1463 relations: Aérospatiale, Abacus, Abolition of monarchy, Absolute monarchy, Académie des Beaux-Arts, Académie française, Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, Academic art, Academy of sciences, Adélie Land, Administrative law, Aerospace manufacturer, Age of Enlightenment, Agence France-Presse, Agnosticism, Air (band), Air France, Air-Sol Moyenne Portée, Air-to-surface missile, Airbus, Airbus A400M Atlas, Aircraft carrier, Alans, Albert Camus, Albertville, Albigensian Crusade, Alemanni, Alexandre Alexeieff, Alexandre Dumas, Alexandrine, Alfred North Whitehead, Algeria, Algerian War, Allies of World War II, Alpine climate, Alps, Alsatian dialect, Amedeo Modigliani, American Revolutionary War, Americans in France, Amiens Cathedral, Amnesty International, Amphitheatre, AMX Leclerc, Anatole Litvak, Ancien Régime, Andorra, André Derain, Andrzej Żuławski, Anglicisation, ..., Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Années folles, Anne of Austria, Anno Domini, Annual leave, Ansar Dine, Anti-imperialism, Antisemitism, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Antoine Lavoisier, Aquitani, Arabic numerals, Arc de Triomphe, Ardennes, Argentina, Arianism, Armillary sphere, Armorica, Armorican Massif, Arrondissements of France, Asian French, Association football, Association of Caribbean States, Atheism, Athens, Atlantic Ocean, Atonality, August Decrees, Auguste and Louis Lumière, Auguste Comte, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Augustus, Austria, Authority, Auvergne, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Avant-garde, Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod), AXA, Axis powers, École nationale d'administration, École Polytechnique, Édith Piaf, Édouard Lalo, Édouard Manet, Édouard Philippe, Éguzon Dam, Électricité de France, Élysée Montmartre, Élysée Treaty, Émile Durkheim, Émile Zola, Épuration légale, Étang de Soulcem, Île Amsterdam, Île Saint-Paul, Île-de-France, Baby boom, Ballon d'Or, Barbarian, Baroque, Baruch Spinoza, Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, Basilica of St Denis, Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics, Basketball at the 2000 Summer Olympics, Basque language, Bastille Day, Bastille Day military parade, Battle of Austerlitz, Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Battle of France, Battle of Hastings, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Battle of Tours, Battle of Waterloo, BBC, BBC News, Beaujolais, Beef bourguignon, Belgium, Belle Époque, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Bernard Devauchelle, Bicameralism, Big Four (Western Europe), Black Death, Blacks in France, Blaise Pascal, Blasphemy, Bluebeard, BNP Paribas, Bob Sinclar, Boléro, Bordeaux, Bordeaux wine, Bourbon Restoration, Brazil, Breach of the peace, Breton language, Bretons, Brie, Britannicus, British Empire, Brittany, Brittany (administrative region), Bronze, Burgundy, Burgundy wine, Cadastre, Café liégeois, Camargue, Camembert, Cameroon, Cameroonian Independence War, Camille Pissarro, Camille Saint-Saëns, Camino de Santiago, Canal du Midi, Cannes Film Festival, Cantons of France, Capital city, Capitole de Toulouse, Carbon tax, Carcassonne, Cardinal Mazarin, Cardinal Richelieu, Carmen, Carnac stones, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Empire, Casablanca, Case law, Cassoulet, Castle, Catalan Countries, Catalan language, Catalans Dragons, Cathar castles, Catharism, Cathedral, Catholic Church, Côte d'Albâtre, Cello Concerto (Lalo), Celtic Britons, Celtic polytheism, Celts, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Central Powers, Centre des monuments nationaux, Centre Georges Pompidou, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CERN, CFP franc, Chad, Chamonix, Champagne, Championship (rugby league), Chanel, Channel Tunnel, Chanson, Chanson de geste, Charlemagne, Charles Aznavour, Charles de Gaulle, Charles de Gaulle Airport, Charles Gounod, Charles IV of France, Charles Martel, Charles Perrault, Charles the Bald, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charlie Hebdo, Chartres Cathedral, Château, Château d'Amboise, Château d'Angers, Château d'Ussé, Château de Chambord, Château de Chantilly, Château de Chenonceau, Château de Chinon, Château de Montsoreau, Château de Villandry, Château de Vincennes, Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg, Childhood obesity, Choucroute garnie, Chrétien de Troyes, Christian, Christian de Portzamparc, Christian Dior SE, Christian Lacroix, Christianity, Chromaticism, Chronic condition, Church (building), Cinderella, Cinema of the United States, Circus (building), Citizenship, Citroën, Civil Constitution of the Clergy, Civil law (common law), Civil law (legal system), Civil solidarity pact, Claude Debussy, Claude Lorrain, Claude Montana, Clay court, Clipperton Island, Clock, Clovis I, Cluny Abbey, Cold War, Collective memory, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Colonies in antiquity, Columbia University, Combustion, Common Agricultural Policy, Common sense, Commoner, Communes of France, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Concert champêtre, Concordat in Alsace-Moselle, Conscription, Conseil d'État (France), Constantine the Great, Constitution of France, Constitution of the Year XII, Constitutional law, Constitutional republic, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA, Contemporary art, Contemporary classical music, Continental climate, Copper, Corporatization, Corsica, Count of Toulouse, County of Nice, Coup of 18 Brumaire, Court of Cassation (France), Courtier, Crème brûlée, Crédit Agricole, Crêpe, Credit rating agency, Crimean War, Criminal law, Cromwell (play), Croque-monsieur, Crown lands of France, Crozet Islands, Crusader states, Crusades, Cult, Cultural assimilation, Cultural exception, Culture of the United States, Cystic fibrosis, Daft Punk, Dalida, Damascus, Danse macabre (Saint-Saëns), Dante Alighieri, Daphnis et Chloé, DASA, Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D, Dassault nEUROn, Dassault Rafale, Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard, Dauphiné, David Guetta, David Hume, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Declaration of Pillnitz, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Decline of newspapers, Deficit spending, Demographics of France, Denis Diderot, Deportation of Roma migrants from France, Developed country, Development aid, Dialogues of the Carmelites, Diamant, Diesel engine, Diplomatic mission, Directorate-General for External Security, Disneyland Paris, Disneyland Park (Paris), Django Reinhardt, Dominique Perrault, Duchy of Savoy, Duel, Dutch language, Early modern France, East Francia, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Ecotourism, Edgar Degas, Edgardo Cozarinsky, Edict of Fontainebleau, Edict of Nantes, Edmund Burke, Education Index, Edward Gibbon, Edward III of England, Eiffel Tower, Eight-hour day, Electricity, Elite One Championship, Elitism, Elle (magazine), Emmanuel Macron, Empire style, Encyclopédie, Endurance racing (motorsport), English Channel, Entente Cordiale, Environmental Performance Index, Erik Satie, Essays (Montaigne), Estates General (France), Estates General of 1789, Estates of the realm, Ethnic groups in Europe, Etymologiae, Eugène Delacroix, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Euro, Euro banknotes, Euro coins, EuroBasket 2013, Eurockéennes, Eurocopter Tiger, Eurofighter Typhoon, Euronext, Euronext Paris, Europe, Europe 1, European and American voyages of scientific exploration, European Commission, European Economic Community, European Single Market, European Space Agency, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, European Union, Eurostar, Eurotunnel Shuttle, Eurozone, Events preceding World War II in Europe, Ex post facto law, Exclusive economic zone, Execution of Louis XVI, Existentialism, Exocet, Extermination camp, Fable, Face transplant, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Family reunification, Faust (opera), Fauvism, Fête de la Musique, Fencing, Feudalism, Fields Medal, FIFA World Cup, Filmmaking, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, First French Empire, First Indochina War, First language, Flag of France, Flemish painting, Flight to Varennes, Fluid mechanics, Foie gras, Force de dissuasion, Foreign direct investment, Foreign worker, Fortune Global 500, 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1791, French Consulate, French Development Agency, French Directory, French Fifth Republic, French First Republic, French Flanders, French Flemish, French Foreign Legion, French Fourth Republic, French franc, French Guiana, French India, French invasion of Russia, French language, French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, French Navy, French New Wave, French nobility, French onion soup, French Open, French opera, French Parliament, French people, French poetry, French Polynesia, French popular music, French Renaissance, French Resistance, French Revolution, French Revolution of 1848, French Revolutionary Wars, French Riviera, French Section of the Workers' International, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French Third Republic, French Wars of Religion, French wine, Fronde, Gabriel Fauré, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallic rooster, Gallo-Roman culture, Garabit viaduct, Gare d'Orsay, Gargantua and Pantagruel, Garonne, Gaspar Noé, Gaspard de la nuit, Gaston 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Kingdom of the Netherlands, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar, Krzysztof Kieślowski, L'Équipe, L'Express, L'Obs, La Comédie humaine, La Croix, La Défense, La Hire, La Légende des siècles, La Madeleine, Paris, La Marseillaise, La Pléiade, La Princesse de Clèves, La République En Marche!, Laïcité, Lac de Vouglans, Lancaster House Treaties, Lancelot-Grail, Land registration, Languages of France, Languedoc, Larger urban zone, Lascaux, Last glacial period, Late antiquity, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Latin peoples, Laurent Garnier, Lausanne, Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881, Léo Ferré, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, Le Canard enchaîné, Le Cid, Le Corbusier, Le Figaro, Le Monde, Le Parisien, Le Point, Le tombeau de Couperin, Le Zénith, Legion of Honour, Legitimacy (political), Les biches, Les Contemplations, Les Invalides, Les Misérables, Les Plus Beaux Villages de France, Les Rita Mitsouko, Les Rougon-Macquart, Levant, LGBT adoption, Liberal democracy, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, Ligue 1, Ligures, Lille, Limes, Lindbergh operation, Lingua franca, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of airports in France, List of basilicas in France, List of castles in France, List of cathedrals in France, List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries and dependencies by population density, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of countries by credit rating, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by life expectancy, List of countries by military expenditure share of GDP, List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, List of diplomatic missions of France, List of English monarchs, List of French cheeses, List of French monarchs, List of French philosophers, List of French rums, List of French scientists, List of largest empires, List of Ministers of Overseas France, List of most visited art museums, List of museums in France, List of Nobel laureates by country, List of Presidents of the National Assembly of France, List of Presidents of the Senate of France, List of Remarkable Gardens of France, List of states with nuclear weapons, List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower, List of uninhabited regions, List of universities and colleges in France, List of World Heritage Sites in France, Literary genre, Local law in Alsace-Moselle, Loire, Loire Valley, London Stock Exchange, Lorraine, Lothair I, Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald, Louis Pasteur, Louis the German, Louis the Pious, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lourdes, Louvre, Louvre Palace, Louvre Pyramid, Luc Besson, Luc Montagnier, Lugdunum, Luxembourg, Luxury yacht, LVMH, Lyon, Maastricht Treaty, Macaron, Madagascar, Madame de La Fayette, Magazine, Maghreb, 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Affairs, Ministry of National Education (France), Mireille Mathieu, Miroirs, Mistral (wind), Mixed economy, Modern philosophy, Modest Mussorgsky, Mona Lisa, Monaco, Monocle (UK magazine), Mont Blanc, Mont Saint-Michel, Montesquieu, Montgolfier brothers, Montpellier, Monument historique, Morality, Morocco, Morvan, Mousse, Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa, Municipal arrondissements of France, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Musée d'Orsay, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Musée Picasso, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes, Museum of Grenoble, Muslim, Mylène Farmer, Nancy, France, Nanotechnology, Nantes, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Code, Napoleonic Wars, Nation branding, National Assembly (France), National Assembly (French Revolution), National Constituent Assembly (France), National Convention, National diploma (France), National Gendarmerie, National health insurance, National 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Francophonie, Orléans, Otar Iosseliani, Ouest-France, Outline of France, Overseas collectivity, Overseas France, Overseas region, Overseas territory (France), Oxygen, Pablo Picasso, Pacific Community, Pacific Ocean, Palace of Versailles, Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, Palais des Papes, Palais Garnier, Panthéon, Papeete, Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie, Paris, Paris Commune (French Revolution), Paris Masters, Paris Match, Paris Opera, Patrick Modiano, Paul Andreu, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Paul Langevin, Paul Verlaine, Pavane (Fauré), Pétanque, Peninsula, Pepin the Short, Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Perpignan, Petty kingdom, Peugeot, Phèdre, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philip II of France, Philip IV of France, Phocaea, Phoenix (band), Piano music of Gabriel Fauré, Pictures at an Exhibition, Pied-Noir, Pierre Boulez, Pierre Corneille, Pierre Curie, Pierre de Coubertin, Pierre de Ronsard, Pierre Schaeffer, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 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Aérospatiale, sometimes styled Aerospatiale, was a French state-owned aerospace manufacturer that built both civilian and military aircraft, rockets and satellites.
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The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.
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Abolition of monarchy
The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in the government of a country.
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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
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Académie des Beaux-Arts
The Académie des Beaux-Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) is a French learned society.
