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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. [1]

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military parade, Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Battle of France, Battle of Hastings, Battle of the Allia, Battle of Tours, Battle of Waterloo, BBC News, Beaujolais, Beef bourguignon, Belgium, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Bernard Devauchelle, Bicameralism, Big Four (European Union), Black Death, Blaise Pascal, Blasphemy, Bluebeard, BNP Paribas, Bob Sinclar, Boléro, Bora Bora, Bordeaux, Bordeaux wine, Bourbon Restoration, Brazil, Breach of the peace, Brennus (4th century BC), Breton language, Bretons, Brie, Britannicus, British Empire, Brittany, Bronze, Buddhism, Burgundy, Burgundy wine, Burlington, Vermont, Café liégeois, Camargue, Camembert, Camille Pissarro, Camille Saint-Saëns, Camino de Santiago, Canal du Midi, Cannes Film Festival, Cantons of France, Capital city, Capitole de Toulouse, Carbon tax, Carcassonne, Cardinal Mazarin, Cardinal Richelieu, Caribbean, Carmen, Carnac stones, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Empire, Case law, Cassoulet, Castle, Catalans Dragons, Cathar castles, Catharism, Cathedral, Catholic Church, Catholicism, Côte de Nuits, Cello Concerto (Lalo), Celtic Britons, Celtic polytheism, Celts, Central Powers, Centre des monuments nationaux, Centre Georges Pompidou, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CFP franc, Chad, Chamonix, Champagne, Chanel, Channel Tunnel, Chanson, Chanson de geste, Charlemagne, Charles Aznavour, Charles de Gaulle, Charles de Gaulle Airport, Charles Gounod, Charles IV of France, Charles Martel, Charles Perrault, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles the Bald, Charlie Hebdo, Chartres Cathedral, Château, Château d'Amboise, Château d'Angers, Château d'Ussé, Château de Chambord, Château de Chenonceau, Château de Chinon, Château de Villandry, Château de Vincennes, Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg, Chouannerie, Choucroute garnie, Chrétien de Troyes, Christian, Christian de Portzamparc, Christian Dior SE, Christian Lacroix, Christianity, Chromaticism, Chronic condition, Cinderella, Cinema of the United States, Circus (building), Citroën, Civil law (common law), Civil law (legal system), Civil solidarity pact, Claude Debussy, Claude Lorrain, Claude Montana, Clipperton Island, Clock, Clovis I, Cluny Abbey, Cold War, Collective memory, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Colonies in antiquity, Columbia University, Combustion, Common Agricultural Policy, Common sense, Commoner, Communes of France, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Concert champêtre, Conscription, Conseil d'État (France), Constantine the Great, Constitution of France, Constitution of the Year XII, Constitutional law, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA, Contemporary art, Contemporary classical music, Copper, Corporatization, Corsica, Cotidianul, Count of Toulouse, Counter-revolutionary, County of Nice, Coup of 18 Brumaire, Court of Cassation (France), Courtier, Couturier, Crème brûlée, Crédit Agricole, Crêpe, Credit rating agency, Crimean War, Criminal law, Cromwell (play), Croque-monsieur, Crown lands of France, Crusader states, Crusades, Cult, Cultural assimilation, Cultural exception, Culture of France, Culture of the United States, Cystic fibrosis, Daft Punk, Dalida, Danse macabre (Saint-Saëns), Dante Alighieri, Daphnis et Chloé, DASA, Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D, Dassault nEUROn, Dassault Rafale, Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard, David Guetta, David Hume, Daylight saving time, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Declaration of Pillnitz, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Decline of newspapers, Decolonization, Demographics of France, Denis Diderot, Developed country, Development aid, Dialogues of the Carmelites, Diamant, Diesel engine, Diplomatic mission, Directorate-General for External Security, Disneyland Paris, Disneyland Park (Paris), Divine right of kings, Dominique Perrault, Duchy of Savoy, East Francia, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Economic growth, Economy of France, Ecotourism, Edgar Degas, Edgardo Cozarinsky, Edict of Fontainebleau, Edict of Nantes, Edmund Burke, Education Index, Edward Gibbon, Edward III of England, Eiffel Tower, Eight-hour day, Electricity, Elite One Championship, Elitism, Elle (magazine), Empire style, Encyclopédie, Endurance racing (motorsport), English Channel, Entente Cordiale, Environmental Performance Index, Erik Satie, Essays (Montaigne), Estates General (France), Estates of the realm, Estates-General of 1789, Ethnic groups in Europe, Etymologiae, Eugène Delacroix, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Euro, Euro banknotes, Euro coins, Eurobarometer, EuroBasket 2013, Eurockéennes, Eurocopter Tiger, Eurofighter Typhoon, Euronext, Euronext Paris, Europe, Europe 1, European and American voyages of scientific exploration, European Commission, European Economic Community, European Space Agency, European Union, Eurostar, Eurotunnel Shuttle, Eurozone, Evangelicalism, Events preceding World War II in Europe, Ex post facto law, Exclusive economic zone, Execution of Louis XVI, Existentialism, Exocet, Extermination camp, Fable, Face transplant, Family International, Family reunification, Faust (opera), Fauvism, Fête de la Musique, Fencing, Feudalism, Fields Medal, FIFA World Cup, FIFA World Player of the Year, Filmmaking, Financial crisis of 2007–08, Financial Times, First French Empire, First Indochina War, First language, Flag of France, Flemish painting, Flight to Varennes, Fluid mechanics, Foie gras, Force de dissuasion, Foreign direct investment, Foreign relations of France, Foreign worker, Fortune Global 500, Françafrique, François Boucher, François Couperin, François Hollande, François Rabelais, France 2, France 24, France 3, France and weapons of mass destruction, France in the American Revolutionary War, France Inter, France national basketball team, France national football team, France national rugby union team, France Télévisions, France–Germany relations, Francesco Primaticcio, Francia, Francis Poulenc, Francis Veber, Francisca, Franco-Prussian War, Franco-Spanish War (1635–59), Franks, Free 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Greeks, Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, Greenhouse gas, Grenoble, Gross domestic product, Guadeloupe, Guiana Space Centre, Gustave Courbet, Gustave Eiffel, Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy, Guy Canivet, Guy de Maupassant, Gymnopédies, Hand transplantation, Harpsichord, Hate speech laws in France, Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Haute couture, Hautes-Pyrénées, Head of state, Health care in France, HEC Paris, Hector Berlioz, Henri Becquerel, Henri Bergson, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Grégoire, Henri Matisse, Henri Poincaré, Henry IV of France, Hexagon, Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, History of France, History of Roman Catholicism in France, History of the Jews in France, HIV/AIDS, Hollywood, Holocaust denial, Holy Land, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Homer, Homo, Homo sapiens, Honoré de Balzac, House of Bonaparte, House of Bourbon, House of Capet, House of Valois, Hugh Capet, Huguenot, Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais, Human Development Index, Human rights, 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Tourneur, Jacques-Louis David, Jean Baudrillard, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Fouquet, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Jean Michel Jarre, Jean Nouvel, Jean Paul Gaultier, Jean Racine, Jean-Antoine Watteau, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse, Jean-François Lyotard, Jean-François Millet, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Michel Dubernard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Jeux d'eau (Ravel), Joachim du Bellay, Joan of Arc, Joseph de Maistre, Journal officiel de la République française, Judo, Jules Ferry, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Jules Massenet, Jules Verne, Julius Caesar, July Monarchy, July Revolution, Junk food, Jura Mountains, Just Fontaine, Justice (band), Köppen climate classification, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of France (1791–92), Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Soissons, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar, Krzysztof Kieślowski, L'Équipe, L'Express, La Comédie humaine, La Croix, La Défense, La Hire, La Légende des siècles, La Madeleine, Paris, La Marseillaise, La Pléiade, La Princesse de Clèves, Laïcité, Lac de Vouglans, Lancelot-Grail, Land registration, Languages of France, Lascaux, Last glacial period, Late Antiquity, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Latin peoples, Laurent Garnier, Lausanne, Lavandula, Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881, Léo Ferré, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, Le Canard enchaîné, Le Cid, Le Corbusier, Le Figaro, Le Monde, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Parisien, Le Point, Le tombeau de Couperin, Le Zénith, Legion of Honour, Legitimacy (political), Les biches, Les Contemplations, Les Invalides, Les Misérables, Les Plus Beaux Villages de France, Les Rita Mitsouko, Les Rougon-Macquart, Levant, LGBT adoption, Liberal democracy, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, Ligue 1, Ligures, Lille, Limes, Lindbergh operation, Lingua franca, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of airports in France, List of basilicas in France, List of castles in France, List of cathedrals in France, List of colleges and universities in France, List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants (1999 census), List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of countries by credit rating, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by life expectancy, List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, List of diplomatic missions of France, List of English monarchs, List of French cheeses, List of French monarchs, List of largest empires, List of most visited art museums in the world, List of museums in France, List of Nobel laureates by country, List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (nominal), List of states with nuclear weapons, List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower, List of uninhabited regions, List of urban areas in the European Union, List of World Heritage Sites in France, Literary genre, Local law in Alsace-Moselle, Loire, Loire Valley, London Stock Exchange, Lorraine (region), Lothair I, Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald, Louis Lavelle, Louis Pasteur, Louis the German, Louis the Pious, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lourdes, Louvre, Louvre Palace, Louvre Pyramid, Luc Besson, Luc Montagnier, Lugdunum, Luxembourg, Luxury yacht, LVMH, Lyon, Maastricht Treaty, Macaron, Madame de La Fayette, Magazine, Maghrebis, Maine de Biran, Mali, Mano Negra, Manon, Manuel Valls, Marc Chagall, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Marcel Proust, Marianne, Marie Claire, Marie Curie, Marigot, Saint Martin, Marin Marais, Marine protected area, Marseille, Martial arts, Martin Solveig, Martinique, Massif Central, Mata-Utu, Matter of France, Maurice de Vlaminck, Maurice Ohana, Maurice Ravel, Maximilien Robespierre, May 1968 events in France, Mayor of the Palace, Mayotte, Meditations on First Philosophy, Mediterranean climate, 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Ville de Paris, Musée d'Orsay, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Musée Picasso, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes, Museum of Grenoble, Muslim, Muslim world, Mylène Farmer, Nancy, France, Nantes, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Code, Napoleonic Wars, Nation branding, National Assembly (France), National Assembly (French Revolution), National Convention, National Gendarmerie, National Gendarmerie Intervention Group, National health insurance, National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, National park, National personification, NATO, Nazi Germany, Neoclassicism, Neolithic, New Caledonia, New France, New York Stock Exchange, Niagara (band), Nice, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Nicolas Malebranche, Nicolas Poussin, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Literature, Noir Désir, Nolwenn Leroy, Nomad, Normandy, North America, North Sea, Northern Mali conflict, Nouméa, Nuclear power, Nuclear power in France, Nuclear 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Expand index (1306 more) »

