris.

New!!: France and Louvre Pyramid · See more »

Luc Besson

Luc Besson (born 18 March 1959) is a French film director, screenwriter, and producer.

New!!: France and Luc Besson · See more »

Luc Montagnier

Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

New!!: France and Luc Montagnier · See more »

Lugdunum

Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.

New!!: France and Lugdunum · See more »

Luxembourg

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

New!!: France and Luxembourg · See more »

Luxury yacht

A Luxury yacht (also super-yacht, large yacht and mega-yacht) is a very expensive, privately owned, professionally crewed sailing or motor yacht.

New!!: France and Luxury yacht · See more »

LVMH

LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE, also known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris.

New!!: France and LVMH · See more »

Lyon

Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

New!!: France and Lyon · See more »

Maastricht Treaty

The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).

New!!: France and Maastricht Treaty · See more »

Macaron

A macaron is a sweet meringue-based confection made with egg white, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, and food coloring.

New!!: France and Macaron · See more »

Madagascar

Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

New!!: France and Madagascar · See more »

Madame de La Fayette

Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne, comtesse de La Fayette (baptized 18 March 1634 – 25 May 1693), better known as Madame de La Fayette, was a French writer, the author of La Princesse de Clèves, France's first historical novel and one of the earliest novels in literature.

New!!: France and Madame de La Fayette · See more »

Magazine

A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).

New!!: France and Magazine · See more »

Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

New!!: France and Maghreb · See more »

Maghrebis

Maghrebis or Maghrebians are the native inhabitants of the Maghreb in Northwest Africa.

New!!: France and Maghrebis · See more »

Malagasy Uprising

The Malagasy Uprising (Insurrection malgache) was a Malagasy nationalist rebellion against French colonial rule in Madagascar, lasting from March 1947 to December 1948.

New!!: France and Malagasy Uprising · See more »

Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

New!!: France and Mali · See more »

Mano Negra

Mano Negra (complete Spanish name: La Mano Negra, sometimes nicknamed La Mano in France) was a music group active from 1987 to 1995 and fronted by Manu Chao.

New!!: France and Mano Negra · See more »

Manon

Manon is an opéra comique in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille, based on the 1731 novel L’histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut by the Abbé Prévost.

New!!: France and Manon · See more »

Marc Chagall

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.

New!!: France and Marc Chagall · See more »

Marc-Antoine Charpentier

Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 – 24 February 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era.

New!!: France and Marc-Antoine Charpentier · See more »

Marcel Proust

Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.

New!!: France and Marcel Proust · See more »

Marianne

Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, a personification of liberty and reason, and a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty.

New!!: France and Marianne · See more »

Marie Claire

Marie Claire is an international monthly magazine first published in France in 1937, followed by the UK in 1941.

New!!: France and Marie Claire · See more »

Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.

New!!: France and Marie Curie · See more »

Marigot, Saint Martin

Marigot is the main town and capital in the French Collectivity of Saint Martin.

New!!: France and Marigot, Saint Martin · See more »

Marin Marais

Marin Marais (31 May 1656, Paris – 15 August 1728, Paris) was a French composer and viol player.

New!!: France and Marin Marais · See more »

Marine protected area

Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes.

New!!: France and Marine protected area · See more »

Marseille

Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.

New!!: France and Marseille · See more »

Martial arts

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.

New!!: France and Martial arts · See more »

Martin Solveig

Martin Picandet (born 22 September 1976), better known by his stage name Martin Solveig, is a French DJ, singer, songwriter and record producer.

New!!: France and Martin Solveig · See more »

Martinique

Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.

New!!: France and Martinique · See more »

Massif Central

The Massif Central (Massís Central) is a highland region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus.

New!!: France and Massif Central · See more »

Mata Utu

Mata-Utu (ʻUvean: Matāutu) is the capital of Wallis and Futuna, an overseas collectivity of France.

New!!: France and Mata Utu · See more »

Matter of France

The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of literature and legendary material associated with the history of France, in particular involving Charlemagne and his associates.

New!!: France and Matter of France · See more »

Maurice de Vlaminck

Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French painter.

New!!: France and Maurice de Vlaminck · See more »

Maurice Ohana

Maurice Ohana (12 June 1913 – 13 November 1992) was a French composer.

New!!: France and Maurice Ohana · See more »

Maurice Ravel

Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.