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The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
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Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture
The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was the premier art institution in France in the eighteenth century.
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Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.
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Academy of sciences
An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences that may or may not be state funded.
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Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica.
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Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.
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An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.
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Age of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
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Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
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Air are a French electronic music duo from Versailles, France, consisting of Nicolas Godin and Jean-Benoît Dunckel.
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Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France.
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Air-Sol Moyenne Portée
The Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (ASMP; medium-range air to surface missile) is a French nuclear air-launched cruise missile.
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An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft at targets on land or sea.
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Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
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Airbus A400M Atlas
The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.
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An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
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Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
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Albertville (Arpitan: Arbèrtvile) is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
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The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.
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The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
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Alexandre Alexandrovitch Alexeieff (Russian: Александр Александрович Алексеев Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekseyev (sometimes credited as Alexander Alexeieff or Alexander Alexeïeff or Alexandre Alexieff); 18 April 1901 – 9 August 1982) was a Russian Empire-born artist, filmmaker and illustrator who lived and worked mainly in Paris.
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Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.
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Alexandrine is a name used for several distinct types of verse line with related metrical structures, most of which are ultimately derived from the classical French alexandrine.
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Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
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Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
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Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
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Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
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Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian-Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France.
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American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
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Americans in France
Americans in France consists of immigrants and expatriates from the United States as well as French people of American ancestry.
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The Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Amiens (Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens), or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic church.
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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
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An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
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The Char Leclerc is a main battle tank (MBT) built by GIAT, now Nexter of France.
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Anatole Litvak (Анато́ль Литва́к; May 21, 1902 – December 15, 1974) was a Russian-born American filmmaker who wrote, directed, and produced films in various countries and languages.
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The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
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André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.
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Andrzej Żuławski (22 November 1940 – 17 February 2016) was a Polish film director and writer.
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Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
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Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
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The term Années folles ("crazy years" in French) refers to the decade of the 1920s in France.
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Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.
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The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
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Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.
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Ansar Dine (أنصار الدين ʾAnṣār ad-Dīn, also transliterated Ançar Deen; meaning "helpers of the (Islamic) religion" or "defenders of the faith") also known as Ansar al-Din (abbreviated as AAD) is a militant Islamist group led by Iyad Ag Ghaly, one of the most prominent leaders of the Tuareg Rebellion (1990–1995) who is suspected of having ties to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, which is led by his cousin Hamada Ag Hama.
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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French writer, poet, aristocrat, journalist, and pioneering aviator.
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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
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The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.
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Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
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Arc de Triomphe
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.
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The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
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Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
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An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.
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Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
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The Armorican Massif (Massif armoricain) is a geologic massif that covers a large area in the northwest of France, including Brittany, the western part of Normandy and the Pays de la Loire.
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Arrondissements of France
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France.
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Asians in France or Asian French are either foreign residents or French citizens of Asian origin living in France.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Association of Caribbean States
The Association of Caribbean States (ACS; Asociación de Estados del Caribe; Association des États de la Caraïbe) is a union of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin.
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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
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Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
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The August Decrees were nineteen decrees made in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution.
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Auguste and Louis Lumière
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
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Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.
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Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.
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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
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Auvergne (Auvergnat (occitan): Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha) is a former administrative region of France.
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Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (Ôvèrgne-Rôno-Ârpes, Auvèrnhe Ròse Aups, Alvernia-Rodano-Alpi) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014; it resulted from the merger of Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes.
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The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
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Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod)
Ave Maria is a popular and much-recorded setting of the Latin prayer Ave Maria, originally published in 1853 as Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach.
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AXA is a French multinational insurance firm headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that engages in global insurance, investment management, and other financial services.
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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
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École nationale d'administration
The École nationale d'administration (generally referred to as ÉNA;; National School of Administration) is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle, and principal author of the French Constitution, Michel Debré, to democratise access to the senior civil service.
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École Polytechnique (also known as EP or X) is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris.
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Édith Piaf (19 December 1915 – 10 October 1963; nee Édith Giovanna Gassion) was a French singer, songwriter, cabaret performer and film actress noted as France's national chanteuse and one of the country's most widely known international stars.
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Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo (27 January 182322 April 1892) was a French composer.
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Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
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Édouard Charles Philippe (born 28 November 1970) is a French lawyer and politician serving as Prime Minister of France since 15 May 2017.
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The Éguzon dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Creuse River in central France.
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Électricité de France
Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.
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Élysée Montmartre (L'Élysée Montmartre) is a music venue located at 72 Boulevard de Rochechouart, Paris, France.
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The Élysée Treaty was a treaty of friendship between France and West Germany, signed by President Charles de Gaulle and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer on 22 January 1963 at the Élysée Palace in Paris.
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David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
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Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.
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The épuration légale (French "legal purge") was the wave of official trials that followed the Liberation of France and the fall of the Vichy Regime.
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Étang de Soulcem
Étang de Soulcem is a large artificial lake in the Pyrenees mountains in Ariège, France.
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Île Amsterdam (also known as Amsterdam Island, New Amsterdam, or Nouvelle Amsterdam, is an island named after the ship Nieuw Amsterdam, in turn named after the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam that later became New York City in the United States. It lies in the southern Indian Ocean. It is part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and, together with neighbouring Île Saint-Paul to the south, forms one of the five districts of the territory. The Martin-de-Viviès research station, first called Camp Heurtin and then La Roche Godon, is the only settlement on the island and is home to about thirty seasonal inhabitants involved in biological, meteorological and geomagnetic studies.
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Île Saint-Paul (Saint Paul Island) is an island forming part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) in the Indian Ocean, with an area of.
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Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
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A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate.
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The Ballon d'Or ("Golden Ball") is an annual football award presented by France Football.
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A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
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The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
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Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
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Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse
The Basilica of Saint-Sernin (Occitan: Basilica de Sant Sarnin) is a church in Toulouse, France, the former abbey church of the Abbey of Saint-Sernin or St Saturnin.
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Basilica of St Denis
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
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Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics
Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics was the second appearance of the sport as an official medal event.
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Basketball at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Basketball contests at the 2000 Olympic Games were held from 16 September 2000 to 1 October 2000.
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Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
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Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries/lands to the French National Day, which is celebrated on the 14th of July each year.
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Bastille Day military parade
The Bastille Day Military Parade (or 14 July Military Parade, translation of the French name of Défilé militaire du 14 Juillet) is a French military parade that has been held on the morning of 14 July each year in Paris since 1880, almost without exception.
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Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
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Battle of Dien Bien Phu
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.
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Battle of France
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
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Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
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Battle of Jena–Auerstedt
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
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Battle of Tours
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
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Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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Beaujolais is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) wine generally made of the Gamay grape which has a thin skin and is low in tannins.
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Beef bourguignon or bœuf bourguignon, also called beef Burgundy, and bœuf à la Bourguignonne,Random House Dictionary is a beef stew braised in red wine, often red Burgundy, and beef broth, generally flavoured with carrots, onions, garlic, and a bouquet garni, and garnished with pearl onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
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The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.
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Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs
The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.
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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
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Big Four (Western Europe)
The Big Four, also known as G4 or EU4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.
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The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
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Blacks in France
French Black people or Black people in France (French: Noirs de France) are people who are of black African, Afro-Caribbean, or Melanesian ancestry.
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Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
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Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
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"Bluebeard" (French: Barbe bleue) is a French folktale, the most famous surviving version of which was written by Charles Perrault and first published by Barbin in Paris in 1697 in Histoires ou contes du temps passé.
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BNP Paribas is a French international banking group.
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Christophe Le Friant (born 10 May 1969), better known by his stage name Bob Sinclar, is a French record producer, house music DJ, remixer and the owner of the record label Yellow Productions.
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Boléro is a one-movement orchestral piece by the French composer Maurice Ravel (1875–1937).
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Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
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A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of southwest France, centred on the city of Bordeaux on the Garonne River, to the north of the city the Dordogne River joins the Garonne forming the broad estuary called the Gironde and covering the whole area of the Gironde department,with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France.
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The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
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Breach of the peace
Breach of the peace, or disturbing the peace, is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom.
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Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
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The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
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Brie is a soft cow's-milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated (roughly corresponding to the modern département of Seine-et-Marne).
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Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (c. 12 February AD 41 – 11 February AD 55), usually called Britannicus, was the son of Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
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Brittany (administrative region)
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
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Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
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Burgundy wine (Bourgogne or vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône.
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A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.
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Café liégeois is a cold dessert of French origin, made from lightly sweetened coffee, coffee flavour ice cream and chantilly cream.
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The Camargue (Provençal Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône delta.
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Camembert is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese.
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Cameroonian Independence War
The Cameroonian Independence War, often known as guerre cachée, or the Hidden War, is the name of the independence struggle between Cameroon's nationalist movement and France.
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Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies).
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Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (9 October 183516 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era.
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Camino de Santiago
The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.
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Canal du Midi
The Canal du Midi (meaning canal of the two seas) is a long canal in Southern France (le Midi).
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Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
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Cantons of France
The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's arrondissements and departments.
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A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
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Capitole de Toulouse
The Capitole back side The Capitole (French for "capitol") is the heart of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse and its city hall.
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A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.
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Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.
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Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin, 1st Duke of Rethel, Mayenne and Nevers (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarino, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death.
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Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.
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Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.
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The Carnac stones (Breton: Steudadoù Karnag) are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac in Brittany, consisting of alignments, dolmens, tumuli and single menhirs.
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The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
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The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
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Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
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Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
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Cassoulet (from Occitan caçolet) is a rich, slow-cooked casserole originating in the south of France, containing meat (typically pork sausages, goose, duck and sometimes mutton), pork skin (couennes) and white beans (haricots blancs).
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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
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The Catalan Countries (Els Països Catalans),, refers to those territories where the Catalan language, or a variant of it, is spoken.
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Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
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The Catalans Dragons (French and Catalan: Dragons Catalans) are a professional rugby league club in Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales, France.
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Cathar castles (in French Châteaux cathares) is a modern term used by the tourism industry (following the example of Pays Cathare – Cathar Country) to denote a number of medieval castles of the Languedoc region.
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Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
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A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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The Côte d'Albâtre (literally the Alabaster Coast) is part of the French coast of the English Channel, corresponding to the coastline of Pays de Caux and forming almost all of the coastline of Seine-Maritime.
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Cello Concerto (Lalo)
Édouard Lalo wrote his Cello Concerto in D minor in 1876, in collaboration with the Belgian cellist Adolphe Fischer.
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The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
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Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.
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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
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Central European Time
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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Centre des monuments nationaux
The Centre des monuments nationaux (CMN, National monuments centre) is a French government body (Établissement public à caractère administratif) which conserves, restores, and manages historic buildings and sites which are the property of the French state.
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Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou, commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou and also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, and the Marais.
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Centre national de la recherche scientifique
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
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The CFP franc (called the franc in everyday use) is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities (collectivités d’outre-mer, or COM) of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna.
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Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
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Champagne is sparkling wine or, in EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France.
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Championship (rugby league)
The Championship is a professional rugby league competition.
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Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.
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The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
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A chanson ("song", from Latin cantio, gen. cantionis) is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.
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Chanson de geste
The chanson de geste, Old French for "song of heroic deeds" (from gesta: Latin: "deeds, actions accomplished"), is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature.
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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
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Charles Aznavour (born Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնավուրեան; 22 May 1924) is a French, later naturalised Armenian, singer, lyricist, actor, public activist and diplomat.
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Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
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Charles de Gaulle Airport
Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle), also known as Roissy Airport (name of the local district), is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe.
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Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.
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Charles IV of France
Charles IVIn the standard numbering of French Kings, which dates to the reign of Charlemagne, he is actually the fifth such king to rule France, following Charlemagne (Charles the Great), Charles the Bald, Charles the Fat, and Charles the Simple.
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Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
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Charles Perrault (12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie Française.
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Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
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Charlie Hebdo (French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly magazine, featuring cartoons, reports, polemics, and jokes.
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Chartres Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), is a Roman Catholic church of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about southwest of Paris.
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A château (plural châteaux; in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.
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The royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.
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The Château d'Angers is a castle in the city of Angers in the Loire Valley, in the département of Maine-et-Loire, in France.
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Ussé is a castle in the Indre-et-Loire département, in France.
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Château de Chambord
The Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France, is one of the most recognisable châteaux in the world because of its very distinctive French Renaissance architecture which blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Renaissance structures.
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Château de Chantilly
The Château de Chantilly is a historic château located in the town of Chantilly, France, about 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of Paris.
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Château de Chenonceau
The Château de Chenonceau is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.
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Château de Chinon
Château de Chinon is a castle located on the bank of the Vienne river in Chinon, France.
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Château de Montsoreau
The Château de Montsoreau is a Renaissance style castle in the Loire Valley, directly built in the Loire riverbed.
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Château de Villandry
The Château de Villandry is a grand country house located in Villandry, in the département of Indre-et-Loire, France.
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Château de Vincennes
The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.
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Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg
The Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (Hohkönigsburg) is a medieval castle located in the commune of Orschwiller in the Bas-Rhin département of France,Ministry of Culture: - Ministry of Culture: in the Vosges mountains just west of Sélestat.
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Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.