Aérospatiale, was a French state-owned aerospace manufacturer that built both civilian and military aircraft, rockets and satellites.

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The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use centuries before the adoption of the written modern numeral system and is still widely used by merchants, traders and clerks in Asia, Africa, and elsewhere.

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Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal.

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Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.

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The Académie des Beaux-Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) is a French learned society.

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The Académie française, known in English as the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was the premier art institution in France in the eighteenth century.

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Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art.

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An academy of sciences is a national academy or another learned society dedicated to sciences.

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Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica.

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Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.

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An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft.

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Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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African immigrants to France include French citizens and residents born in, or with ancestors from Africa.

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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris.

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Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether or not God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.

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Air is a music duo from Versailles, France, consisting of Nicolas Godin and Jean-Benoît Dunckel.

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Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, (north of Paris).

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The Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (ASMP; medium-range air to surface missile) is a French nuclear air-launched cruise missile.

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An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft at targets on land or sea.

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Airbus SAS is a division of Airbus Group SE that manufactures civil aircraft.

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The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.

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Airbus Group SE is a European multinational aerospace and defence corporation.

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An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.

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The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

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Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French Nobel Prize–winning author, journalist, and philosopher.

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Albertville (Arpitan: Arbèrtvile) is a commune in the Savoie department in the Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

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The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in the south of France.

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The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine river.

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Alexandre Alexandrovitch Alexeieff (Russian: Александр Александрович Алексеев Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekseyev (sometimes credited as Alexander Alexeieff or Alexander Alexeïeff or Alexandre Alexieff); 18 April 1901 – 9 August 1982) was a Russian Empire-born artist, filmmaker and illustrator who lived and worked mainly in Paris.

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Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père, was a French writer.