New!!: France and Maurice Ravel · See more »

May 1968 events in France

The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.

New!!: France and May 1968 events in France · See more »

Mayor of the Palace

Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (maior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king.

New!!: France and Mayor of the Palace · See more »

Mayotte

Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).

New!!: France and Mayotte · See more »

Meditations on First Philosophy

Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.

New!!: France and Meditations on First Philosophy · See more »

Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

New!!: France and Mediterranean climate · See more »

Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

New!!: France and Mediterranean Sea · See more »

Megalith

A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

New!!: France and Megalith · See more »

Member state of the European Union

The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.

New!!: France and Member state of the European Union · See more »

Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

New!!: France and Merovingian dynasty · See more »

Metric system

The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.

New!!: France and Metric system · See more »

Metro International

Metro International is a Swedish global media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. Metro International's advertising sales have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 41 percent since launch of the first newspaper edition in 1995.http://hugin.info/132142/R/1125327/208539.pdf It is a freesheet, meaning that distribution is free, with revenues thus generated entirely through advertising. This newspaper is primarily intended for commuters who move daily in and out of big cities' business areas, mainly during rush hours. The company was founded by Per Andersson and started as a subsidiary of the Modern Times Group along with Viasat Broadcasting. It is now controlled through the Mats Qviberg owned investment company Custos. The first edition of the newspaper was published as Metro Stockholm and distributed in the Stockholm metro., all European editions (except for the Hungarian one) have been sold, reportedly so that Metro International can focus on Latin America, considered the last growth market for free newspapers.

New!!: France and Metro International · See more »

Metropolitan France

Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.

New!!: France and Metropolitan France · See more »

Michael Haneke

Michael Haneke (born 23 March 1942) is an Austrian film director and screenwriter best known for films such as Funny Games (1997), Caché (2005), The White Ribbon (2009) and Amour (2012).

New!!: France and Michael Haneke · See more »

Michel de Montaigne

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.

New!!: France and Michel de Montaigne · See more »

Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

New!!: France and Michel Foucault · See more »

Michel Platini

Michel François Platini (born 21 June 1955) is a French former football player, manager and administrator.

New!!: France and Michel Platini · See more »

Michel Richard Delalande

Michel Richard Delalande (15 December 1657 – 18 June 1726) was a French Baroque composer and organist who was in the service of King Louis XIV.

New!!: France and Michel Richard Delalande · See more »

Michelin Guide

Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century.

New!!: France and Michelin Guide · See more »

Microbiology

Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

New!!: France and Microbiology · See more »

Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

New!!: France and Middle Ages · See more »

Middle Francia

Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.

New!!: France and Middle Francia · See more »

Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

New!!: France and Migration Period · See more »

Millau Viaduct

The Millau Viaduct (le Viaduc de Millau) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the gorge valley of the Tarn near Millau in southern France.

New!!: France and Millau Viaduct · See more »

Mille-feuille

The mille-feuille ("thousand-leaf"),The name is also written as "millefeuille" and "mille feuille".

New!!: France and Mille-feuille · See more »

Minatec

Minatec (initially called the Micro and Nanotechnology Innovation Centre) is a vast complex specializing in micro-nano technologies in Grenoble, France.

New!!: France and Minatec · See more »

Mines ParisTech

MINES ParisTech (officially École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris in French or Paris School of Mines in English, also known as École des mines de Paris, ENSMP, Mines Paris or simply les Mines), created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a French engineer school and a constituent college of Université PSL.

New!!: France and Mines ParisTech · See more »

Minister of the Armed Forces (France)

The Ministry of the Armed Forces (Ministre des Armées) is the French cabinet member charged with running the French Armed Forces.

New!!: France and Minister of the Armed Forces (France) · See more »

Minister of the Interior (France)

The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.

New!!: France and Minister of the Interior (France) · See more »

Ministry of Culture (France)

The Ministry of Culture (Ministère de la Culture) is the ministry of the Government of France in charge of national museums and the monuments historiques.

New!!: France and Ministry of Culture (France) · See more »

Ministry of Ecology

The Ministry for an Ecological and Solidary Transition (French: Ministère de la Transition écologique et solidaire), was created as the Ministry of the Environment (French: Ministère de l'Environnement) in 1971.

New!!: France and Ministry of Ecology · See more »

Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.

New!!: France and Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs · See more »

Ministry of National Education (France)

The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche), or simply "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.