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Choucroute garnie (French for dressed sauerkraut) is a famous Alsatian recipe for preparing sauerkraut with sausages and other salted meats and charcuterie, and often potatoes.
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Chrétien de Troyes
Chrétien de Troyes was a late-12th-century French poet and trouvère known for his work on Arthurian subjects, and for originating the character Lancelot.
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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
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Christian de Portzamparc
Christian de Portzamparc (born 5 May 1944) is a French architect and urbanist.
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Christian Dior SE
Christian Dior SE, commonly known as Dior, is a European luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who also heads LVMH – the world's largest luxury group.
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Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (born 16 May 1951) is a French fashion designer.
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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.
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A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
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A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
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Cinderella (Cenerentola, Cendrillon, Aschenputtel), or The Little Glass Slipper, is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression and triumphant reward.
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Cinema of the United States
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
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The Roman circus (from Latin, "circle") was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire.
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Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
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Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).
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Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy ("Constitution civile du clergé") was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France to the French government.
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Civil law (common law)
Civil law is a branch of the law.
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Civil law (legal system)
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
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Civil solidarity pact
In France, a civil solidarity pact (pacte civil de solidarité), commonly known as a PACS, is a contractual form of civil union between two adults for organising their joint life.
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Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.
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Claude Lorrain (born Claude Gellée, called le Lorrain in French; traditionally just Claude in English; c. 1600 – 23 November 1682) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher of the Baroque era.
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Claude Montana is a French fashion designer.
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A clay court is one of many different types of tennis court.
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Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America.
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A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
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Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
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Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.
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The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
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Collective memory is the shared pool of knowledge and information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.
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Collectivity of Saint Martin
Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies in the Caribbean.
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Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
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Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
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Common Agricultural Policy
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
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Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.
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The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.
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Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
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Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
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Concert champêtre (Pastoral Concerto), FP 49, is a harpsichord concerto by Francis Poulenc, which also exists in a version for piano solo with very slight changes in the solo part.
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Concordat in Alsace-Moselle
The Concordat in Alsace-Moselle is the part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle relating to the official status accorded to certain religions in these territories.
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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Conseil d'État (France)
In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.
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Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
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Constitution of France
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
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Constitution of the Year XII
The Constitution of the Year XII was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year XII of the French Revolutionary Calendar (1804 in the Gregorian calendar).
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Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
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A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
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Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) was a Spanish aircraft manufacturer that was founded in 1923 and began manufacturing aircraft the following year.
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Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
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Contemporary classical music
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.
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Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
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Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.
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Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
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Count of Toulouse
The Count of Toulouse was the ruler of Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries.
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County of Nice
The County of Nice (Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Countèa de Nissa/Paìs Nissart) is a historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern department of Alpes-Maritimes.
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Coup of 18 Brumaire
The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.
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Court of Cassation (France)
The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.
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A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.
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Crème brûlée, also known as burnt cream or Trinity cream, is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of caramelized sugar.
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Crédit Agricole Group, sometimes called "la banque verte" (the green bank) due to its historical ties to farming, is a French network of cooperative and mutual banks comprising Crédit Agricole local banks, the 39 Crédit Agricole regional banks and a central institute Crédit Agricole S.A..
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A crêpe or crepe (or,, Quebec French) is a type of very thin pastry.
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Credit rating agency
A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.
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The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
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Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
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Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo, written in 1827.
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A croque monsieur (French for "mister crunch") is a baked or fried boiled ham and cheese sandwich.
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Crown lands of France
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France.
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The Crozet Islands (Îles Crozet; or, officially, Archipel Crozet) are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean.
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The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
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The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal.
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Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
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Cultural exception (l’exception culturelle) is a political concept introduced by France in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations in 1993 to treat culture differently from other commercial products.
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Culture of the United States
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
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Daft Punk are a French electronic music duo from Paris formed in 1993 by Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter.
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Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti (17 January 1933 – 3 May 1987), better known as Dalida (داليدا), was a French-Italian-Egyptian singer and actress who spent most of her career in France.
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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
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Danse macabre (Saint-Saëns)
Danse macabre, Op. 40, is a tone poem for orchestra, written in 1874 by the French composer Camille Saint-Saëns.
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Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
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Daphnis et Chloé
Daphnis et Chloé is a ballet in one act with three parts (scenes) by Maurice Ravel described as a "symphonie chorégraphique" (choreographic symphony).
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DASA (officially Deutsche Aerospace AG, later Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, then DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG), was the former aerospace subsidiary of Daimler-Benz AG (later DaimlerChrysler) from 1989. In July 2000, DASA merged with Aérospatiale-Matra and CASA to form EADS.
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Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D
The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike.
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The Dassault nEUROn is an experimental unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) being developed with international cooperation, led by the French company Dassault Aviation.
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The Dassault Rafale (literally meaning "gust of wind", and "burst of fire" in a more military sense) is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation.
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Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard
The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard (Étendard is French for "battle flag", cognate to English "standard") is a French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.
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The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois, formerly Dauphiny in English, is a former province in southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, and Hautes-Alpes.
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Pierre David Guetta (born 7 November 1967) is a French DJ, songwriter, record producer and remixer who has sold over nine million albums and thirty million singles worldwide.
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David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
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Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution
The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical laïcité policies.
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Declaration of Pillnitz
The Declaration of Pilnite, more commonly referred to as the Declaration of Pillnitz, was a statement issued on 27 August 1791 at Pillnitz Castle near Dresden (Saxony) by Frederick William II of Prussia and the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II who was Marie Antoinette's brother.
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Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
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Decline of newspapers
The decline of newspapers has been widely debated, as the industry has faced slumping ad sales, the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation.
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Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
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Demographics of France
The demography of France is monitored by the Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) and the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE).
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Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
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Deportation of Roma migrants from France
In 2009, France deported 10,000 Romani back to Romania and Bulgaria.
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A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
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Dialogues of the Carmelites
Dialogues des Carmélites (Dialogues of the Carmelites) is a French opera in three acts, divided into twelve scenes with linking orchestral interludes, with music and libretto by Francis Poulenc, completed in 1956.
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The Diamant rocket (Diamant is French for "diamond") was the first exclusively French expendable launch system and at the same time the first satellite launcher not built by either the United States or USSR.
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The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
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A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
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Directorate-General for External Security
The General Directorate for External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure, DGSE) is France's external intelligence agency.
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Disneyland Paris, originally Euro Disney Resort, is an entertainment resort in Marne-la-Vallée, a new town located east of the centre of Paris, and is the most visited theme park in all of Europe.
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Disneyland Park (Paris)
Disneyland Park, originally Euro Disney, is a theme park found at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallée, France.
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Jean Reinhardt (or; 23 January 1910 – 16 May 1953) stage name Django Reinhardt, was a Belgian-born Romani French jazz guitarist, musician and composer, regarded as one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century.
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Dominique Perrault (1953, Clermont-Ferrand) is a French architect and urban planner.
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Duchy of Savoy
From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy (Duché de Savoie, Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe.
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A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.
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The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
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Early modern France
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).
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East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
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The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
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Edgar Degas (or; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas,; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.
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Edgardo Cozarinsky (born 1939 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a writer and filmmaker.
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Edict of Fontainebleau
The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
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Edict of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.
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Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
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The United Nations publishes a Human Development Index every year, which consists of the Education index, GDP Index and Life Expectancy Index.
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Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
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Edward III of England
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
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The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.
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The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
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Elite One Championship
The Elite One Championship (French: Le Championnat de France Elite) is the top level rugby league competition in France.
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Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.
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Elle is a worldwide lifestyle magazine of French origin that focuses on fashion, beauty, health, and entertainment.
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Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
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The Empire style (style Empire) is an early-nineteenth-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts, representing the second phase of Neoclassicism.
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Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
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Endurance racing (motorsport)
Endurance racing is a form of motorsport racing which is meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of participants.
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The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
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The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Republic which saw a significant improvement in Anglo-French relations.
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Environmental Performance Index
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
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Éric Alfred Leslie Satie (17 May 18661 July 1925), who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist.
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The Essays (Essais) of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length.
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Estates General (France)
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.
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Estates General of 1789
The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate).
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Estates of the realm
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
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Ethnic groups in Europe
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
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Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.
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Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
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Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (27 January 1814 – 17 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution.
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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
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Banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone, have been in circulation since the first series was issued in 2002.
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There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).
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EuroBasket 2013 was the 38th edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organized by FIBA Europe.
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The Eurockéennes de Belfort is one of France's largest rock music festivals.
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The Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters) Tiger is a four-bladed, twin-engined attack helicopter which first entered service in 2003.
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The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.
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Euronext NV is a European stock exchange seated in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon, Dublin and Paris.
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Euronext Paris is France's securities market, formerly known as the Paris Bourse, which merged with the Amsterdam, Lisbon and Brussels exchanges in September 2000 to form Euronext NV, which is the second largest exchange in Europe behind the UK's London Stock Exchange Group.
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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Europe 1, formerly known as Europe n° 1, is a privately owned radio station created in 1955.
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European and American voyages of scientific exploration
The era of European and American voyages of scientific exploration followed the Age of Discovery and were inspired by a new confidence in science and reason that arose in the Age of Enlightenment.
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The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
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European Economic Community
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
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European Single Market
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
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European Space Agency
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
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European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa).
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The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Amsterdam, Avignon, Brussels, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Paris and Rotterdam.
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Eurotunnel Le Shuttle (sometimes shortened to Le Shuttle or The Shuttle) is a railway shuttle service between Coquelles (near Calais) in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France and Cheriton (near Folkestone) in Kent, United Kingdom.
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Events preceding World War II in Europe
The events preceding World War II in Europe are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany.
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Ex post facto law
An ex post facto law (corrupted from) is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.
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Exclusive economic zone
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
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Execution of Louis XVI
The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution ("Revolution Square", formerly Place Louis XV, and renamed Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris.
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Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
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The Exocet (French for "flying fish" The missile's name was given by M. Guillot, then technical director at Nord Aviation, after the French name for flying fish.) is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.
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Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
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Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.
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A face transplant is a medical procedure to replace all or part of a person's face using tissue from a cadaver.
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Fall of the Western Roman Empire
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
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Family reunification is a recognized reason for immigration in many countries because of the presence of one or more family members in a certain country, therefore, enables the rest of the divided family or only specific members of the family to immigrate to that country as well.
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Faust is a grand opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part One.
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Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.
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Fête de la Musique
The Fête de la Musique, also known as Music Day, Make Music Day or World Music Day, is an annual music celebration that takes place on 21 June.
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Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.
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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
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FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
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Financial crisis of 2007–2008
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
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The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
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First French Empire
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
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First Indochina War
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
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A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
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Flag of France
The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.
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Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century, gradually becoming distinct from the painting of the rest of the Low Countries, especially the modern Netherlands.
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Flight to Varennes
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.
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Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.
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Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.
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Force de dissuasion
The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961,Gunston, Bill.
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Foreign direct investment
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
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A foreign worker or guest worker is a human who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.
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Fortune Global 500
The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.
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Françafrique is France's relationship with its former African colonies.
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François Boucher (29 September 1703 – 30 May 1770) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher, who worked in the Rococo style.
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François Couperin (10 November 1668 – 11 September 1733) was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist.
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François de Rugy
François Henri Goullet de Rugy (born 6 December 1973) is a French politician serving as President of the National Assembly of France since 2017.
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François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
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France 2 is a French public national television channel.
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France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
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France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.
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France and weapons of mass destruction
France is one of the five "Nuclear Weapons States" under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, but is not known to possess or develop any chemical or biological weapons.
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France in the American Revolutionary War
French involvement in the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, when France, a rival of the British Empire, secretly shipped supplies to the Continental Army.
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France Inter is a major French public radio channel and part of Radio France.
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France national basketball team
The French national basketball team is administered by the Fédération Française de Basket-Ball (French Basketball Federation).
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France national football team
The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football and is controlled by the French Football Federation, also known as FFF, or in Fédération française de football.
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France national rugby union team
The France national rugby union team competes annually against England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales in the Six Nations Championship.
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France Télévisions (stylized as France.tv) is the French public national television broadcaster.
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The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Ulrich Krotz, has three grand periods: 'hereditary enmity' (down to 1945), 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (Amitié franco-allemande; Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft).
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Francesco Primaticcio (April 30, 1504 – 1570) was an Italian Mannerist painter, architect and sculptor who spent most of his career in France.
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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
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Francis I of France
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
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Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (7 January 189930 January 1963) was a French composer and pianist.
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Francis Paul Veber (born 28 July 1937) is a French film director, screenwriter and producer, and playwright.
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The francisca (or francesca) is a throwing axe used as a weapon during the Early Middle Ages by the Franks, among whom it was a characteristic national weapon at the time of the Merovingians from about 500 to 750 and is known to have been used during the reign of Charlemagne (768–814).
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The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
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Franco-Spanish War (1635–59)
The Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War.
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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
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Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
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Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
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Freedom of religion in France
Freedom of religion in France is guaranteed by the constitutional rights set forth in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
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Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
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FREMM multipurpose frigate
The FREMM ("European multi-purpose frigate"; French: Frégate européenne multi-mission; Italian: Fregata europea multi-missione) is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by Naval Group/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy.