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An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter comprising 12 syllables.

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Alfred North Whitehead, OM FRS (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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Algeria (الجزائر), officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Berber: Tagrawla Tadzayrit; الثورة الجزائرية Al-thawra Al-Jazaa'iriyya; Guerre d'Algérie or Révolution algérienne) was a war between France and the Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France.

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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.

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Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (literally Alsatian German); Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a region in eastern France which has passed between French and German control four times since 1871.

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Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France.

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The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.

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The Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Amiens (Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens), or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and seat of the Bishop of Amiens (currently Jean-Luc Bouilleret).

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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.

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An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.

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The Char Leclerc, is a main battle tank (MBT) built by GIAT, now Nexter of France.

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Anatole Litvak (Анатоль Литвак) (May 21, 1902 – December 15, 1974) was a Ukrainian-born filmmaker who wrote, directed, and produced films in various countries and languages.

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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France.

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André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.

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Andrzej Żuławski (born 22 November 1940) is a Polish film director and writer.

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Anglicisation or anglicization, also Englishing, is the process of converting anything to more "English" norms.

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The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain was the process, from the mid 5th to early 7th centuries, by which the coastal lowlands of Britain developed from a Romano-British to a Germanic culture following the Roman withdrawal in the early 5th century.

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Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666) was queen consort of France and Navarre, regent for her son, Louis XIV of France, and a Spanish and Portuguese Infanta by birth.

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Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.

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Ansar Dine (أنصار الدين ʾAnṣār ad-Dīn, also transliterated Ançar Deen) means "helpers of the (Islamic) religion" or "defenders of the faith" in Arabic.

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The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements, who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.

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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, officially Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator.

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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrenees, France, called Aquitania by the Romans, in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.

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Arabic numerals or Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

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The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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Arianism is a nontrinitarian belief that asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, but is entirely distinct from and subordinate to God the Father.

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An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (in the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features such as the ecliptic.

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Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and Loire rivers, that includes the Brittany peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast.

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The 101 French departments are divided into 335 arrondissements, which may roughly be translated into English as districts.

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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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The Association of Caribbean States (ACS; Asociación de Estados del Caribe; Association des États de la Caraïbe) is a union of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin.

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Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.

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Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.

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The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas (19 October 1862, Besançon, France – 10 April 1954, Lyon) and Louis Jean (5 October 1864, Besançon, France – 6 June 1948, Bandol), were the first filmmakers in history.

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Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857), better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher.

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Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788–1827), was a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics.

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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.

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In economics, austerity is a set of policies with the aim of reducing government budget deficits.

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The word authority (Derived from the Latin word auctoritas) can be used to mean the right to exercise power given by the State (in the form of government, judges, police officers, etc.), or by academic knowledge of an area (someone can be an authority on a subject).

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The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.

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Ave Maria is a popular and much-recorded setting of the Latin text Ave Maria, originally published in 1853 as Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach.

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AXA is a French, multinational, investment banking firm headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that engages in global investment banking, securities, investment management, insurance, and other financial services.

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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.

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The École nationale d'administration (ENA;; National School of Administration), one of the French graduate schools (Grandes écoles), was created in 1945 by Charles de Gaulle to democratise access to the senior civil service.

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École polytechnique (also known by the nickname " X ") is a French public institution of higher education and research, located in Palaiseau near Paris.

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Édith Piaf (19 December 1915 – 10 October 1963; born Édith Giovanna Gassion) was a French cabaret singer, songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France's national diva, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars.

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Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo (27 January 182322 April 1892) was a French composer.

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Édouard Manet (or;; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.

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The Éguzon dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Creuse River in central France.

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Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.

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Élysée Montmartre (L'Élysée Montmartre) is a music venue at 72 Boulevard de Rochechouart, in Paris, France.

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The Élysée Treaty was a treaty of friendship between France and West Germany, signed by President Charles de Gaulle and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer on January 22, 1963 at the Élysée Palace in Paris.

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Émile Édouard Charles Antoine ZolaLarousse, (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the most well-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

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The épuration légale (French "legal purge") was the wave of official trials that followed the Liberation of France and the fall of the Vichy Regime.

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Étang de Soulcem is a large artificial lake in the Pyrenees mountains in Ariège, France.

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The Évian Accords comprise a treaty which was signed on 18 March 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, the government-in-exile of FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) which sought Algeria's independence from France.

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Île-de-France (literally Island of France; see the Etymology section), also known as the région parisienne, "Paris Region", is one of the twenty-seven regions of France, and includes the city of Paris.

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A baby boom is any period marked by a greatly increased birth rate.

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A baguette is a long thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law).

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A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) refers to a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.

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The Ballon d'Or ("Golden Ball") and often referred to as the European Footballer of the Year award, was an annual association football award.

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A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be uncivilized or primitive.

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The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.

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Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin.

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The Basilica of Saint Denis (known as Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.

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The Basilica of St.

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A basis point (often denoted as bp, often pronounced as "bip" or "beep") is a unit equal to one hundredth of a percentage point.

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Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics was the second appearance of the sport as an official medal event.

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Basketball contests at the 2000 Olympic Games were held from 16 September 2000 to 1 October 2000.

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Bastille Day is the name given in English-speaking countries to the French National Day, which is celebrated on 14 July each year.

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The Bastille Day Military Parade (or 14 July Military Parade, translation of the French name of Défilé militaire du 14 Juillet) is a French military parade that has been held on the morning of 14 July each year in Paris since 1880, almost without exception.

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The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ.) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.

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The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.

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The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.

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The Battle of the Allia was a battle of the first Gallic invasion of Rome.

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The Battle of Tours (October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma'arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ – Battle of the Palace of Martyrs) was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about northeast of Poitiers.

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The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beaujolais is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) wine generally made of the Gamay grape which has a thin skin and is low in tannins.

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Beef bourguignon or bœuf bourguignon, also called beef Burgundy, and bœuf à la Bourguignonne, is a well-known, traditional French recipe.

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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.

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The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.

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Dr.

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A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.

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The Big Four in the European Union (EU big four), also known as G4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.

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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.

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Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher.

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Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence for God, to religious or holy persons or things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.

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"Bluebeard" (French: La Barbe bleue) is a French folktale, the most famous surviving version of which was written by Charles Perrault and first published by Barbin in Paris in 1697 in Histoires ou contes du temps passé.

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BNP Paribas is a French multinational bank and financial services company with global headquarters in Paris.