New!!: France and Ministry of National Education (France) · See more »

Mireille Mathieu

Mireille Mathieu (born 22 July 1946) is a French singer.

New!!: France and Mireille Mathieu · See more »

Miroirs

Miroirs (French for "Mirrors") is a five-movement suite for solo piano written by French composer Maurice Ravel between 1904 and 1905.

New!!: France and Miroirs · See more »

Mistral (wind)

The mistral (Mestral, Μαΐστρος, Maestrale, Corsican: Maestral) is a strong, cold, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean, with sustained winds often exceeding, sometimes reaching.

New!!: France and Mistral (wind) · See more »

Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.

New!!: France and Mixed economy · See more »

Modern philosophy

Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.

New!!: France and Modern philosophy · See more »

Modest Mussorgsky

Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".

New!!: France and Modest Mussorgsky · See more »

Mona Lisa

The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".

New!!: France and Mona Lisa · See more »

Monaco

Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

New!!: France and Monaco · See more »

Monocle (UK magazine)

Monocle is a global affairs and lifestyle magazine, 24-hour radio station, website, retailer and media brand, all produced by Winkontent Ltd.

New!!: France and Monocle (UK magazine) · See more »

Mont Blanc

Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.

New!!: France and Mont Blanc · See more »

Mont Saint-Michel

Mont-Saint-Michel (Norman: Mont Saint Miché) is an island commune in Normandy, France.

New!!: France and Mont Saint-Michel · See more »

Montesquieu

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

New!!: France and Montesquieu · See more »

Montgolfier brothers

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) were paper manufacturers from Annonay, in Ardèche, France best known as inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique.

New!!: France and Montgolfier brothers · See more »

Montpellier

Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.

New!!: France and Montpellier · See more »

Monument historique

* Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.

New!!: France and Monument historique · See more »

Morality

Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

New!!: France and Morality · See more »

Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

New!!: France and Morocco · See more »

Morvan

The Morvan is a mountainous massif lying just to the west of the Côte d'Or escarpment in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France.

New!!: France and Morvan · See more »

Mousse

A mousse (French 'foam') is a soft prepared food that incorporates air bubbles to give it a light and airy texture.

New!!: France and Mousse · See more »

Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa

The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (abbreviated MOJWA) or the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (abbreviated MUJWA; جماعة التوحيد والجهاد في غرب أفريقيا Jamāʿat at-tawḥīd wal-jihād fī gharb ʾafrīqqīyā; Mouvement pour l'unicité et le jihad en Afrique de l'Ouest, abbreviated MUJAO), was a militant Islamist organisation that broke off from Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb with the intended goal of spreading jihad across a larger section of West Africa.

New!!: France and Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa · See more »

Municipal arrondissements of France

In France, a municipal arrondissement is a subdivision of the commune, and is used in the country's three largest cities: Paris, Lyon and Marseille.

New!!: France and Municipal arrondissements of France · See more »

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (City of Paris' Museum of Modern Art) or MAMVP, is a major municipal museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art of the 20th and 21st centuries.

New!!: France and Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris · See more »

Musée d'Orsay

The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine.

New!!: France and Musée d'Orsay · See more »

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon

The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon is a museum of fine arts opened in 1787 in Dijon, France.

New!!: France and Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon · See more »

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen

The musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen is an art museum in Rouen, Normandy, France.

New!!: France and Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen · See more »

Musée National d'Art Moderne

The Musée National d'Art Moderne (National Museum of Modern Art) is the national museum for modern art of France.

New!!: France and Musée National d'Art Moderne · See more »

Musée Picasso

The Musée Picasso is an art gallery located in the Hôtel Salé in rue de Thorigny, in the Marais district of Paris, France, dedicated to the work of the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973).

New!!: France and Musée Picasso · See more »

Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon

The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon (Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon.

New!!: France and Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon · See more »

Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes

The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes (Musée des beaux-arts de Rennes) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Rennes, the capital of Brittany.

New!!: France and Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes · See more »

Museum of Grenoble

The Museum of Grenoble (Musée de Grenoble) is a municipal museum of Fine Arts and antiquities in the city of Grenoble in the Isère region of France.

New!!: France and Museum of Grenoble · See more »

Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

New!!: France and Muslim · See more »

Mylène Farmer

Mylène Jeanne Gautier (born 12 September 1961), known professionally as Mylène Farmer, is a Canadian-born French singer, songwriter, occasional actress, writer, and entrepreneur.