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French Academy in Rome
The French Academy in Rome (Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio (Pincian Hill) in Rome, Italy.
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French Academy of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
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French Air Force
The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).
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French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale).
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French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
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The French Alps are the portions of the Alps mountain range that stand within France, located in the Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur regions.
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The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
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French art consists of the visual and plastic arts (including architecture, woodwork, textiles, and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of France.
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French Évian Accords referendum, 1962
A referendum to approve the Évian Accords ending the Algerian War and granting self-determination to Algeria was held in France on 8 April 1962.
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French ban on face covering
The French ban on face covering (LOI n° 2010-1192: Loi interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public, "Law of 2010-1192: Act prohibiting concealment of the face in public space") is an act of parliament passed by the Senate of France on 14 September 2010, resulting in the ban on the wearing of face-covering headgear, including masks, helmets, balaclavas, niqābs and other veils covering the face in public places, except under specified circumstances.
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French Baroque architecture
French Baroque architecture, sometimes called French classicism, was a style of architecture during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610–43), Louis XIV (1643–1715) and Louis XV (1715–74).
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French Basque Country
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
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French campaign in Egypt and Syria
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
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French colonial empire
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
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French Constitution of 1791
The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.
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The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
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French Development Agency
French Development Agency (Agence française de développement, AFD) is a public financial institution that implements the policy defined by the French Government.
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The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
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French Fifth Republic
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
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French First Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
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French Flanders (La Flandre française; Frans-Vlaanderen) is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings and the Dutch were traditionally the dominant ethnic groups and where Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken.
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French Flemish (French Flemish: Fransch vlaemsch, Standard Dutch: Frans-Vlaams, flamand français) is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France.
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French Foreign Legion
The French Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) (FFL; Légion étrangère, L.É.) is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831.
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French Fourth Republic
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
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The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
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French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
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French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
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French invasion of Russia
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
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French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools
The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (e.g., government-operated) primary and secondary schools.
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The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
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French New Wave
New Wave (La Nouvelle Vague) is often referred to as one of the most influential movements in the history of cinema.
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The French nobility (la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790.
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French onion soup
French onion soup (French: soupe à l’oignon) is a type of soup usually based on meat stock and onions, and often served gratinéed with croutons and cheese on top or a large piece of bread.
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The French Open (Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), officially called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France.
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French opera is one of Europe's most important operatic traditions, containing works by composers of the stature of Rameau, Berlioz, Gounod, Bizet, Massenet, Debussy, Ravel, Poulenc and Messiaen.
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The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
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The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
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French poetry is a category of French literature.
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French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
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French popular music
French popular music is a music of France belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and mostly distributed commercially.
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The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries.
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The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
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French Revolution of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
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French Revolutionary Wars
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
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The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.
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French Section of the Workers' International
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
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French Southern and Antarctic Lands
The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.
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French Third Republic
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
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French Wars of Religion
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
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French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles.
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The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.
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Gabriel Urbain Fauré (12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher.
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Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
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The Gallic rooster (coq gaulois) is an unofficial national symbol of France as a nation, as opposed to Marianne representing France as a State, and its values: the Republic.
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The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
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The Garabit Viaduct (Viaduc de Garabit in French) is a railway arch bridge spanning the Truyère, near Ruynes-en-Margeride, Cantal, France, in the mountainous Massif Central region.
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Gare d'Orsay is a former Paris railway station and hotel, built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard; it served as a terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans (Paris-Orléans Railway).
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Gargantua and Pantagruel
The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel (La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel) is a pentalogy of novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais, which tells of the adventures of two giants, Gargantua and his son Pantagruel. The text is written in an amusing, extravagant, and satirical vein, and features much crudity, scatological humor, and violence (lists of explicit or vulgar insults fill several chapters).
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The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
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Gaspar Noé (born December 27, 1963) is an Argentine filmmaker living in France.
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Gaspard de la nuit
Gaspard de la nuit (subtitled Trois poèmes pour piano d'après Aloysius Bertrand), M. 55 is a suite of piano pieces by Maurice Ravel, written in 1908.
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Gaston Bachelard (27 June 1884 – 16 October 1962) was a French philosopher.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.
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In France, the Gaullist Party is usually used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist.
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The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
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The Gayssot Act or Gayssot Law (Loi Gayssot), enacted on 13 July 1990, makes it an offense in France to question the existence or size of the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, on the basis of which Nazi leaders were convicted by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945-46 (art.9).
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Géla Babluani (გელა ბაბლუანი) (born 1979) is a Georgian–French film director.
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Gérard Philippe René André Larcher (born 14 September 1949) is a French politician serving as President of the Senate since 2014, previously holding the position from 2008 to 2011.
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Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
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George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
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Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.
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Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.
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Georges Brassens (22 October 1921 – 29 October 1981) was a French singer-songwriter and poet.
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Georges-Pierre Seurat (2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist painter and draftsman.
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.
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Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
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German military administration in occupied France during World War II
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
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GIGN (Groupe d'intervention de la Gendarmerie nationale; National Gendarmerie Intervention Group) is the elite police tactical unit of the French National Gendarmerie.
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The Gipsy Kings are a group of flamenco, salsa and pop musicians from Arles and Montpellier in the south of France, who perform in Andalusian Spanish.
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The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.
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Givenchy is a French luxury fashion and perfume house.
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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
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GlobalPost is an online US digital journalism company that focuses on international news founded on January 12, 2009 by Philip S. Balboni and Charles M. Sennott.
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The Gloria by Francis Poulenc, FP 177, scored for soprano solo, large orchestra, and chorus, is a setting of the Gloria text from the mass ordinary.
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Gojira are a French heavy metal band from Bayonne.
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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
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Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
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Government of France
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
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Grand Est (Great East, Großer Osten — both in the Alsatian and the Lorraine Franconian dialect), previously Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine (ACAL or less commonly, ALCA), is an administrative region in eastern France.
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The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English: Great Palace), is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.
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Grand Slam (rugby union)
In rugby union, a Grand Slam (Irish: Caithréim Mhór. Welsh: Y Gamp Lawn. French: Grand Chelem) occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations predecessor) manages to beat all the others during one year's competition.
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Grand Slam (tennis)
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
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Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux
Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux, is a theatre in Bordeaux, France, first inaugurated on 17 April 1780.
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The Grandes Écoles (literally in French "Great Schools") of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system.
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Grands corps de l'État
The grands corps de l'État (Grand Corps of the State) are a feature of the French state as envisaged in the reforms of Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
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Grasse (Provençal Grassa in classical norm or Grasso in Mistralian norm; traditional Grassa) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department (of which it is a sub-prefecture), on the French Riviera.
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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul
The Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul have a significant history of settlement, trade, cultural influence, and armed conflict in the Celtic territory of Gaul (modern France), starting from the 6th century BC during the Greek Archaic period.
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A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
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Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.
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Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
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Group of Eight
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
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Group of Seven
The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
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Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
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Guiana Space Centre
The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport to the northwest of Kourou in French Guiana.
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Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.
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Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (born Bönickhausen;;; 15 December 183227 December 1923) was a French civil engineer.
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Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy
Gustavia is the main town and capital of the island of Saint Barthélemy.
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Guy Canivet (born 23 September 1943 in Lons-le-Saunier) is a French judge.
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Guy de Maupassant
Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.
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The Gymnopédies, published in Paris starting in 1888, are three piano compositions written by French composer and pianist Erik Satie.
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The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
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Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
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The Haiphong Incident or the Haiphong Massacre occurred on November 23, 1946, when the French cruiser bombarded the Vietnamese coastal city of Haiphong overnight, killing 6,000 Vietnamese people.
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Hand transplantation is a surgical procedure to transplant a hand from one human to another.
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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
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Hate speech laws in France
The hate speech laws in France are matters of both civil law and criminal law.
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Haussmann's renovation of Paris
Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.
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Haute couture (French for "high sewing" or "high dressmaking" or "high fashion") is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing.
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Hautes-Pyrénées (Gascon/Occitan: Nauts Pirenèus / Hauts Pirenèus; Altos Pirineos; Alts Pirineus) is a department in southwestern France.
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Hauts-de-France (translates to "Upper France" in English; Heuts-d'Franche) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy.
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Head of state
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
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Health care in France
The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.
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Health in France
Average life expectancy in France at birth is 81 years.
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A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
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HEC Paris (École des hautes études commerciales de Paris) is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France.
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Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.
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Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
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Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901), also known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist, and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing, elegant, and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, affairs of those times.
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Henri Jean-Baptiste Grégoire (4 December 1750 – 28 May 1831), often referred to as Abbé Grégoire, was a French Roman Catholic priest, constitutional bishop of Blois and a revolutionary leader.
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Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
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Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.
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Henry IV of France
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
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In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.
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History of France
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
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History of the Catholic Church in France
The history of the Catholic Church in France is inseparable from the history of France, and should be analyzed in its peculiar relationship with the State, with which it was progressively confused, confronted, and separated.
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History of the Jews in France
The history of the Jews in France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.
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History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867)
The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
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Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
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The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
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Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
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Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
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Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.
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House of Bonaparte
The House of Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) was an imperial and royal European dynasty founded in 1804 by Italian noble Carlo Buonaparte and his son Napoleon I, a French military leader of Italian heritage who had risen to notability out of the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his ''coup d'état'' of November 1799.
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House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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House of Capet
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
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House of Valois
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.
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Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
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Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais
Hugues-Félicité Robert de Lamennais (or De La Mennais) (19 June 1782 – 27 February 1854) was a French Catholic priest, philosopher and political theorist.
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
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Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
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Humanism in France
Humanism in France found its way from Italy, but did not become a distinct movement until the 16th century was well on its way.
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The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).
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Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
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Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
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Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
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Immigration to France
According to the French national institute of statistics INSEE, the 2014 census counted nearly 6 million immigrants (foreign-born people) in France, representing 9.1% of the total population.
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Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
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Impressionism in music
Impressionism in music was a movement among various composers in Western classical music (mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries) whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere, "conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed tone‐picture".
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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
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Indian Ocean Commission
The Indian Ocean Commission (Commission de l'Océan Indien, COI) is an intergovernmental organization that was created in 1982 at Port Louis, Mauritius and institutionalized in 1984 by the Victoria Agreement in Seychelles.
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Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
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The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.
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Institut français d'opinion publique
The Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) (French Institute of Public Opinion) is an international polling and market research firm, whose motto is "Connection creates value".
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Institut géographique national
The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière (National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information), previously Institut géographique national (National Geographic Institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940 to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories.
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The Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) is an internationally financed scientific facility, situated on the Polygone Scientifique in Grenoble, France.
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Founded in 2000, Institut Montaigne is a nonprofit, transpartisan think tank based in Paris, France.
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Institut national d'études démographiques
The French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) is a French research institute specialized in demography and population studies in general.
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Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
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Insurrection of 10 August 1792
The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution.
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International Affairs (journal)
International Affairs is a leading peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations.
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International Bureau of Weights and Measures
The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
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International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
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An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
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International rankings of France
The following are International rankings of France.
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Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
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The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
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Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso
The Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso in A minor (Introduction et Rondo capriccioso en la mineur), Op. 28, is a composition for violin and orchestra written in 1863 by Camille Saint-Saëns for the virtuoso violinist Pablo de Sarasate.
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Invasion of Normandy
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
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Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
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The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
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The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
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Isidore of Seville
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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Islam in France
Islam is the second-most widely professed religion in France behind Catholic Christianity by number of worshippers.
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ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
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Since ancient times, Greeks, Etruscans and Celts have inhabited the south, centre and north of the Italian peninsula respectively.
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The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
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Italians in France
Italian migration into what is today France has been going on, in different migrating cycles, for centuries, beginning in prehistoric times right to the modern age.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
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Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
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Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
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The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
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Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
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Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
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Jacques Marescaux (born August 8, 1948) is a French doctor of international renown.
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Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period.
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Jacques the Fatalist
Jacques the Fatalist and his Master (Jacques le fataliste et son maître) is a novel by Denis Diderot, written during the period 1765–1780.
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Jacques Tourneur (November 12, 1904 – December 19, 1977) was a French film director known for the classic film noir Out of the Past and a series of low-budget horror films he made for RKO Studios, including Cat People, I Walked with a Zombie and The Leopard Man.
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Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
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January 2015 Île-de-France attacks
From 7 January 2015 to 9 January 2015, terrorist attacks occurred across the Île-de-France region, particularly in Paris.
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Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.
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Jean Cavaillès (May 15, 1903 – February 17, 1944) was a French philosopher and logician who specialized in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of science.
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Jean de La Fontaine
Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.
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Jean (or Jehan) Fouquet (1420–1481) was a preeminent French painter of the 15th century, a master of both panel painting and manuscript illumination, and the apparent inventor of the portrait miniature.
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Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.
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Jean Nouvel (born 12 August 1945) is a French architect.
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Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.
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Jean-Antoine Watteau (baptised October 10, 1684 – died July 18, 1721),Wine, Humphrey, and Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies.