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Bob Sinclar (born Christophe Le Friant; 10 May 1969) is a French record producer, house music DJ, remixer and the owner of the label Yellow Productions.

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Boléro is a one-movement orchestral piece by Maurice Ravel (1875–1937).

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Bora Bora is an island in the Leeward group of the Society Islands of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the Pacific Ocean.

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Bordeaux (Gascon: Bordèu; Bordele) is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France.

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A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France, centred on the city of Bordeaux and covering the whole area of the Gironde department, with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France.

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The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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Breach of the peace is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom.

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Brennus (or Brennos) was a chieftain of the Senones.

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Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.

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The Bretons are an ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.

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Brie is a soft cow's milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated (roughly corresponding to the modern département of Seine-et-Marne).

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Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 February AD 41 — 11 February AD 55) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina.

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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the north-west of France.

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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Burgundy (Bourgogne) is an administrative and historical region of east-central France.

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Burgundy wine (Bourgogne or vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône River, a tributary of the Rhône.

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Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the county seat of Chittenden County.

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Café liégeois is a cold dessert of French origin, made from lightly sweetened coffee, coffee flavour ice cream and chantilly cream.

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The Camargue (Camarga in classical norm or Camargo in Mistralian norm) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône River delta.

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Camembert is a soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese.

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Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies).

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Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (9 October 183516 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era.

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The Camino de Santiago, also known by the English names Way of St.

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The Canal du Midi (meaning canal of the two seas) is a long canal in Southern France (le Midi).

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The Cannes Festival (French: Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries, from around the world.

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The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's 342 arrondissements and 101 departments.

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A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.

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The Capitole back side The Capitole is the heart of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse.

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A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.

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Carcassonne is a fortified French town in the Aude department, of which it is the prefecture, in the Region of Languedoc-Roussillon.

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Jules Raymond Mazarin, Cardinal-Duke of Rethel, Mayenne and Nevers (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarini, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister of the French King from 1642 until his death.

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Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal-Duke of Richelieu and of Fronsac (9 September 1585 – 4 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, noble and statesman.

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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.

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Carmen is an opera in four acts by the French composer Georges Bizet.

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The Carnac stones are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac, in Brittany, consisting of alignments, dolmens, tumuli and single menhirs.

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The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

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The Carolingian Empire (800–924) was the final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty.

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Case law is the set of existing rulings which made new interpretations of law and, therefore, can be cited as precedents.

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Cassoulet (from Occitan caçolet) is a rich, slow-cooked casserole originating in the south of France, containing meat (typically pork sausages, goose, duck and sometimes mutton), pork skin (couennes) and white beans (haricots blancs).

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility.

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The Catalans Dragons (French and Catalan: Dragons Catalans) are a professional rugby league club in Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales, France.

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Cathar castles (in French Châteaux cathares) is a modern term used by the tourism industry (following the example of Pays Cathare – Cathar Country) to designate a series of fortresses built by the French king on the southern border of his lands at the end of the Albigensian Crusade.

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Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.

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A cathedral (French: cathédrale from Latin: cathedra, "seat" from the Greek kathedra (καθέδρα), seat, bench, from kata "down" + hedra seat, base, chair) is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") and its adjectival form Catholic are used as broad terms for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology, doctrine, liturgy, ethics, and spirituality.

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The Côte de Nuits is a French wine region located in the northern part of the Côte d'Or, the limestone ridge that is at the heart of the Burgundy wine region.

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Édouard Lalo wrote his Cello Concerto in D minor in 1876, in collaboration with Parisian cellist Adolphe Fischer.

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The Britons were an ancient Celtic people who lived on Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Roman and Sub-Roman periods.

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Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.

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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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The Centre des monuments nationaux (CMN, National monuments centre) is a French government body (Établissement public à caractère administratif) which conserves, restores, and manages historic buildings and sites which are the property of the French state.

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Centre Georges Pompidou (commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou; also known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais.

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The French National Centre for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.

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The CFP franc (called the franc in everyday use) is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities (collectivités d’outre-mer, or COM) of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna.

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Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chamonix-Mont-Blanc,.

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Champagne is a sparkling wine produced from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand, among other things, secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to create carbonation, specific vineyard practices, sourcing of grapes exclusively from specific parcels in the Champagne appellation and specific pressing regimes unique to the region.

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Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain and Gerard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.

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The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also referred to as the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.

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A chanson ("song", from Latin cantio, gen. cantionis) is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.

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The chanson de geste, Old French for "song of heroic deeds" (from gesta: Latin: "deeds, actions accomplished"), is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature.

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Charlemagne (2 April 742/747/748Karl Ferdinand Werner: Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–157;Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60;R. McKitterick: Charlemagne. Cambridge 2008, p. 72.28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.

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Charles Aznavour (born Shahnour Varinag Aznavourian; born 22 May 1924) is a French and Armenian singer, songwriter, actor, public activist and diplomat.

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Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general, resistant, writer and statesman.

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Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), is one of the world's principal aviation centres, as well as France's largest international airport.

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Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 October or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust. Another opera by Gounod, occasionally still performed, is Roméo et Juliette. Gounod died at Saint-Cloud in 1893, after a final revision of his twelve operas.

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Charles IV (Clermont 18/19 June 1294 – Vincennes 1 February 1328), called the Fair (French: le Bel), was Count of Champagne, King of Navarre (as Charles I), and the last "direct" Capetian King of France from 1322 to his death.

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Charles Martel (c. 688 or 686, 680 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.

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Charles Perrault (12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie française.

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Charles Sanders Peirce (like "purse", September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–77), King of Italy (875–77) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–77, as Charles II).

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Charlie Hebdo (French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly magazine, featuring cartoons, reports, polemics, and jokes.

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Chartres Cathedral, also known as Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), is a medieval Catholic cathedral of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about southwest of Paris.

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A château (plural châteaux; for both the singular and the plural) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.

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The royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.

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The Château d'Angers is a castle in the city of Angers in the Loire Valley, in the département of Maine-et-Loire, in France.

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The Château d'Ussé is located in the commune of Rigny-Ussé in the Indre-et-Loire département, in France.

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The royal Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France, is one of the most recognizable châteaux in the world because of its very distinctive French Renaissance architecture which blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Renaissance structures.

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The Château de Chenonceau (also spelled Chenonceaux) is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.