New!!: France and Mylène Farmer · See more »

Nancy, France

Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.

New!!: France and Nancy, France · See more »

Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

New!!: France and Nanotechnology · See more »

Nantes

Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.

New!!: France and Nantes · See more »

Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

New!!: France and Napoleon · See more »

Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

New!!: France and Napoleon III · See more »

Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

New!!: France and Napoleonic Code · See more »

Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

New!!: France and Napoleonic Wars · See more »

Nation branding

Nation branding aims to measure, build and manage the reputation of countries (closely related to place branding).

New!!: France and Nation branding · See more »

National Assembly (France)

The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).

New!!: France and National Assembly (France) · See more »

National Assembly (French Revolution)

During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale), which existed from 13 June 1789 to 9 July 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General; thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on 30 Sept 1791) it was known as the National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante), though popularly the shorter form persisted.

New!!: France and National Assembly (French Revolution) · See more »

National Constituent Assembly (France)

The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution.

New!!: France and National Constituent Assembly (France) · See more »

National Convention

The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.

New!!: France and National Convention · See more »

National diploma (France)

The national diploma is a diploma given to French pupils at the end of 3e (year 10 / ninth grade), This diploma is awarded to students who are or were within French cultural influence, including France itself, Lebanon, Syria and Algeria, the first two were under French Mandate after World War I whilst the last was a French territory from 1830 until its independence in 1962. Also the pupils outside France who study in French Schools of the Agency for French Teaching Abroad network sit for this exam.

New!!: France and National diploma (France) · See more »

National Gendarmerie

The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police.

New!!: France and National Gendarmerie · See more »

National health insurance

National health insurance (NHI) – sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI) – is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care.

New!!: France and National health insurance · See more »

National Legislative Assembly (France)

The Legislative Assembly (Assemblée législative) was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution.

New!!: France and National Legislative Assembly (France) · See more »

National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad

The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad or the Azawad National Liberation Movement (Tamasheq: ⵜⴰⵏⴾⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⴹ ⴰⵙⵍⴰⵍⵓ ⵏ ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴷ, الحركة الوطنية لتحرير أزواد al-Ḥarakat al-Waṭaniyat Litaḥrīr ʾĀzawād, Mouvement national de libération de l'Azawad; MNLA), formerly the National Movement of Azawad (Mouvement national de l'Azawad; MNA), is a political and military organisation based in Azawad in northern Mali.

New!!: France and National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad · See more »

National Museum of Natural History (France)

The French National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne Universities.

New!!: France and National Museum of Natural History (France) · See more »

National park

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.

New!!: France and National park · See more »

National personification

A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.

New!!: France and National personification · See more »

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

New!!: France and NATO · See more »

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

New!!: France and Nazi Germany · See more »

Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.

New!!: France and Neoclassicism · See more »

Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

New!!: France and Neolithic · See more »

New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

New!!: France and New Caledonia · See more »

New France

New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.

New!!: France and New France · See more »

New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

New!!: France and New World · See more »

New York Stock Exchange

The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.

New!!: France and New York Stock Exchange · See more »

Niagara (band)

Niagara was a French rock band that achieved popularity both in France and Canada in the 1980s and early 1990s.

New!!: France and Niagara (band) · See more »

Nice

Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.

New!!: France and Nice · See more »

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".

New!!: France and Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot · See more »

Nicolas Malebranche

Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.

New!!: France and Nicolas Malebranche · See more »

Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin (June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome.

New!!: France and Nicolas Poussin · See more »

Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

New!!: France and Nobel Prize · See more »

Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

New!!: France and Nobel Prize in Literature · See more »

Noir Désir

Noir Désir were a French rock band from Bordeaux.

New!!: France and Noir Désir · See more »

Nolwenn Leroy

Nolwenn Le Magueresse (born 28 September 1982 in Saint-Renan, Brittany, France), known by her stage name Nolwenn Leroy (French pronunciation), is a French singer-songwriter, musician and voice actress.

New!!: France and Nolwenn Leroy · See more »

Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

New!!: France and Nomad · See more »

Normandy

Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

New!!: France and Normandy · See more »

North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

New!!: France and North Sea · See more »

Northern Mali conflict

The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa.

New!!: France and Northern Mali conflict · See more »

Nouméa

Nouméa is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia.