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Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
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Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli,; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.
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Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching.
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Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse
Jean François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (variant spelling of his name comte "de La Pérouse"; 23 August 17411788?) was a French Naval officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania.
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Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.
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Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.
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Jean-Honoré Fragonard (4 April 1732 (birth/baptism certificate) – 22 August 1806) was a French painter and printmaker whose late Rococo manner was distinguished by remarkable facility, exuberance, and hedonism.
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Jean-Michel Dubernard (born 17 May 1941 in Lyon) is a medical doctor specializing in transplant surgery, as well as a former Deputy in the French National Assembly.
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Jean-Michel André Jarre (born 24 August 1948) is a French composer, performer and record producer.
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Jean-Paul Gaultier (born 24 April 1952) is a French haute couture and prêt-à-porter fashion designer.
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Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
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Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.
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Jeux d'eau (Ravel)
Jeux d’eau is a piece for solo piano by Maurice Ravel.
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Joachim du Bellay
Joachim du Bellay (also Joachim Du Bellay;; c. 1522 – 1 January 1560) was a French poet, critic, and a member of the Pléiade.
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Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
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Joseph de Maistre
Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.
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Journal officiel de la République française
The Journal officiel de la République française (JORF or JO) is the government gazette of the French Republic.
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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
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was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
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Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.
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Jules Hardouin-Mansart (16 April 1646 – 11 May 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV.
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Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.
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Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
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Jules Vuillemin (15 February 1920 – 16 January 2001) was a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy of Knowledge at the prestigious Collège de France, in Paris, from 1962 to 1990, succeeding Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Professor emeritus from 1991 to 2001.
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Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
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The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
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The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.
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Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
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The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
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Just Fontaine (born 18 August 1933) is a retired French professional footballer.
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Justice is a French electronic music duo consisting of Gaspard Augé and Xavier de Rosnay.
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Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
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Kendji Girac (born Kendji Jason Maillié, July 3, 1996) is a French singer.
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The Kerguelen Islands (or; in French commonly Îles Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen), also known as the Desolation Islands (Îles de la Désolation in French), are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two exposed parts of the mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau.
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Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)
The Kingdom of Croatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Regnum Croatiae Horvát Királyság Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years.
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Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
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Kingdom of France (1791–92)
The Kingdom of France as remnant of the preceding absolute Kingdom of France, was a constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792, when this constitutional monarchy was succeeded by the First Republic.
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Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
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Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
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Kingdom of Soissons
In historiography, the Kingdom or Domain of Soissons refers to a rump state of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul, between the Somme and the Seine, that lasted for some twenty-five years during Late Antiquity.
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Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
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The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
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The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
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Krzysztof Kieślowski (27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was a Polish film director and screenwriter.
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L'Équipe (French for "the team") is a French nationwide daily newspaper devoted to sport, owned by Éditions Philippe Amaury.
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L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris.
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L’Obs, previously known as Le Nouvel Observateur (1964–2014), is a weekly French news magazine.
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La Comédie humaine
La Comédie humaine (The Human Comedy) is the title of Honoré de Balzac's (1799–1850) multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration (1815-1830) and the July Monarchy (1830–1848).
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La Croix (English: The Cross) is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009.
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La Défense is a major business district, three kilometres west of the city limits of Paris.
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Étienne de Vignolles, called La Hire (Préchacq-les-Bains, Landes, 1390 – 11 January 1443 in Montauban), was a French military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
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La Légende des siècles
La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages) is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, conceived as an immense depiction of the history and evolution of humanity.
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La Madeleine, Paris
L'église de la Madeleine (Madeleine Church; more formally, L'église Sainte-Marie-Madeleine; less formally, just La Madeleine) is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris.
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"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
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La Pléiade is the name given to a group of 16th-century French Renaissance poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf.
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La Princesse de Clèves
La Princesse de Clèves is a French novel which was published anonymously in March 1678.
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La République En Marche!
La République En Marche! (frequently abbreviated REM, LRM or LREM; officially LaREM), sometimes called by its old name En Marche! (English translation: "Forward!", "Onward!", "Working!" or "On The Move!"), is a centrist, liberal and social-liberal political party in France.
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Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
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Lac de Vouglans
The Lac de Vouglans is the reservoir of the hydro-electric power station at Vouglans on the River Ain in the département of Jura in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.
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Lancaster House Treaties
The Lancaster House Treaties of 2010 are two treaties between the United Kingdom and France for defence and security cooperation.
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The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the Prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend written in French.
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Land registration generally describes systems by which matters concerning ownership, possession or other rights in land can be recorded (usually with a government agency or department) to provide evidence of title, facilitate transactions and to prevent unlawful disposal.
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Languages of France
Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.
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Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.
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Larger urban zone
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
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Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.
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Last glacial period
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
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Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
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Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Latin peoples, also called Romance peoples, is a term used broadly to refer to those societies heavily influenced by Roman culture that, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, started to diverge from the spoken Vulgar Latin language, creating localized versions which nowadays make up the Romance languages.
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Laurent Garnier (born 1 February 1966 in Boulogne-Billancourt, France), also known as Choice, is a French electronic music producer and DJ.
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Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.
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Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881
The Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 (Loi sur la liberté de la presse du 29 juillet 1881), often called the Press Law of 1881 or the Lisbonne Law after its rapporteur, Eugène Lisbonne, is a law that defines the freedoms and responsibilities of the media and publishers in France.
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Léo Ferré (24 August 1916 – 14 July 1993) was a French-born Monégasque poet and composer, and a dynamic and controversial live performer, whose career in France dominated the years after the Second World War until his death.
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Le Bourgeois gentilhomme
Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman or The Middle-Class Aristocrat or The Would-Be Noble) is a five-act comédie-ballet—a play intermingled with music, dance and singing—written by Molière, first presented on 14 October 1670 before the court of Louis XIV at the Château of Chambord by Molière's troupe of actors.
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Le Canard enchaîné
Le Canard enchaîné (English: The Chained Duck or The Chained Paper, as "canard" is French slang meaning "newspaper"), is a satirical weekly newspaper in France.
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Le Cid is a five-act French tragicomedy written by Pierre Corneille, first performed in December 1636 at the Théâtre du Marais in Paris and published the same year.
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Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
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Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
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Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
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Le Parisien (French for "The Parisian") is a French daily newspaper covering both international and national news, and local news of Paris and its suburbs.
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Le Point is a French weekly political and news magazine published in Paris, France.
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Le tombeau de Couperin
Le Tombeau de Couperin is a suite for solo piano by Maurice Ravel, composed between 1914 and 1917, in six movements based on those of a traditional Baroque suite.
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Le Zénith is the name given to a series of indoor arenas in France.
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Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
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In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
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Les biches) ("The Hinds" or "The Does") is a one-act ballet to music by Francis Poulenc, choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska and premiered by the Ballets Russes on 6 January 1924 at Monte Carlo. Nijinska danced the central role of the Hostess. The ballet has no story, and depicts the random interactions of a group of mainly young people in a house party on a summer afternoon. The ballet was seen in Paris and London within a year of its premiere, and has been frequently revived there; it was not produced in New York until 1950. Nijinska directed revivals of the ballet for several companies in the four decades after its creation. Les biches, with recreations of Marie Laurencin's original costumes and scenery, remains in the repertoire of the Paris Opera Ballet, the Royal Ballet and other companies. The music has been used for later ballets, although they have not followed Nijinska's in gaining a place in the regular repertoire. The music for the original ballet contains three choral numbers. Poulenc made the choral lines optional when he revised the score in 1939–1940, and the work is usually given with wholly orchestral accompaniment. The composer extracted a five-movement suite from the score, for concert performance. The suite has been recorded for LP and CD from the 1950s onwards.
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Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) is a collection of poetry by Victor Hugo, published in 1856.
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Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.
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Les Misérables is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.
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Les Plus Beaux Villages de France
Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (meaning “the most beautiful villages of France”) is an independent association, created in 1982, for the promotion of the tourist appeal of small rural villages with a rich cultural heritage.
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Les Rita Mitsouko
Les Rita Mitsouko (The Rita Mitsoukos) was a French pop rock group formed by the guitarist Fred Chichin and the singer Catherine Ringer.
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Les Rougon-Macquart is the collective title given to a cycle of twenty novels by French writer Émile Zola.
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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
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LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.
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Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
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Liberté, égalité, fraternité
Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.
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Ligue 1, also called Ligue 1 Conforama for sponsorship reasons with Conforama, is a French professional league for men's association football clubs.
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The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
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Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
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Originally the Latin noun līmes (Latin līmitēs) had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference.
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The Lindbergh operation was a complete tele-surgical operation carried out by a team of French surgeons located in New York on a patient in Strasbourg, France (over a distance of several thousand miles) using telecommunications solutions based on high-speed services and sophisticated Zeus surgical robot.
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A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
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Liquefied petroleum gas
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
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List of airports in France
Below is a list of airports in France, grouped by department and sorted by commune.
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List of basilicas in France
Basilica churches, many of great architectural significance, can be found throughout France.
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List of castles in France
This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department.
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List of cathedrals in France
This is a list of cathedrals in France and in the French overseas departments, territories and collectivities, including both actual and former diocesan cathedrals (seats of bishops).
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List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants
Below is a list of communes in France (Overseas departments included) with a population over 20,000 at the 2013 census.
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List of countries and dependencies by area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
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List of countries and dependencies by population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
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List of countries and dependencies by population density
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
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List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions
This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on the EDGAR database created by European Commission and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency released in 2015.
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List of countries by credit rating
This is a list of countries by credit rating, showing long-term foreign currency credit ratings for sovereign bonds as reported by the three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's.
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List of countries by GDP (nominal)
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
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List of countries by GDP (PPP)
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
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List of countries by life expectancy
This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.
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List of countries by military expenditure share of GDP
This is a list of countries by military expenditure share of GDP, the amount spent by a nation on its military as a share of its GDP.
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List of countries by military expenditures
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
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List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
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List of diplomatic missions of France
This is a list of diplomatic missions of France, excluding honorary consulates.
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List of English monarchs
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
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List of French cheeses
This is a list of cheeses from France.
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List of French monarchs
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
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List of French philosophers
A list of notable French language philosophers: Philosophers French.
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List of French rums
France produces many different kind of rums on several different locations.
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List of French scientists
This is a list of notable French scientists.
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List of largest empires
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
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List of Ministers of Overseas France
The following is a list of ministers of Overseas France.
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List of most visited art museums
This article lists the most visited art museums in the world, as listed by Art Newspaper Review Visitor Figures Survey (April 2018) and the Museum Index of the Themed Entertainment Association (TEA) and engineering firm (AECOM).
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List of museums in France
List of museums in France by location.
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List of Nobel laureates by country
This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country.
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List of Presidents of the National Assembly of France
This article lists Presidents of the French Parliament or, as the case may be, of its lower chamber.
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List of Presidents of the Senate of France
The Senate of France is the upper house of the French Parliament.
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List of Remarkable Gardens of France
The Remarkable Gardens of France is intended to be a list and description, by region, of the more than three hundred gardens classified as "Jardins remarquables" by the French Ministry of Culture and the Comité des Parcs et Jardins de France.
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List of states with nuclear weapons
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
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List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower
On the Eiffel Tower, seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions.
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List of uninhabited regions
The list of uninhabited regions includes a number of places around the globe.
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List of universities and colleges in France
This List of universities and colleges in France includes universities and other higher education institutes that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities.
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List of World Heritage Sites in France
This is a list of World Heritage Sites in France with properties of cultural and natural heritage in France as inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List or as on the country's tentative list.
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A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
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Local law in Alsace-Moselle
The territory of the former Alsace-Lorraine, legally known as Alsace-Moselle, is a region in the eastern part of France, bordering with Germany.
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The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
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The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
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London Stock Exchange
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
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Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
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Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
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Louis Antoine de Bougainville
Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (12 November 1729 – 31 August 1811) was a French admiral and explorer.
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Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald
Louis de Bonald, properly Louis Gabriel Ambroise, Vicomte de Bonald (2 October 1754 – 23 November 1840), was a French counter-revolutionary philosopher and politician.
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Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
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Louis the German
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 805-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia.
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Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
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Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
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Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
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Louis XV of France
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
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Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
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Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches (27 May 1894 – 1 July 1961), a French novelist, pamphleteer and physician.
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Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a small market town lying in the foothills of the Pyrenees.
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The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
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The Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois.
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The Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid designed by Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) in Paris.
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Luc Besson (born 18 March 1959) is a French film director, screenwriter, and producer.
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Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.
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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
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A Luxury yacht (also super-yacht, large yacht and mega-yacht) is a very expensive, privately owned, professionally crewed sailing or motor yacht.
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LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE, also known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris.
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Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
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The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
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A macaron is a sweet meringue-based confection made with egg white, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, and food coloring.
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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
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Madame de La Fayette
Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne, comtesse de La Fayette (baptized 18 March 1634 – 25 May 1693), better known as Madame de La Fayette, was a French writer, the author of La Princesse de Clèves, France's first historical novel and one of the earliest novels in literature.
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A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
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The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
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Maghrebis or Maghrebians are the native inhabitants of the Maghreb in Northwest Africa.