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Château de Chinon is a castle located on the bank of the Vienne river in Chinon, France.

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The Château de Villandry is a castle-palace located in Villandry, in the département of Indre-et-Loire, France.

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The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.

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The château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (Hohkönigsburg) is a medieval castle located at Orschwiller, Alsace, France, in the Vosges mountains just west of Sélestat.

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The Chouannerie was a royalist uprising in 12 of the western départements of France, particularly in the provinces of Brittany and Maine, against the French Revolution, the French First Republic, and even, with its headquarters in London rather than France, for a time, under the Empire.

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Choucroute garnie (French for dressed sauerkraut) is a famous Alsatian recipe for preparing sauerkraut with sausages and other salted meats and charcuterie, and often potatoes.

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Chrétien de Troyes (Christian) was a late 12th century French poet and trouvère known for his work on Arthurian subjects, and for originating the character Lancelot.

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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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Christian de Portzamparc (born 5 May 1944) is a French architect and urbanist.

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Christian Dior SE, commonly known as Dior, is a French luxury goods company controlled and chaired by businessman Bernard Arnault who also heads LVMH – the world's largest luxury group.

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Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (born 16 May 1951) is a French fashion designer.

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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.

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A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Cinderella, or The Little Glass Slipper (Cenerentola, Cendrillon ou La Petite Pantoufle de verre, Aschenputtel), is a European folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression.

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The cinema of the United States, often generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century.

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The Roman circus (from Latin, "circle") was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire.

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Citroën is a major French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976.

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Civil law is a branch of the law.

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Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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In France, a civil solidarity pact (pacte civil de solidarité), commonly known as a PACS, is a contractual form of civil union between two adults for organising their joint life.

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Claude-Achille Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.

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Claude Lorrain (born Claude Gellée, dit le Lorrain; traditionally just Claude in English; c. 1600 – 23 November 1682) was a French painter, draughtsman and engraver of the Baroque era.

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Claude Montana is a French fashion designer.

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Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion, Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, south-west of Mexico, west of Nicaragua, west of Costa Rica and north-west of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, at.

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A clock is an instrument to indicate, keep, and co-ordinate time.

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Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlodowig; c. 466 – c. 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.

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Cluny Abbey (or Cluni, or Clugny) dedicated to St Peter, is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.

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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Collective memory refers to the shared pool of information held in the memories of two or more members of a group.

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Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (French: Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France located in the Caribbean.

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Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

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Columbia University (officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.

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Common sense is a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge things, which is shared by ("common to") nearly all people, and can be reasonably expected of nearly all people without any need for debate.

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The terms common people, commoners, or the masses denote a broad social division referring to ordinary people who are members of neither the nobility nor the priesthood.

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The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.

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The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes.

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Concert champêtre (Pastoral Concerto) is a harpsichord concerto by Francis Poulenc, which also exists in a version for piano solo with very slight changes in the solo part.

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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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In France, the Council of State (French: Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.

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Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.

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The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.

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The Constitution of the Year XII was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year XII of the French Revolutionary Calendar (1804 in the Gregorian calendar).

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Constitutional law is the body of law which defines the relationship of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary.

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Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) was a Spanish aircraft manufacturer that was founded in 1923 and began manufacturing aircraft the following year.

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Contemporary art is art produced at the present period in time.

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Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.

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Corsica (Corse; Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to France.

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Old logo of ''Cotidianul'' newspaper, used in the inter-war period, and in the early 1990s The logo used between 2003 and 2007 Cotidianul (meaning The Daily in English) was a Romanian language newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania, between 1991 and 2009.

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The Count of Toulouse was the ruler of Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries.

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A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.

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The County of Nice or Niçard Country (Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Comtat de Niça/País Niçard) is a historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern department of Alpes-Maritimes.

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The coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France, and, in the view of most historians, ended the French Revolution.

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The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.

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A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a king or other royal personage.

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A couturier is an establishment or person involved in the clothing fashion industry who makes original garments to order for private clients.

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Crème brûlée, also known as burnt cream, crema catalana, or Trinity cream is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of hard caramel.

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Crédit Agricole, sometimes called the “Green Bank” because of its historical ties to farming, is a French network of cooperative and mutual banks comprising the 39 Crédit Agricole Regional Banks.

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A crêpe or crepe (or, Quebec French) is a type of very thin pancake, usually made from wheat flour (crêpes de froment) or buckwheat flour (galettes).

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A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.

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The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856), also known in Russian historiography as the Eastern War of 1853–1856 (Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.

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Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo, written in 1827.

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The croque monsieur is a baked or fried boiled ham and cheese sandwich.

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The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France.

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The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

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In the sociological classifications of religious movements in English, a cult is a religious or social group with socially deviant or novel beliefs and practices.

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Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group.

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Cultural exception (French: l’exception culturelle) is a political concept introduced by France in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations in 1993 to treat culture differently from other commercial products.

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The culture of France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.

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The culture of the United States is primarily Western, but is influenced by African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American cultures.

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Cystic fibrosis (CF), also known as mucoviscidosis, is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys and intestine.

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Daft Punk is an electronic music duo consisting of French musicians Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter.

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Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti (17 January 1933 – 3 May 1987), best known as Dalida, was an Italian singer and actress who performed and recorded in more than 10 languages, including Arabic, Italian, Greek, German, French, English, Japanese, Hebrew, Dutch and Spanish.

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Danse macabre, Op. 40, is a tone poem for orchestra, written in 1874 by French composer Camille Saint-Saëns.

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Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages.

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Daphnis et Chloé is a ballet in one act and three scenes by Maurice Ravel described as a "symphonie choréographique" (choreographic symphony).

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DASA (officially Deutsche Aerospace AG, later Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, then DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG), was the former aerospace subsidiary of Daimler-Benz AG (later DaimlerChrysler) from 1989. In July 2000, DASA merged with Aérospatiale-Matra and CASA to form EADS.

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The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike.

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The Dassault nEUROn is an experimental Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) being developed with international cooperation, led by the French company Dassault Aviation.

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The Dassault Rafale (meaning burst of fire in a military sense) is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation.

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The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard (Étendard is French for "battle flag") is a French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.

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Pierre David Guetta (born 7 November 1967) is a French DJ, record producer and remixer.

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David Hume (7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Daylight saving time (DST) or summer time is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months by one hour so that in the evening hours day light is experienced later, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.

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The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical Laïcité movement.