New!!: France and Nouméa · See more »

Nouvelle-Aquitaine

Nouvelle-Aquitaine ("New Aquitaine"; Nòva Aquitània; Akitania Berria; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Novéle-Aguiéne) is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country.

New!!: France and Nouvelle-Aquitaine · See more »

November 2015 Paris attacks

The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.

New!!: France and November 2015 Paris attacks · See more »

Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

New!!: France and Nuclear power · See more »

Nuclear power in France

Nuclear power is a major source of energy in France, with a 40% share of energy consumption in 2015.

New!!: France and Nuclear power in France · See more »

Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

New!!: France and Nuclear weapon · See more »

NYSE Euronext

NYSE Euronext, Inc. was a Euro-American multinational financial services corporation that operated multiple securities exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext and NYSE Arca (formerly known as ArcaEx).

New!!: France and NYSE Euronext · See more »

Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

New!!: France and Obesity · See more »

Obscurantism

Obscurantism (and) is the practice of deliberately presenting information in an imprecise and recondite manner, often designed to forestall further inquiry and understanding.

New!!: France and Obscurantism · See more »

Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

New!!: France and Occitan language · See more »

Occitanie (administrative region)

Occitanie (Occitània,, Occitània) is an administrative region of France that was created on 1 January 2016 from former French regions Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées.

New!!: France and Occitanie (administrative region) · See more »

Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

New!!: France and Oceanic climate · See more »

OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

New!!: France and OECD · See more »

Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française

The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France.

New!!: France and Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française · See more »

Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

New!!: France and Old French · See more »

Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

New!!: France and Olive oil · See more »

Olympia (Paris)

Olympia (commonly known as L'Olympia, Olympia Hall or Paris Olympia) is a music hall located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, France.

New!!: France and Olympia (Paris) · See more »

Opéra Bastille

The Opéra Bastille (French) (Bastille Opera House) is a modern opera house in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Opéra Bastille · See more »

Opéra National de Lyon

Opéra de Lyon, legally “Opéra National de Lyon” but marketed during the last decade under the shorter name, is an opera company in Lyon, France, based and performing mostly at the Opéra Nouvel, an 1831 theater that was modernized and architecturally transformed in 1993.

New!!: France and Opéra National de Lyon · See more »

Opera

Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

New!!: France and Opera · See more »

Operation Dragoon

Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.

New!!: France and Operation Dragoon · See more »

Operetta

Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter.

New!!: France and Operetta · See more »

Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

New!!: France and Optics · See more »

Orange S.A.

Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.

New!!: France and Orange S.A. · See more »

Orchestra

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.

New!!: France and Orchestra · See more »

Order of the Solar Temple

The Order of the Solar Temple, also known as Ordre du Temple Solaire (OTS) in French and the International Chivalric Organization of the Solar Tradition, or simply as The Solar Temple, is a secret society and cult that claims to be based upon the ideals of the Knights Templar.

New!!: France and Order of the Solar Temple · See more »

Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts

The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts) is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts and the oldest French legislation still used partly by French courts.

New!!: France and Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts · See more »

Organisation internationale de la Francophonie

Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.

New!!: France and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie · See more »

Orléans

Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.

New!!: France and Orléans · See more »

Otar Iosseliani

Otar Iosseliani (ოთარ იოსელიანი, born 2 February 1934) is a Georgian-film maker.

New!!: France and Otar Iosseliani · See more »

Ouest-France

Ouest-France (French for "West-France") is a daily French newspaper known for its emphasis on both local and national news.

New!!: France and Ouest-France · See more »

Outline of France

The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide of France: France – country in Western Europe with several overseas regions and territories.

New!!: France and Outline of France · See more »

Overseas collectivity

The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.

New!!: France and Overseas collectivity · See more »

Overseas France

Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.

New!!: France and Overseas France · See more »

Overseas region

An overseas region (Région d'outre-mer) is a designation given to the overseas departments that have identical powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France.

New!!: France and Overseas region · See more »

Overseas territory (France)

The term overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) is an administrative division of France and is currently only applied to the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.

New!!: France and Overseas territory (France) · See more »

Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

New!!: France and Oxygen · See more »

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

New!!: France and Pablo Picasso · See more »

Pacific Community

The Pacific Community (SPC) is the principal scientific and technical organisation in the Pacific region.

New!!: France and Pacific Community · See more »

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

New!!: France and Pacific Ocean · See more »

Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.