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The Malagasy Uprising (Insurrection malgache) was a Malagasy nationalist rebellion against French colonial rule in Madagascar, lasting from March 1947 to December 1948.
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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
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Mano Negra (complete Spanish name: La Mano Negra, sometimes nicknamed La Mano in France) was a music group active from 1987 to 1995 and fronted by Manu Chao.
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Manon is an opéra comique in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille, based on the 1731 novel L’histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut by the Abbé Prévost.
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Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.
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Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 – 24 February 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era.
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Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.
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Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, a personification of liberty and reason, and a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty.
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Marie Claire is an international monthly magazine first published in France in 1937, followed by the UK in 1941.
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Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
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Marigot, Saint Martin
Marigot is the main town and capital in the French Collectivity of Saint Martin.
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Marin Marais (31 May 1656, Paris – 15 August 1728, Paris) was a French composer and viol player.
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Marine protected area
Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes.
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Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
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Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
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Martin Picandet (born 22 September 1976), better known by his stage name Martin Solveig, is a French DJ, singer, songwriter and record producer.
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Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
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The Massif Central (Massís Central) is a highland region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus.
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Mata-Utu (ʻUvean: Matāutu) is the capital of Wallis and Futuna, an overseas collectivity of France.
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Matter of France
The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of literature and legendary material associated with the history of France, in particular involving Charlemagne and his associates.
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Maurice de Vlaminck
Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French painter.
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Maurice Ohana (12 June 1913 – 13 November 1992) was a French composer.
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Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.
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May 1968 events in France
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
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Mayor of the Palace
Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (maior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king.
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Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).
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Meditations on First Philosophy
Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.
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A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
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Member state of the European Union
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
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The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
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The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
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Metro International is a Swedish global media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. Metro International's advertising sales have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 41 percent since launch of the first newspaper edition in 1995.http://hugin.info/132142/R/1125327/208539.pdf It is a freesheet, meaning that distribution is free, with revenues thus generated entirely through advertising. This newspaper is primarily intended for commuters who move daily in and out of big cities' business areas, mainly during rush hours. The company was founded by Per Andersson and started as a subsidiary of the Modern Times Group along with Viasat Broadcasting. It is now controlled through the Mats Qviberg owned investment company Custos. The first edition of the newspaper was published as Metro Stockholm and distributed in the Stockholm metro., all European editions (except for the Hungarian one) have been sold, reportedly so that Metro International can focus on Latin America, considered the last growth market for free newspapers.
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Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
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Michael Haneke (born 23 March 1942) is an Austrian film director and screenwriter best known for films such as Funny Games (1997), Caché (2005), The White Ribbon (2009) and Amour (2012).
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Michel de Montaigne
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
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Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
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Michel François Platini (born 21 June 1955) is a French former football player, manager and administrator.
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Michel Richard Delalande
Michel Richard Delalande (15 December 1657 – 18 June 1726) was a French Baroque composer and organist who was in the service of King Louis XIV.
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Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century.
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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
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The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
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The Millau Viaduct (le Viaduc de Millau) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the gorge valley of the Tarn near Millau in southern France.
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The mille-feuille ("thousand-leaf"),The name is also written as "millefeuille" and "mille feuille".
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Minatec (initially called the Micro and Nanotechnology Innovation Centre) is a vast complex specializing in micro-nano technologies in Grenoble, France.
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MINES ParisTech (officially École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris in French or Paris School of Mines in English, also known as École des mines de Paris, ENSMP, Mines Paris or simply les Mines), created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a French engineer school and a constituent college of Université PSL.
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Minister of the Armed Forces (France)
The Ministry of the Armed Forces (Ministre des Armées) is the French cabinet member charged with running the French Armed Forces.
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Minister of the Interior (France)
The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.
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Ministry of Culture (France)
The Ministry of Culture (Ministère de la Culture) is the ministry of the Government of France in charge of national museums and the monuments historiques.
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Ministry of Ecology
The Ministry for an Ecological and Solidary Transition (French: Ministère de la Transition écologique et solidaire), was created as the Ministry of the Environment (French: Ministère de l'Environnement) in 1971.
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Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.
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Ministry of National Education (France)
The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche), or simply "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.
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Mireille Mathieu (born 22 July 1946) is a French singer.
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Miroirs (French for "Mirrors") is a five-movement suite for solo piano written by French composer Maurice Ravel between 1904 and 1905.
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The mistral (Mestral, Μαΐστρος, Maestrale, Corsican: Maestral) is a strong, cold, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean, with sustained winds often exceeding, sometimes reaching.
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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
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Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.
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Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".
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The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".
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Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
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Monocle (UK magazine)
Monocle is a global affairs and lifestyle magazine, 24-hour radio station, website, retailer and media brand, all produced by Winkontent Ltd.
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Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.
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Mont-Saint-Michel (Norman: Mont Saint Miché) is an island commune in Normandy, France.
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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
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Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) were paper manufacturers from Annonay, in Ardèche, France best known as inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique.
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Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
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* Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.
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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
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The Morvan is a mountainous massif lying just to the west of the Côte d'Or escarpment in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France.
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A mousse (French 'foam') is a soft prepared food that incorporates air bubbles to give it a light and airy texture.
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Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa
The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (abbreviated MOJWA) or the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (abbreviated MUJWA; جماعة التوحيد والجهاد في غرب أفريقيا Jamāʿat at-tawḥīd wal-jihād fī gharb ʾafrīqqīyā; Mouvement pour l'unicité et le jihad en Afrique de l'Ouest, abbreviated MUJAO), was a militant Islamist organisation that broke off from Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb with the intended goal of spreading jihad across a larger section of West Africa.
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Municipal arrondissements of France
In France, a municipal arrondissement is a subdivision of the commune, and is used in the country's three largest cities: Paris, Lyon and Marseille.
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Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (City of Paris' Museum of Modern Art) or MAMVP, is a major municipal museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art of the 20th and 21st centuries.
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The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine.
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Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon
The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon is a museum of fine arts opened in 1787 in Dijon, France.
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Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen
The musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen is an art museum in Rouen, Normandy, France.
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Musée National d'Art Moderne
The Musée National d'Art Moderne (National Museum of Modern Art) is the national museum for modern art of France.
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The Musée Picasso is an art gallery located in the Hôtel Salé in rue de Thorigny, in the Marais district of Paris, France, dedicated to the work of the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973).
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Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon
The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon (Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon.
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Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes
The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes (Musée des beaux-arts de Rennes) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Rennes, the capital of Brittany.
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Museum of Grenoble
The Museum of Grenoble (Musée de Grenoble) is a municipal museum of Fine Arts and antiquities in the city of Grenoble in the Isère region of France.
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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
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Mylène Jeanne Gautier (born 12 September 1961), known professionally as Mylène Farmer, is a Canadian-born French singer, songwriter, occasional actress, writer, and entrepreneur.
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Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
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Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
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The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
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Nation branding aims to measure, build and manage the reputation of countries (closely related to place branding).
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National Assembly (France)
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
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National Assembly (French Revolution)
During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale), which existed from 13 June 1789 to 9 July 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General; thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on 30 Sept 1791) it was known as the National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante), though popularly the shorter form persisted.
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National Constituent Assembly (France)
The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution.
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The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
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National diploma (France)
The national diploma is a diploma given to French pupils at the end of 3e (year 10 / ninth grade), This diploma is awarded to students who are or were within French cultural influence, including France itself, Lebanon, Syria and Algeria, the first two were under French Mandate after World War I whilst the last was a French territory from 1830 until its independence in 1962. Also the pupils outside France who study in French Schools of the Agency for French Teaching Abroad network sit for this exam.
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The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police.
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National health insurance
National health insurance (NHI) – sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI) – is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care.
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National Legislative Assembly (France)
The Legislative Assembly (Assemblée législative) was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution.
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National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad or the Azawad National Liberation Movement (Tamasheq: ⵜⴰⵏⴾⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⴹ ⴰⵙⵍⴰⵍⵓ ⵏ ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴷ, الحركة الوطنية لتحرير أزواد al-Ḥarakat al-Waṭaniyat Litaḥrīr ʾĀzawād, Mouvement national de libération de l'Azawad; MNLA), formerly the National Movement of Azawad (Mouvement national de l'Azawad; MNA), is a political and military organisation based in Azawad in northern Mali.
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National Museum of Natural History (France)
The French National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne Universities.
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A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
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A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
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Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
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New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
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New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
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The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
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New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
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Niagara was a French rock band that achieved popularity both in France and Canada in the 1980s and early 1990s.
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Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
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Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
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Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.
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Nicolas Poussin (June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
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Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
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Noir Désir were a French rock band from Bordeaux.
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Nolwenn Le Magueresse (born 28 September 1982 in Saint-Renan, Brittany, France), known by her stage name Nolwenn Leroy (French pronunciation), is a French singer-songwriter, musician and voice actress.
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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
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Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
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The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
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Northern Mali conflict
The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa.
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Nouméa is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia.
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Nouvelle-Aquitaine ("New Aquitaine"; Nòva Aquitània; Akitania Berria; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Novéle-Aguiéne) is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country.
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November 2015 Paris attacks
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.
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Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
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Nuclear power in France
Nuclear power is a major source of energy in France, with a 40% share of energy consumption in 2015.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
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NYSE Euronext, Inc. was a Euro-American multinational financial services corporation that operated multiple securities exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext and NYSE Arca (formerly known as ArcaEx).
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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
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Obscurantism (and) is the practice of deliberately presenting information in an imprecise and recondite manner, often designed to forestall further inquiry and understanding.
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Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
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Occitanie (administrative region)
Occitanie (Occitània,, Occitània) is an administrative region of France that was created on 1 January 2016 from former French regions Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées.
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An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
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Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française
The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France.
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Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
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Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
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Olympia (commonly known as L'Olympia, Olympia Hall or Paris Olympia) is a music hall located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, France.
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The Opéra Bastille (French) (Bastille Opera House) is a modern opera house in Paris, France.
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Opéra National de Lyon
Opéra de Lyon, legally “Opéra National de Lyon” but marketed during the last decade under the shorter name, is an opera company in Lyon, France, based and performing mostly at the Opéra Nouvel, an 1831 theater that was modernized and architecturally transformed in 1993.
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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
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Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
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Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter.
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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
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Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
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Order of the Solar Temple
The Order of the Solar Temple, also known as Ordre du Temple Solaire (OTS) in French and the International Chivalric Organization of the Solar Tradition, or simply as The Solar Temple, is a secret society and cult that claims to be based upon the ideals of the Knights Templar.
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Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts) is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts and the oldest French legislation still used partly by French courts.
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Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
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Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
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Otar Iosseliani (ოთარ იოსელიანი, born 2 February 1934) is a Georgian-film maker.
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Ouest-France (French for "West-France") is a daily French newspaper known for its emphasis on both local and national news.
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Outline of France
The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide of France: France – country in Western Europe with several overseas regions and territories.
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The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
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Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
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An overseas region (Région d'outre-mer) is a designation given to the overseas departments that have identical powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France.
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Overseas territory (France)
The term overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) is an administrative division of France and is currently only applied to the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
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The Pacific Community (SPC) is the principal scientific and technical organisation in the Pacific region.
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The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
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Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
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Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille
The Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille (Lille Palace of Fine Arts) is a municipal museum dedicated to fine arts, modern art, and antiquities.
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Palais des Papes
The Palais des Papes (English: Papal palace, lo Palais dei Papas in Occitan) is a historical palace located in Avignon, southern France.
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The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.
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The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.
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Papeete (pronounced) is the capital of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the Pacific Ocean.
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Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie
The Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie (Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) (EPIGN) was the parachute-trained intervention squadron of the French Gendarmerie.
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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
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Paris Commune (French Revolution)
The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1792 until 1795.
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The Paris Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Paris, France.
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Paris Match is a French-language weekly news magazine.
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The Paris Opera (French) is the primary opera company of France.
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Jean Patrick Modiano (born 30 July 1945), generally known as Patrick Modiano, is a French novelist and recipient of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature.
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Paul Andreu (born 10 July 1938) is a French architect.
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Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
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Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist.
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Paul Langevin (23 January 1872 – 19 December 1946) was a prominent French physicist who developed Langevin dynamics and the Langevin equation.
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Paul-Marie Verlaine (30 March 1844 – 8 January 1896) was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement.
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The Pavane in F-sharp minor, Op. 50, is a pavane by the French composer Gabriel Fauré written in 1887.
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Pétanque (petanca) is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with Raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling.
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A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
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Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
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Perpignan (Perpinyà) is a city, a commune, and the capital of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
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A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).
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Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.
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Phèdre (originally Phèdre et Hippolyte) is a French dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by Jean Racine, first performed in 1677 at the theatre of the Hôtel de Bourgogne in Paris.
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Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
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Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
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Philip IV of France
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
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Phocaea, or Phokaia (Ancient Greek: Φώκαια, Phókaia; modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia.
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Phoenix are an indie pop band from Versailles, France, consisting of Thomas Mars (lead vocals), Deck d'Arcy (bass/ keyboards/ backing vocals), Christian Mazzalai (guitar/ backing vocals) and Laurent Brancowitz (guitar/ keyboards/ backing vocals).