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Declaration of Pillnitz was a statement issued on 27 August 1791 at Pillnitz Castle near Dresden (Saxony) by Frederick William II of Prussia and the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II who was Marie Antoinette's brother.

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The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen), passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human and civil rights.

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The decline of newspapers has been widely debated as the industry has faced down soaring newsprint prices, slumping ad sales, the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation.

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Decolonization (US) or decolonisation (UK) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.

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The demography of France is monitored by the Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) and the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE).

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Denis Diderot (5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer.

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A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Development aid (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.

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Dialogues des carmélites (Dialogues of the Carmelites) is a 1956 French-language opera in twelve scenes and several orchestral interludes, grouped into three acts, by Francis Poulenc.

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The Diamant rocket (Diamant is French for "diamond") was the first exclusively French expendable launch system and at the same time the first satellite launcher not built by either the USA or USSR.

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The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or 'CI' engine) is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber is initiated by the high temperature which a gas achieves when greatly compressed (adiabatic compression).

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A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one state or an international inter-governmental organisation (such as the United Nations) present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.

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The General Directorate for External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure, DGSE) is France's external intelligence agency.

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Disneyland Paris, originally Euro Disney Resort, is an entertainment resort in Marne-la-Vallée, a new town located east of the centre of Paris, and is the most visited theme park in all of France and Europe.

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Disneyland Park (Parc Disneyland), originally Euro Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallée, France.

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The divine right of kings or divine right is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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Dominique Perrault (1953, Clermont-Ferrand) is a French architect and urban planner.

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From 1416 to 1860, the House of Savoy ruled the Duchy of Savoy (Savoia, Savoie, Savoyen).

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In medieval historiography, East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of Germany, lasting from about 840 until about 962.

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Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

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France has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal figures and the ninth largest economy by PPP figures.

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Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial (mass) tourism.

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Edgar Degas (or;; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.

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Edgardo Cozarinsky (born 1939 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a writer and filmmaker.

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The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

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The Edict of Nantes (French: Édit de Nantes), signed probably on 30 April 1598, by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was, at the time, still considered essentially Catholic.

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Edmund Burke PC (12 January 17299 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who, after moving to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party.

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The United Nations publishes a Human Development Index (HDI) every year, which consists of the Life Expectancy Index, Education index, and Income index.

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Edward Gibbon (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament.

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Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II.

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The Eiffel Tower ('tour Eiffel') is an iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

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The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

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The Elite One Championship (French: Le Championnat de France Elite) is the top tier French professional domestic rugby league competition.

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Elitism is the belief or attitude that some individuals who form an elite—a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality or worth, high intellect, wealth, specialized training or experience, or other distinctive attributes—are those whose influence or authority is greater than that of others; whose views on a matter are to be taken more seriously or carry more weight; whose views or actions are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole; or whose extraordinary skills, abilities, or wisdom render them especially fit to govern.

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Elle is a worldwide lifestyle magazine of French origin that focuses on fashion, beauty, health, and entertainment.

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The Empire style,,the second phase of Romanticism, is an early-19th-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts that flourished between 1800 and 1815 during the Consulate and the First French Empire periods, although its life span lasted until the late 1820s (or more depending on each country).

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Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) is a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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Endurance racing is a form of motorsport racing which is meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of participants.

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The English Channel (Manche, "Sleeve"; Mor Breizh, "Bretons Sea"; Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France, marking the start of the alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

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The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.

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Éric Alfred Leslie Satie (17 May 18661 July 1925) – he signed his name Erik Satie after 1884 – was a French composer and pianist.

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The Essays (Essais) of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length.

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In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General or States-General (états généraux), was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.

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The estates of the realm were the broad social orders of the hierarchically conceived society, recognised in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period in Christian Europe.

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The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (Les États-Généraux de 1789) was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the common people (Third Estate).

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The ethnic groups in Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Etymologiae (also called The Etymologies or Origines, standard abbrev. Orig.) is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.

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Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

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Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (27 January 1814 – 17 September 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his interpretive "restorations" of medieval buildings.

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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

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The euro banknotes are the banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone.

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There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).

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Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.

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EuroBasket 2013 was the 38th edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organized by FIBA Europe.

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The Eurockéennes de Belfort is one of France's largest rock music festivals.

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The Airbus Helicopters Tiger, formerly known as the Eurocopter Tiger, is a four-bladed, twin-engined attack helicopter which first entered service in 2003.

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The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.

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Euronext NV is a European stock exchange seated in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon and Paris.

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Euronext Paris is France's securities market, formerly known as the Paris Bourse, which merged with the Amsterdam, Lisbon and Brussels exchanges in September 2000 to form Euronext NV, which is the second largest exchange in Europe behind the UK's London Stock Exchange.

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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Europe 1, formerly known as Europe n° 1, is a privately owned radio network created in 1955.

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The era of European and American voyages of scientific exploration followed the Age of Discovery and were inspired by a new confidence in science and reason that arose in the Age of Enlightenment.

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The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.

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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.

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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Paris and Brussels.

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Eurotunnel Le Shuttle is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in Britain.

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Eurozone (euro area).

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Evangelicalism, Evangelical Christianity, or Evangelical Protestantism is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity, maintaining that the essence of the gospel consists in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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The events preceding World War II in Europe are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany.

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An ex post facto law (Latin for "from after the action" or "after the facts") is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.

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An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

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The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution ("Revolution Square", formerly Place Louis XV, and renamed Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris.

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Existentialism is a term applied to the work of certain late 19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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The Exocet (French for "flying fish" The missile's name was given by M. Guillot, then technical director at Nord Aviation, after the French name for flying fish.) is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

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The German extermination camps or death camps were designed and built by Nazi Germany during World War II (1939–45) to systematically kill millions, primarily by gassing, but also in mass executions and through extreme work under starvation conditions.

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Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as verbal communication) and that illustrates or leads to an interpretation of a moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim.

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A face transplant is a medical procedure to replace all or part of a person's face using tissue from a cadaver.

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The Family International, formed as the Children of God (COG), renamed Family of Love and later The Family, is a new religious movement started in 1968 in Huntington Beach, California, United States that is called a cult by academics such as Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi and John Huxley.

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Family reunification is a recognized reason for immigration in many countries because of the presence of one or more family members in a certain country, therefore, enables the rest of the family to immigrate to that country as well.

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Faust is a grand opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part 1.