New!!: France and Palace of Versailles · See more »

Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille

The Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille (Lille Palace of Fine Arts) is a municipal museum dedicated to fine arts, modern art, and antiquities.

New!!: France and Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille · See more »

Palais des Papes

The Palais des Papes (English: Papal palace, lo Palais dei Papas in Occitan) is a historical palace located in Avignon, southern France.

New!!: France and Palais des Papes · See more »

Palais Garnier

The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.

New!!: France and Palais Garnier · See more »

Panthéon

The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Panthéon · See more »

Papeete

Papeete (pronounced) is the capital of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the Pacific Ocean.

New!!: France and Papeete · See more »

Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie

The Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie (Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) (EPIGN) was the parachute-trained intervention squadron of the French Gendarmerie.

New!!: France and Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie · See more »

Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

New!!: France and Paris · See more »

Paris Commune (French Revolution)

The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1792 until 1795.

New!!: France and Paris Commune (French Revolution) · See more »

Paris Masters

The Paris Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Paris, France.

New!!: France and Paris Masters · See more »

Paris Match

Paris Match is a French-language weekly news magazine.

New!!: France and Paris Match · See more »

Paris Opera

The Paris Opera (French) is the primary opera company of France.

New!!: France and Paris Opera · See more »

Patrick Modiano

Jean Patrick Modiano (born 30 July 1945), generally known as Patrick Modiano, is a French novelist and recipient of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature.

New!!: France and Patrick Modiano · See more »

Paul Andreu

Paul Andreu (born 10 July 1938) is a French architect.

New!!: France and Paul Andreu · See more »

Paul Cézanne

Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.

New!!: France and Paul Cézanne · See more »

Paul Gauguin

Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist.

New!!: France and Paul Gauguin · See more »

Paul Langevin

Paul Langevin (23 January 1872 – 19 December 1946) was a prominent French physicist who developed Langevin dynamics and the Langevin equation.

New!!: France and Paul Langevin · See more »

Paul Verlaine

Paul-Marie Verlaine (30 March 1844 – 8 January 1896) was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement.

New!!: France and Paul Verlaine · See more »

Pavane (Fauré)

The Pavane in F-sharp minor, Op. 50, is a pavane by the French composer Gabriel Fauré written in 1887.

New!!: France and Pavane (Fauré) · See more »

Pétanque

Pétanque (petanca) is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with Raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling.

New!!: France and Pétanque · See more »

Peninsula

A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

New!!: France and Peninsula · See more »

Pepin the Short

Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.

New!!: France and Pepin the Short · See more »

Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.

New!!: France and Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council · See more »

Perpignan

Perpignan (Perpinyà) is a city, a commune, and the capital of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.

New!!: France and Perpignan · See more »

Petty kingdom

A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).

New!!: France and Petty kingdom · See more »

Peugeot

Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.

New!!: France and Peugeot · See more »

Phèdre

Phèdre (originally Phèdre et Hippolyte) is a French dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by Jean Racine, first performed in 1677 at the theatre of the Hôtel de Bourgogne in Paris.

New!!: France and Phèdre · See more »

Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

New!!: France and Phenomenology (philosophy) · See more »

Philip II of France

Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.

New!!: France and Philip II of France · See more »

Philip IV of France

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.

New!!: France and Philip IV of France · See more »

Phocaea

Phocaea, or Phokaia (Ancient Greek: Φώκαια, Phókaia; modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia.

New!!: France and Phocaea · See more »

Phoenix (band)

Phoenix are an indie pop band from Versailles, France, consisting of Thomas Mars (lead vocals), Deck d'Arcy (bass/ keyboards/ backing vocals), Christian Mazzalai (guitar/ backing vocals) and Laurent Brancowitz (guitar/ keyboards/ backing vocals).

New!!: France and Phoenix (band) · See more »

Piano music of Gabriel Fauré

The French composer Gabriel Fauré (1845–1924) wrote in many genres, including songs, chamber music, orchestral pieces, and choral works.

New!!: France and Piano music of Gabriel Fauré · See more »

Pictures at an Exhibition

Pictures at an Exhibition (Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, "Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann"; Tableaux d'une exposition) is a suite of ten pieces (plus a recurring, varied Promenade) composed for the piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874.

New!!: France and Pictures at an Exhibition · See more »

Pied-Noir

Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.