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Piano music of Gabriel Fauré
The French composer Gabriel Fauré (1845–1924) wrote in many genres, including songs, chamber music, orchestral pieces, and choral works.
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Pictures at an Exhibition
Pictures at an Exhibition (Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, "Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann"; Tableaux d'une exposition) is a suite of ten pieces (plus a recurring, varied Promenade) composed for the piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874.
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Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.
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Pierre Louis Joseph Boulez CBE (26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer, conductor, writer and founder of institutions.
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Pierre Corneille (Rouen, 6 June 1606 – Paris, 1 October 1684) was a French tragedian.
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Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
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Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin (born Pierre de Frédy; 1 January 1863 – 2 September 1937, also known as Pierre de Coubertin and Baron de Coubertin) was a French educator and historian, and founder of the International Olympic Committee, as well as its second President.
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Pierre de Ronsard
Pierre de Ronsard (11 September 1524 – 27 December 1585) was a French poet or, as his own generation in France called him, a "prince of poets".
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Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (English pronunciation:,; 14 August 1910 – 19 August 1995) was a French composer, writer, broadcaster, engineer, musicologist and acoustician.
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Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.
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The Place Stanislas is a large pedestrianised square in the French city of Nancy, in the Lorraine region.
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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
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Pont de Normandie
The Pont de Normandie is a cable-stayed road bridge that spans the river Seine linking Le Havre to Honfleur in Normandy, northern France.
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Pont du Gard
The Pont du Gard is an ancient Roman aqueduct that crosses the Gardon River near the town of Vers-Pont-du-Gard in southern France.
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Pope Leo III
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
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Pope Sylvester II
Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (– 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003.
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Popular Front (France)
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
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Port-aux-Français is the capital settlement of the Kerguelen Islands, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, in the south Indian Ocean.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
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Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
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Postmodern philosophy is a philosophical movement that arose in the second half of the 20th century as a critical response to assumptions allegedly present in modernist philosophical ideas regarding culture, identity, history, or language that were developed during the 18th-century Enlightenment.
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Pot-au-feu ("pot on the fire") is a French beef stew.
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Power behind the throne
The phrase "power behind the throne" refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of a high-ranking office, such as a head of state.
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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
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President of France
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
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Prime Minister of France
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
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Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).
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A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
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The Prix Goncourt (Le prix Goncourt,, The Goncourt Prize) is a prize in French literature, given by the académie Goncourt to the author of "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year".
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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
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Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.
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Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy
During the French Revolution, the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy (French: Proclamation de l'abolition de la royauté) was a proclamation by the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792.
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Programme for International Student Assessment
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
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Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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Protests of 1968
The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military and bureaucratic elites, who responded with an escalation of political repression.
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Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
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Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur; Provenza-Alpi-Costa Azzurra; PACA) is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.
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Provisional Government of the French Republic
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
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Psychological fiction (also psychological realism) is a literary genre that emphasizes interior characterization, as well as the motives, circumstances, and internal action which is derivative from and creates external action; not content to state what happens, but rather reveals and studies the motivation behind the action.
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Public law is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society.
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Purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
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Puss in Boots
"Master Cat, or The Booted Cat" (Il gatto con gli stivali; Le Maître chat ou le Chat botté), commonly known in English as "Puss in Boots", is a European literary fairy tale about a cat who uses trickery and deceit to gain power, wealth, and the hand of a princess in marriage for his penniless and low-born master.
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Puy de Dôme
Puy de Dôme ((Auvergnat Puèi Domat, Puèi de Doma) is a large lava dome and one of the youngest volcanoes in the Chaîne des Puys region of Massif Central in central France. This chain of volcanoes including numerous cinder cones, lava domes, and maars is far from the edge of any tectonic plate. Puy de Dôme is approximately from Clermont-Ferrand. The Puy-de-Dôme département (with hyphens) is named after the volcano.
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The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
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Quality of life
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
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Questia Online Library
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
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Quiche is a savoury open tart or flan consisting of pastry crust filled with eggs, milk or cream, and cheese, meat, seafood or vegetables.
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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
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The terms radical centrism, radical center (or radical centre) and radical middle refer to a political ideology that arose in the Western nations in the late 20th century.
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Radical Party (France)
The Radical Party (Parti radical, also Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad.) was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France.
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The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.
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Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster.
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Radio France Internationale
Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.
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Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
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Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
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Rail transport in France
Rail transport in France is operated mostly by SNCF, the French national railway company.
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Rail transport in Germany
, Germany had a railway network of 33,331 km of which 19,983 km were electrified and 18,201 km were double track.
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Rally for the Republic
The Rally for the Republic (Rassemblement pour la République; RPR), was a Neo-Gaullist and conservative political party in France.
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Rally of the French People
The Rally of the French People (French Rassemblement du Peuple Français or RPF) was a French political party, led by Charles de Gaulle.
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Rameau's Nephew, or the Second Satire (or The Nephew of Rameau, Le Neveu de Rameau ou La Satire seconde) is an imaginary philosophical conversation by Denis Diderot, written predominantly in 1761-2 and revised in 1773-4.
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Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
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Rapsodie espagnole is an orchestral rhapsody written by Maurice Ravel.
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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
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Raymond Kopa (birth name Raymond Kopaszewski; 13 October 1931 – 3 March 2017) was a French footballer, integral to the French national team of the 1950s.
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Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
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Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter (often abbreviated RTW; "off-the-rack" or "off-the-peg" in casual use) is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition in standardized sizes, as distinct from made to measure or bespoke clothing tailored to a particular person's frame.
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Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
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A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
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A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
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Regions of France
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
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Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
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Reims Cathedral (Our Lady of Reims, Notre-Dame de Reims) is a Roman Catholic church in Reims, France, built in the High Gothic style.
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Religion in ancient Rome
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
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Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.
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Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location.
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Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
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René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
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Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
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Republic of Mainz
The Republic of Mainz was the first democratic state on the current German territory and was centered in Mainz.
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The Republican marches (Marches républicaines) were a series of rallies that took place in cities across France on 10–11 January 2015 to honour the victims of the ''Charlie Hebdo'' shooting, the Montrouge shooting, and the Porte de Vincennes siege, and also to voice support for freedom of speech.
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Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
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Gabriel Fauré composed his Requiem in D minor, Op.
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Reynard (Reinaert; Renard; Reineke or Reinicke; Renartus) is the main character in a literary cycle of allegorical Dutch, English, French and German fables.
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The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
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Road bicycle racing
Road bicycle racing is the cycle sport discipline of road cycling, held on paved roads.
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Road tax, known by various names around the world, is a tax which has to be paid on, or included with, a wheeled vehicle to use it on a public road.
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Rock en Seine
The Rock en Seine festival is a three-day rock music festival, held at Domaine National de Saint-Cloud, the Château de Saint-Cloud's park, west of Paris, inside the garden designed by André Le Nôtre.
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Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
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Roi fainéant, literally "do-nothing king" and so presumably "lazy king", is a French term primarily used to refer to the later kings of the Merovingian dynasty after they seemed to have lost their initial energy, from the death of Dagobert I in 639 (or alternatively from the accession of Theuderic III in 673) until the deposition of Childeric III in favour of Pepin the Short in 751.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
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Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
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Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor.
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The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
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Roman theatre (structure)
Roman theatres derive from and are part of the overall evolution of earlier Greek theatres.
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
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Romani people in France
Romani people in France, generally known in spoken French as "gitans", "tsiganes" or "manouches", are an ethnic group which originated in Northern India.
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Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
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Roquefort (or;; from Occitan ròcafòrt) is a sheep milk cheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'Auvergne, Stilton, and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue cheeses.
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A rosé (from French rosé; also known as rosado in Portuguese and Spanish-speaking countries and rosato in Italy) is a type of wine that incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine.
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Giovanni Battista di Jacopo (8 March 1495 in Gregorian style, or 1494 according to the calculation of times in Florence where the year began on 25 March – 14 November 1540), known as Rosso Fiorentino (meaning "red Florentine" in Italian), or Il Rosso, was an Italian Mannerist painter, in oil and fresco, belonging to the Florentine school.
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Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
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RTL (French radio)
RTL, formerly Radio Luxembourg, is a French commercial radio network owned by the RTL Group.
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Rugby league in France
Rugby league has been played in France since 1934.
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Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
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Rugby World Cup
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.
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Rule of law
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
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Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.
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Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.
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Saint Martin (Saint-Martin; Sint Maarten) is an island in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately east of Puerto Rico.
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Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
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Saint-Étienne (Sant-Etiève; Saint Stephen) is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, southwest of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, on the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon.
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Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France.
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Saint-Pierre, Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre is the capital of the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, off the coast of Newfoundland in Canada.
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The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité in the River Seine in Paris, France.
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The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
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Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
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Samson and Delilah (opera)
Samson and Delilah (Samson et Dalila), Op.
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Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
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Savate, also known as boxe française, savate boxing, French boxing or French footfighting, is a French combat sport that uses the hands and feet as weapons combining elements of English boxing with graceful kicking techniques.
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Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
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Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.
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Setif (Berber: Ẓḍif or Sṭif, سطيف, Sitifis) is an Algerian city and the capital of the Stif Province, it is one of the most important cities of eastern Algeria and the country as a whole, since it is considered the trade capital of the country.
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Sétif and Guelma massacre
The Sétif and Guelma massacre was a series of widespread disturbances and killings in 1945 around the French Algerian market town of Sétif, west of Constantine, Algeria.
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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
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Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean
The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (Îles Éparses or Îles Éparses de l'océan Indien) consist of four small coral islands, an atoll, and a reef in the Indian Ocean, and have constituted the 5th district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF) since February 2007.
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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
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School of Fontainebleau
The Ecole de Fontainebleau (c.1530–c.1610) refers to two periods of artistic production in France during the late Renaissance centered on the royal Château de Fontainebleau, that were crucial in forming the French version of Northern Mannerism.
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The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).
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Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
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The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
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Scientology is a body of religious beliefs and practices launched in May 1952 by American author L. Ron Hubbard (1911–86).
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A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
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Second Empire architecture
Second Empire is an architectural style, most popular in the latter half of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century.
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
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Second French intervention in Mexico
The Second French Intervention in Mexico (Sp.: Segunda intervención francesa en México, 1861–67) was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70).
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Second Italian War of Independence
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
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A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
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Secondary education in France
In France, secondary education is in two stages.
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A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
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Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
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In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
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The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
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A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
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The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.
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Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
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Separation of church and state
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
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Separation of powers
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
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Separation of powers under the United States Constitution
Separation of powers is a political doctrine originating in the writings of Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws, in which he argued for a constitutional government with three separate branches, each of which would have defined abilities to check the powers of the others.
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The September Massacres were a wave of killings in Paris and other cities from 2–7 September 1792, during the French Revolution.
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Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
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Serge Gainsbourg (born Lucien Ginsburg;; 2 April 1928 – 2 March 1991) was a French singer, songwriter, pianist, film composer, poet, painter, screenwriter, writer, actor, and director.
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Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
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The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States and subsequently, the wider world, from the 1960s to the 1980s.
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Shaka Ponk (sometimes abbreviated as SHKPNK) is a French rock band created in 2004 in Paris.
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Simon & Schuster
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
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A sister republic (république sœur) was a republic established by the French army that was catalyzed by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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Six Nations Championship
The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
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A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow.
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Sleeping Beauty (La Belle au bois dormant), or Little Briar Rose (Dornröschen), also titled in English as The Sleeping Beauty in the Woods, is a classic fairy tale which involves a beautiful princess, a sleeping enchantment, and a handsome prince.
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The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.
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Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.
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Social security in France
Social security in France is divided into four branches: illness; old age/retirement; family; work accident and occupational disease.
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Socialist Party (France)
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
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Société Générale S.A. (often nicknamed "SocGen" (pronounced "so jenn") in the international financial world) is a French multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Paris.
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A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes.
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Soissons is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France.
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Solidays is a French annual music festival that takes place at the Longchamp Racecourse in Paris at the end of June.
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Sonia Rykiel (25 May 1930 – 25 August 2016) was a French fashion designer and writer.
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A soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.
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South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Sovereign court (cour souveraine), also known as superior court (cour supérieure) from 1661, referred to any prerogative court of last resort in monarchical France.
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A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
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The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths.
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A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft, by analogy to seaport for ships or airport for aircraft.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
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Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
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The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
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In philosophy, spiritualism is the notion, shared by a wide variety of systems of thought, that there is an immaterial reality that cannot be perceived by the senses.
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Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of circuit auto racing with sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels.
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St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
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Stade de France
The Stade de France is the national stadium of France, located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis.
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Stade Roland Garros
Stade Roland Garros ("Roland Garros Stadium") is a tennis venue located in Paris, France, that hosts the French Open—also known as Roland Garros, particularly within Europe—a Grand Slam championship tournament played annually around the end of May and the beginning of June.
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Stanford University Press
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
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Stéphane Mallarmé (18 March 1842 – 9 September 1898), whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic.