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Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a loose group of early twentieth-century Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.

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The Fête de la Musique, also known as Make Music Day or World Music Day, is an annual music celebration taking place on 21 June.

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Contemporary fencing is the word used for modern sport fencing which is very different than the martial use of the sword (also known as western art of combat with the small sword); Sport fencing is also called olympic fencing which began in the end of the 19th century, with the Italian school having modified the "classical fencing", and the French school having later refined the Italian system.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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The FIFA World Player of the Year is an association football award presented to the female player voted as best in the world by coaches and captains of international teams.

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Filmmaking (or in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film.

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The financial crisis of 2007–08, also known as the Global Financial Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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The Financial Times (FT) is an English-language international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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The First French Empire (Empire Français), also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in contemporary Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946 and lasted until 1 August 1954.

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A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.

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The national flag of France is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.

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Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century.

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The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.

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Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.

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Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.

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The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961Gunston, Bill.

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A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Foreign relations of the French Republic are the French government's external relations with the outside world.

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A foreign worker is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.

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The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue.

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Françafrique is France's relationship with its former African colonies.

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François Boucher (29 September 1703 – 30 May 1770) was a French painter in the Rococo style.

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François Couperin (10 November 1668 – 11 September 1733) was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist.

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François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician.

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François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.

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France 2 is a French public national television channel.

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France 24 (pronounced France vingt-quatre on all three editions) is an international news and current affairs television channel based in Paris.

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France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.

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France is known to have an arsenal of weapons of mass destruction.

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During the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence; 1775–1783), France recognized and allied itself with the United States in 1778, declared war on Great Britain, and sent its armies and navy to fight Britain while providing money and matériel to arm the new republic.

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France Inter is a major French public radio channel and part of Radio France.

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The French national basketball team is the national basketball team representing France.

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The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football.

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The France national rugby union team represents France in rugby union.

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France Télévisions SA is the French public national television broadcaster.

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The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Krotz, has three grand periods: 'hereditary enmity' (down to 1945), 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (Amitié franco-allemande; Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft).

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Francesco Primaticcio (April 30, 1504 – 1570) was an Italian Mannerist painter, architect and sculptor who spent most of his career in France.

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Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

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Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (7 January 189930 January 1963) was a French composer and pianist.

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Francis Paul Veber (born 28 July 1937) is a French film director, screenwriter and producer, and playwright.

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The francisca (or francesca) is a throwing axe used as a weapon during the Early Middle Ages by the Franks, among whom it was a characteristic national weapon at the time of the Merovingians from about 500 to 750 and is known to have been used during the reign of Charlemagne (768–814).

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The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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The Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.

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Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces that continued to fight against the Axis powers as an Ally after the fall of France.

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Freedom of religion or freedom of belief is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.

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Freedom of religion in France is guaranteed by the constitutional rights set forth in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

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Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.

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The FREMM (European multipurpose frigate) (French Frégate européenne multi-mission or Italian Fregata europea multi-missione) is a class of frigate designed by DCNS/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy.

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The French Academy in Rome (Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio (Pincian Hill) in Rome, Italy.

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The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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The French Air Force (Armée de l'air, "army of the air") is the air force of the French Armed Forces.

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Charles de Gaulle is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale) and the largest western European warship currently in commission.

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French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterward; unofficially Algérie française, الجزائر الفرنسية Al-Jaza'ir Al-Fransiyah) lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.

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The French Alps are the portions of the Alps mountain range that stand within France, located in the Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur regions.

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The French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) encompass the French Army, the French Navy, the French Air Force, and the National Gendarmerie of France.

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The French Army (Armée de terre, "land army") is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

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The French ban on face covering (Loi interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public, "Act prohibiting concealment of the face in public space") is an act of parliament passed by the Senate of France on 14 September 2010, resulting in the ban on the wearing of face-covering headgear, including masks, helmets, balaclava, niqābs and other veils covering the face in public places, except under specified circumstances.

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French Baroque architecture is the name given to the French architecture during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610–43), Louis XIV (1643–1715) and Louis XV (1715–74).

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The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward.

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The Consulate was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804.

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French Development Agency (Agence Française de Développement, AFD) is a public financial institution that implements the policy defined by the French Government.

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The Directory was the government of France during the penultimate stage of the French Revolution.

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The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, introduced on 4 October 1958.

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In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.

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The French Foreign Legion (Légion Etrangère, L.É.) is a military service Wing of the French Army established in 1831, unique because it was created for foreign nationals willing to serve in the French Armed Forces.

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The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.

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The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.

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French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane française), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America.

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French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony on the Indian subcontinent.

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The second French intervention in Mexico (Segunda intervención francesa en México), also known as the Maximilian Affair, Mexican Adventure, the War of the French Intervention, the Franco-Mexican War or the Second Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico in late 1861 by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and Spain.

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The French Invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года; Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i.e. government-operated) primary and secondary schools.

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Legislative elections took place on 10 and 17 June 2012 (and on other dates for small numbers of voters outside metropolitan France) to select the members of the 14th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic – a little over a month after the French presidential election run-off held on 6 May.

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The French Navy (Marine nationale, "national navy"), informally La Royale, is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.

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The New Wave (La Nouvelle Vague) is a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s.

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The French nobility (la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the French Revolution in 1790.

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French onion soup (French: Soupe à l'oignon) is a type of soup usually based on meat stock and onions, and often served gratinéed with croutons and cheese on top.

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The French Open, often referred to as Roland Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France.

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French opera is one of Europe's most important operatic traditions, containing works by composers of the stature of Lully, Rameau, Berlioz, Bizet, Debussy, Poulenc and Messiaen.

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The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).

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The French (Français) are a nation and ethnic group who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural. Descending from peoples of Celtic (Gauls) origin, later mixing with Romance (Romans) and Germanic (Franks) origin, and having experienced a high rate of inward migration since the middle of the 19th century, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. France was still a patchwork of local customs and regional differences in the late 19th century, and besides the common speaking of the French language, the definition of some unified French culture is a complex issue. Some French have equated their nationality with citizenship, regardless of ethnicity or country of residence. Successive waves of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries were rapidly assimilated into French culture. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and strongly advocated assimilation where immigrants were expected to adhere to French traditional values and cultural norms. However, despite the success of such assimilation, the French Government abandoned it in the mid-1980s encouraging immigrants to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and requiring from them a mere integration. This "integrationist" policy has recently been called into question, for example, following the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished immigrant suburbs. Most French people speak the French language as their mother tongue, but certain languages like Norman, Occitan, Corsican, Basque, French Flemish and Breton remain spoken in certain regions (see Language policy in France). In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies (French Caribbean), and in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland (French Swiss), the United States (French Americans), Canada (French Canadians), Argentina (French Argentines), Brazil (French Brazilians) or Uruguay (French Uruguayans), and some of them have a French cultural identity.