New!!: France and Pied-Noir · See more »

Pierre Boulez

Pierre Louis Joseph Boulez CBE (26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer, conductor, writer and founder of institutions.

New!!: France and Pierre Boulez · See more »

Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille (Rouen, 6 June 1606 – Paris, 1 October 1684) was a French tragedian.

New!!: France and Pierre Corneille · See more »

Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.

New!!: France and Pierre Curie · See more »

Pierre de Coubertin

Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin (born Pierre de Frédy; 1 January 1863 – 2 September 1937, also known as Pierre de Coubertin and Baron de Coubertin) was a French educator and historian, and founder of the International Olympic Committee, as well as its second President.

New!!: France and Pierre de Coubertin · See more »

Pierre de Ronsard

Pierre de Ronsard (11 September 1524 – 27 December 1585) was a French poet or, as his own generation in France called him, a "prince of poets".

New!!: France and Pierre de Ronsard · See more »

Pierre Schaeffer

Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (English pronunciation:,; 14 August 1910 – 19 August 1995) was a French composer, writer, broadcaster, engineer, musicologist and acoustician.

New!!: France and Pierre Schaeffer · See more »

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.

New!!: France and Pierre-Auguste Renoir · See more »

Place Stanislas

The Place Stanislas is a large pedestrianised square in the French city of Nancy, in the Lorraine region.

New!!: France and Place Stanislas · See more »

Poles

The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.

New!!: France and Poles · See more »

Pont de Normandie

The Pont de Normandie is a cable-stayed road bridge that spans the river Seine linking Le Havre to Honfleur in Normandy, northern France.

New!!: France and Pont de Normandie · See more »

Pont du Gard

The Pont du Gard is an ancient Roman aqueduct that crosses the Gardon River near the town of Vers-Pont-du-Gard in southern France.

New!!: France and Pont du Gard · See more »

Pope Leo III

Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.

New!!: France and Pope Leo III · See more »

Pope Sylvester II

Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (– 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003.

New!!: France and Pope Sylvester II · See more »

Popular Front (France)

The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.

New!!: France and Popular Front (France) · See more »

Port-aux-Français

Port-aux-Français is the capital settlement of the Kerguelen Islands, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, in the south Indian Ocean.

New!!: France and Port-aux-Français · See more »

Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

New!!: France and Portugal · See more »

Portuguese people

Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.

New!!: France and Portuguese people · See more »

Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

New!!: France and Positivism · See more »

Postmodern philosophy

Postmodern philosophy is a philosophical movement that arose in the second half of the 20th century as a critical response to assumptions allegedly present in modernist philosophical ideas regarding culture, identity, history, or language that were developed during the 18th-century Enlightenment.

New!!: France and Postmodern philosophy · See more »

Pot-au-feu

Pot-au-feu ("pot on the fire") is a French beef stew.

New!!: France and Pot-au-feu · See more »

Power behind the throne

The phrase "power behind the throne" refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of a high-ranking office, such as a head of state.

New!!: France and Power behind the throne · See more »

Pragmatism

Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

New!!: France and Pragmatism · See more »

President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

New!!: France and President of France · See more »

Prime Minister of France

The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.

New!!: France and Prime Minister of France · See more »

Private law

Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).

New!!: France and Private law · See more »

Privateer

A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.

New!!: France and Privateer · See more »

Prix Goncourt

The Prix Goncourt (Le prix Goncourt,, The Goncourt Prize) is a prize in French literature, given by the académie Goncourt to the author of "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year".

New!!: France and Prix Goncourt · See more »

Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

New!!: France and Probability · See more »

Process philosophy

Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.

New!!: France and Process philosophy · See more »

Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy

During the French Revolution, the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy (French: Proclamation de l'abolition de la royauté) was a proclamation by the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792.

New!!: France and Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy · See more »

Programme for International Student Assessment

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

New!!: France and Programme for International Student Assessment · See more »

Protected area

Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.

New!!: France and Protected area · See more »

Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

New!!: France and Protestantism · See more »

Protests of 1968

The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military and bureaucratic elites, who responded with an escalation of political repression.

New!!: France and Protests of 1968 · See more »

Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

New!!: France and Proto-Germanic language · See more »

Provence

Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

New!!: France and Provence · See more »

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur; Provenza-Alpi-Costa Azzurra; PACA) is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.

New!!: France and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur · See more »

Provisional Government of the French Republic

The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.