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Steak-frites, meaning "steak fries" in French, is a very common and popular dish served in brasseries throughout Europe consisting of steak paired with French fries.
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Marie-Henri Beyle (23 January 1783 – 23 March 1842), better known by his pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century French writer.
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Storming of the Bastille
The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.
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Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
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The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
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Submarine-launched ballistic missile
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
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The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
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Sui generis is a Latin phrase that means "of its (his, her, their) own kind; in a class by itself; unique." A number of disciplines use the term to refer to unique entities.
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Super League (currently known as the Betfred Super League for sponsorship reasons) is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern hemisphere.
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Superbus is a five-piece French pop/rock band formed in 1999 with Jenn Ayache on lead vocals.
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A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
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Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
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The Symphonie espagnole in D minor, Op. 21, is a work for violin and orchestra by Édouard Lalo.
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(Fantastical Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an Artist, in Five Parts) Op. 14, is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830.
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Symphony No. 3 (Saint-Saëns)
The Symphony No.
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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
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Tampa Bay Times
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.
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Tapenade (tapenada) is a Provençal name for a dish consisting of puréed or finely-chopped olives, capers, and olive oil.
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Telephone numbers in France
The French telephone numbering plan is not only used for metropolitan France but also for the French overseas departments and some overseas collectivities.
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Television in France
Television in France was introduced in 1931, when the first experimental broadcasts began.
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In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
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Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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A territorial collectivity (or territorial authority, collectivité territoriale, previously collectivité locale) is a chartered subdivision of France, with recognized governing authority.
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TF1 (té effe un) is a private national French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues.
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The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.
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Thalys (French) is a French-Belgian high-speed train operator originally built around the LGV Nord high-speed line between Paris and Brussels.
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Théâtre du Capitole
The Théâtre du Capitole de Toulouse is an opera house located within the main administration buildings, the Capitole, of the city of Toulouse in south-west France.
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Théâtre du Châtelet
The Théâtre du Châtelet is a theatre and opera house, located in the place du Châtelet in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.
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Théâtre Mogador founded in 1913 and designed by Bertie Crewe, is a Parisian music hall theatre located at 25, rue de Mogador in the 9th district.
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Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was an influential French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings.
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Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (30 August 1811 – 23 October 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic.
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The Ant and the Grasshopper
The Ant and the Grasshopper, alternatively titled The Grasshopper and the Ant (or Ants), is one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 373 in the Perry Index.
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The Carnival of the Animals
The Carnival of the Animals (Le carnaval des animaux) is a humorous musical suite of fourteen movements by the French Romantic composer Camille Saint-Saëns.
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The Charterhouse of Parma
The Charterhouse of Parma (La Chartreuse de Parme) is a novel by Stendhal published in 1839.
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The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo (Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by French author Alexandre Dumas (père) completed in 1844.
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The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
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The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
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The Family International
The Family International (TFI) is a cult that started in 1968 in Huntington Beach, California, USA.
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The Holocaust in France
The Holocaust in France refers to the persecution, deportation, and annihilation of Jews and Roma between 1940 and 1944 in occupied France, metropolitan Vichy, and in Vichy-North Africa, during World War II.
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The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris, "Our Lady of Paris") is a French Romantic/Gothic novel by Victor Hugo, published in 1831.
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The Imaginary Invalid
The Imaginary Invalid (Le malade imaginaire) is a three-act comédie-ballet by the French playwright Molière with dance sequences and musical interludes by Marc-Antoine Charpentier.
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The Little Prince
The Little Prince (French: Le Petit Prince), first published in April 1943, is a novella, the most famous work of French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.
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The Misanthrope, or the Cantankerous Lover (Le Misanthrope ou l'Atrabilaire amoureux) is a 17th-century comedy of manners in verse written by Molière.
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The Miser (L'Avare) is a five-act comedy in prose by the French playwright Molière.
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The Mountain (La Montagne) was a political group during the French Revolution, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the National Assembly.
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The New York Times International Edition
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
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The Red and the Black
Le Rouge et le Noir (French for The Red and the Black), is a historical psychological novel in two volumes by Stendhal, published in 1830.
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The Republicans (France)
The Republicans (Les Républicains; LR) is a centre-right political party in France.
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The Song of Roland
The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem (Chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.
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The Spirit of the Laws
The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.
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The Tales of Hoffmann
The Tales of Hoffmann (French) is an by Jacques Offenbach.
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The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers (Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a historical adventure novel written in 1844 by French author Alexandre Dumas.
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The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
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The World Factbook
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
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Thierry Daniel Henry (born 17 August 1977) is a French professional football coach and former player.
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Thierry Mugler (born 21 December 1948) is a French fashion designer.
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William Anthony Parker Jr. (born 17 May 1982) is a French professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
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The Top 14 is a professional rugby union club competition that is played in France created in 1892.
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Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
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Total fertility rate
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
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Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
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Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
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Toulouse Olympique are a professional rugby league club in Toulouse, south-west France.
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Tour de France
The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
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Tourism in France
Tourism in France directly contributed 77.7 billion euros to gross domestic product, 30% of which comes from international visitors and 70% from domestic tourism spending.
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Tramontane is a classical name for a northern wind.
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In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
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Treaty of Lisbon
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
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Treaty of Paris (1783)
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
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Treaty of Verdun
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
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Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
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Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
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Les Trente Glorieuses ("The Glorious Thirty") refers to the thirty years from 1945 to 1975 following the end of the Second World War in France.
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Trial of Louis XVI
The trial of Louis XVI was a key event of the French Revolution.
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The Triomphant class of ballistic missile submarines of the French Navy is the active lead boat class of four boats that entered service in 1997, 1999, 2004, and 2010.
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The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
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Tristan and Iseult
Tristan and Iseult is a tale made popular during the 12th century through Anglo-Norman literature, inspired by Celtic legend, particularly the stories of Deirdre and Naoise and Diarmuid Ua Duibhne and Gráinne.
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Trois mouvements perpétuels
Mouvements perpétuels, FP 14a, is a short three-movement suite for solo piano by the French composer Francis Poulenc, premiered in Paris in December 1918, when Poulenc was aged 19 and a protégé of Erik Satie.
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A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
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Tropical rainforest climate
A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator.
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Tuareg rebellion (2012)
The Tuareg Rebellion of 2012 was an early stage of the Northern Mali conflict; from January to April 2012, a war was waged against the Malian government by rebels with the goal of attaining independence for the northern region of Mali, known as Azawad.
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Turks in France
Turks in France or French Turks (Turcs de France; Fransa Türkleri) refers to the Turkish people who live in France.
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TV5Monde (formerly known as TV5) is a global television network, broadcasting several channels of French language programming.
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Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea: A Tour of the Underwater World (Vingt mille lieues sous les mers: Tour du monde sous-marin, "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas: A Tour of the Underwater World") is a classic science fiction adventure novel by French writer Jules Verne published in 1870.
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UEFA Euro 1984
The 1984 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in France from 12 to 27 June 1984.
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UEFA Euro 2000
The 2000 UEFA European Football Championship, also known as Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Football Championship, which is held every four years and organised by UEFA, association football's governing body in Europe.
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UEFA Euro 2016
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
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UEFA European Championship
The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
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Umayyad invasion of Gaul
The Umayyad invasion of Gaul followed the Umayyad conquest of Hispania spearheaded by the Muslim commander Tariq ibn Ziyad in 711.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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The Unification Church (UC), also called the Unification movement and sometimes colloquially the "Moonies", is a worldwide new religious movement that was founded by and is inspired by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean religious leader also known for his business ventures and support of social and political causes.
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Union for a Popular Movement
The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire; UMP) was a centre-right political party in France that was one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS).
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Union of Democrats for the Republic
The Union for the Defence of the Republic (Union pour la défense de la République), after 1968 renamed Union of Democrats for the Republic (Union des Démocrates pour la République), commonly abbreviated UDR, was a Gaullist political party of France that existed from 1968 to 1976.
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Union of the Peoples of Cameroon
The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (- UPC) is a political party in Cameroon.
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A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
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United Nations Security Council veto power
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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Universal health care
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
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The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
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University of Michigan Press
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
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University of Paris
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
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University of Sunderland
The University of Sunderland is a university located in Sunderland in the North East of England.
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Unmanned combat aerial vehicle
An unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), also known as a combat drone or simply a drone, is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that usually carries aircraft ordnance such as missiles and is used for drone strikes.
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The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
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In France, an urban unit (fr: "unité urbaine") is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office, for the measurement of contiguously built-up areas.
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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
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The Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte is a baroque French château located in Maincy, near Melun, southeast of Paris in the Seine-et-Marne département of France.
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Vercingetorix (– 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
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Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
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Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
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Victor Cousin (28 November 179214 January 1867) was a French philosopher.
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Victory in Europe Day
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
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Viking expansion is the process by which the Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries.
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Vincent van Gogh
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
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The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.
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Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (Wallis-et-Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast.
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Walt Disney Studios Park
Walt Disney Studios Park (French: Parc Walt Disney Studios) is the second of two theme parks built at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallée, France, which opened on March 16, 2002.
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War in the Vendée
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
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War of the Sixth Coalition
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
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Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
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Werther is an opera (drame lyrique) in four acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Édouard Blau, Paul Milliet and Georges Hartmann (who used the pseudonym Henri Grémont).
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In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
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The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
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Western Allied invasion of Germany
The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.
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The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
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Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque and Hungarian.
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Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
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Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
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William IX, Duke of Aquitaine
William IX (Guilhèm de Peitieus; Guilhem de Poitou Guillaume de Poitiers) (22 October 1071 – 10 February 1127), called the Troubador, was the Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou (as William VII) between 1086 and his death.
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William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
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William the Conqueror
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
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Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
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Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
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Women in government
Women in government in the modern era are under-represented in most countries worldwide.
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Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement.
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World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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World Heritage site
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
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World Heritage Sites by country
As of June 2018, there are a total of 1,080 World Heritage Sites located in 167 "States Parties" Of the 1,080 sites, 839 are cultural, 206 are natural and 35 are mixed properties.
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World Tourism rankings
The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year.
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World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
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World War I
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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World War II
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
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Yves Saint Laurent (designer)
Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent (1 August 1936 – 1 June 2008), professionally known as Yves Saint-Laurent, was a French fashion designer who, in 1961, founded his eponymous fashion label.
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Zinedine Yazid Zidane (born 23 June 1972), nicknamed "Zizou", is a French professional football coach and former player who last managed Real Madrid.
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.cat is a sponsored top-level domain intended to be used to highlight the Catalan language and culture.
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.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
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.fr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) in the Domain Name System of the Internet for France.
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.gf is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for French Guiana.
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.gp is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Guadeloupe and is still in use for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, two former parts of Guadeloupe.
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.mq is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Martinique.
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.nc is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for New Caledonia.
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.pf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for French Polynesia.
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.pm is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
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.re is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Réunion (a French island located in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar).
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.tf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
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.wf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Wallis and Futuna Islands.
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.yt is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mayotte, a part of the registry for France.
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10th meridian east
The meridian 10° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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1900 Summer Olympics
The 1900 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900.
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1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State
The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (French) was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1905.
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1924 Summer Olympics
The 1924 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.
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1924 Winter Olympics
The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games (Les Iers Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France.
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1938 FIFA World Cup
The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938.
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1960 European Nations' Cup
The 1960 UEFA European Nations' Cup was the first European Football Championship, held every four years and endorsed by UEFA.
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1968 Winter Olympics
The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games (Les Xes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1968 in Grenoble, France, and opened on 6 February.
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1973 oil crisis
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
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The 1990s (pronounced "nineteen-nineties" and abbreviated as the "Nineties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1990, and ended on December 31, 1999.
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1992 Winter Olympics
The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games (Les XVIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France.
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1995 Paris Métro and RER bombings
The 1995 bombings in France were carried out by the Armed Islamic Group (GIA), who were broadening the Algerian Civil War to France.
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1998 FIFA World Cup
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
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20 minutes (France)
20 minutes (pronounced vingt minutes) is a free, daily newspaper aimed at commuters in France.
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2004 Madrid train bombings
The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known in Spain as 11-M) were nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections.
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2007 Rugby World Cup
The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987.
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2016 Nice attack
On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19 tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and the injury of 458 others.
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2023 Rugby World Cup
The 2023 Rugby World Cup, to be hosted by France, is scheduled to be the tenth Rugby World Cup, taking place in the year of the 200th anniversary of the 'invention' of the sport by William Webb Ellis.
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24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France.
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41st parallel north
The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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51st parallel north
The 51st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 51 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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6th meridian west
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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Belle France, Bro-C'hall, Climate of France, Etymology of France, FRANCE, FRance, Fracne, FrancE, France (country), Frankreich, Frankrich, Franse, Franse Republiek, Franzoesische Republik, Franzosische Republik, Französische Republik, French Republic, French republic, Frqnce, Frànkrich, Gallaoued, ISO 3166-1:FR, La France, Rain in France, Republic French, Republic of France, Republic of france, Republica Francesa, Republik Frans, Republik Frañs, Republique francaise, République française.