New!!: France and Provisional Government of the French Republic · See more »

Psychological fiction

Psychological fiction (also psychological realism) is a literary genre that emphasizes interior characterization, as well as the motives, circumstances, and internal action which is derivative from and creates external action; not content to state what happens, but rather reveals and studies the motivation behind the action.

New!!: France and Psychological fiction · See more »

Public law

Public law is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society.

New!!: France and Public law · See more »

Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

New!!: France and Purchasing power parity · See more »

Puss in Boots

"Master Cat, or The Booted Cat" (Il gatto con gli stivali; Le Maître chat ou le Chat botté), commonly known in English as "Puss in Boots", is a European literary fairy tale about a cat who uses trickery and deceit to gain power, wealth, and the hand of a princess in marriage for his penniless and low-born master.

New!!: France and Puss in Boots · See more »

Puy de Dôme

Puy de Dôme ((Auvergnat Puèi Domat, Puèi de Doma) is a large lava dome and one of the youngest volcanoes in the Chaîne des Puys region of Massif Central in central France. This chain of volcanoes including numerous cinder cones, lava domes, and maars is far from the edge of any tectonic plate. Puy de Dôme is approximately from Clermont-Ferrand. The Puy-de-Dôme département (with hyphens) is named after the volcano.

New!!: France and Puy de Dôme · See more »

Pyrenees

The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

New!!: France and Pyrenees · See more »

Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

New!!: France and Quality of life · See more »

Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

New!!: France and Questia Online Library · See more »

Quiche

Quiche is a savoury open tart or flan consisting of pastry crust filled with eggs, milk or cream, and cheese, meat, seafood or vegetables.

New!!: France and Quiche · See more »

Racism

Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

New!!: France and Racism · See more »

Radical centrism

The terms radical centrism, radical center (or radical centre) and radical middle refer to a political ideology that arose in the Western nations in the late 20th century.

New!!: France and Radical centrism · See more »

Radical Party (France)

The Radical Party (Parti radical, also Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad.) was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France.

New!!: France and Radical Party (France) · See more »

Radicalism (historical)

The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.

New!!: France and Radicalism (historical) · See more »

Radio France

Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster.

New!!: France and Radio France · See more »

Radio France Internationale

Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.

New!!: France and Radio France Internationale · See more »

Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

New!!: France and Radioactive decay · See more »

Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

New!!: France and Rail transport · See more »

Rail transport in France

Rail transport in France is operated mostly by SNCF, the French national railway company.

New!!: France and Rail transport in France · See more »

Rail transport in Germany

, Germany had a railway network of 33,331 km of which 19,983 km were electrified and 18,201 km were double track.

New!!: France and Rail transport in Germany · See more »

Rally for the Republic

The Rally for the Republic (Rassemblement pour la République; RPR), was a Neo-Gaullist and conservative political party in France.

New!!: France and Rally for the Republic · See more »

Rally of the French People

The Rally of the French People (French Rassemblement du Peuple Français or RPF) was a French political party, led by Charles de Gaulle.

New!!: France and Rally of the French People · See more »

Rameau's Nephew

Rameau's Nephew, or the Second Satire (or The Nephew of Rameau, Le Neveu de Rameau ou La Satire seconde) is an imaginary philosophical conversation by Denis Diderot, written predominantly in 1761-2 and revised in 1773-4.

New!!: France and Rameau's Nephew · See more »

Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

New!!: France and Rapid transit · See more »

Rapsodie espagnole

Rapsodie espagnole is an orchestral rhapsody written by Maurice Ravel.

New!!: France and Rapsodie espagnole · See more »

Rationalism

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

New!!: France and Rationalism · See more »

Raymond Kopa

Raymond Kopa (birth name Raymond Kopaszewski; 13 October 1931 – 3 March 2017) was a French footballer, integral to the French national team of the 1950s.

New!!: France and Raymond Kopa · See more »

Réunion

Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.

New!!: France and Réunion · See more »

Ready-to-wear

Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter (often abbreviated RTW; "off-the-rack" or "off-the-peg" in casual use) is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition in standardized sizes, as distinct from made to measure or bespoke clothing tailored to a particular person's frame.

New!!: France and Ready-to-wear · See more »

Realism (arts)

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.

New!!: France and Realism (arts) · See more »

Referendum

A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.

New!!: France and Referendum · See more »

Refugee

A refugee, gen