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French poetry is a category of French literature.

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French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).

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French popular music is a music of France belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and mostly distributed commercially.

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A presidential election was held in France on 22 April 2012 (or 21 April in some overseas departments and territories), with a second round run-off held on 6 May (or 5 May for those same territories) to elect the President of France (who is also ex officio one of the two joint heads of state of Andorra, a sovereign state).

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The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries.

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The French Resistance (La Résistance française) is the name used to denote the collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during World War II.

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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.

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The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts, lasting from 1792 until 1802, resulting from the French Revolution.

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The Côte d'Azur (Còsta d'Azur; literally: 'Azure Coast'), often known in English as the French Riviera, is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, also including the sovereign state of Monaco.

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The French Second Republic was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire.

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The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF), in full the Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Territoire des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.

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The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.

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The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots).

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French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles.

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The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.

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The Group of Eight is a governmental political forum.

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Gabriel Urbain Fauré (12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher.

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Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

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The Gallic rooster (le coq gaulois) is an unofficial national symbol of France as a nation, as opposed to Marianne representing France as a State, and its values: the Republic.

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The term Gallo-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.

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The Garabit Viaduct (Viaduc de Garabit in French) is a railway arch bridge spanning the River Truyère near Ruynes-en-Margeride (Fr), Cantal, France, in the mountainous Massif Central region. The bridge was constructed between 1882 and 1884 by Gustave Eiffel, with structural engineering by Maurice Koechlin, and was opened in 1885. It is in length and has a principal arch of span.

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Gare d'Orsay is a former Paris railway station and hotel, built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard; it served as a terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans (Paris-Orléans Railway).

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The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel (La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel) is a pentalogy of novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais, which tells of the adventures of two giants, Gargantua and his son Pantagruel. The text is written in an amusing, extravagant, and satirical vein, and features much crudity, scatological humor, and violence (lists of explicit or vulgar insults fill several chapters).

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The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, Portuguese and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.

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Gaspar Noé (born December 27, 1963) is an Argentinian film director and screenwriter living in France.

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is a suite of pieces for solo piano by Maurice Ravel, written in 1908.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of Resistance leader (and later President) Charles de Gaulle.

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The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century AD).

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The Gayssot Act or Gayssot Law (Loi Gayssot), enacted on 13 July 1990, makes it an offense in France to question the existence or size of the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, on the basis of which Nazi leaders were convicted by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945-46 (art.9).

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Géla Babluani (გელა ბაბლუანი) (born 1979) is a Georgian–French film director.

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George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne), was an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

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Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.

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Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.

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Georges Brassens (22 October 1921 – 29 October 1981) was a French singer-songwriter and poet.

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Georges-Pierre Seurat (2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French Post-Impressionist painter and draftsman.

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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopedic author.

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Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.

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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death, wrote influentially on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.

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Givenchy is a luxury French brand of haute couture clothing, accessories and, as Parfums Givenchy, perfumes and cosmetics.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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GlobalPost is an online US news company that focuses on international news founded on January 12, 2009 by Charles M. Sennott and Philip S. Balboni.

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The Gloria by Francis Poulenc (FP 177), scored for soprano solo, large orchestra, and chorus, is a setting of the Roman Catholic Gloria in excelsis Deo text.

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Gojira is a French heavy metal band from Ondres, close to Bayonne in the South West of France.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.

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Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period.

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Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz,; or; July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher, and to this day he occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in the French Republic.

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The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English: Great Palace), is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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In rugby union, a Grand Slam (Irish: Caithréim Mhór. Welsh: Y Gamp Lawn. French: Le Grand Chelem) occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations predecessor) manages to beat all the others during one year's competition.

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The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.

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Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux, is a theatre in Bordeaux, France, first inaugurated on 17 April 1780.

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The grandes écoles (literally in French "Grand Schools", meaning "Elite Schools") of France are higher education establishments outside the main framework of the French university system.

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Grasse (Provençal Occitan: Grassa in classical norm (and Italian) or Grasso in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department (of which it is a sub-prefecture), on the French Riviera.

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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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The Maghreb (or;Literally sunset; المغرب العربي, "the Arab West"; ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵖⴰ; previously known as Barbary Coast), or the Greater Maghreb (المغرب الكبير el-Maghrib el-Kbīr), is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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The Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul have a significant history of settlement, trade, cultural influence, and armed conflict in the Celtic territory of Gaul (modern France), starting from the 6th century BC during the Greek Archaic period.

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A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.

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Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department, located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.

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The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana.

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Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting.

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Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (born Bönickhausen;;; 15 December 1832 – 27 December 1923) was a French civil engineer and architect.

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Gustavia is the main town and capital of the island of Saint Barthélemy (often abbreviated to Saint-Barth in French, or St. Barts in English).

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Guy Canivet (born 23 September 1943 in Lons-le-Saunier) is a French judge.

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Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

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The Gymnopédies, published in Paris starting in 1888, are three piano compositions written by French composer and pianist Erik Satie.

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Hand transplantation is a surgical procedure to transplant a hand from one human to another.

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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard.

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The hate speech laws in France are matters of both civil law and criminal law.

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Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.

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Haute couture (French for "high sewing" or "high dressmaking" or "high fashion") refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing.

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Hautes-Pyrénées (Gascon: Nauts Pirenèus / Hauts Pirenèus; Altos Pirineos) is a department in southwestern France.

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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.

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HEC Paris or école des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de Paris is a European business school located in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Hector Berlioz (11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande messe des morts (Requiem).

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Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a physicist, Nobel laureate, and the discoverer of radioactivity, for work in this field he, along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics.

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Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential especially in the first half of the 20th century.

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Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901), also known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century yielded a collection of exciting, elegant and provocative images of the modern and sometimes decadent life of those times.

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Henri Grégoire (4 December 1750 – 28 May 1831), often referred to as Abbé Grégoire, was a French Roman Catholic priest, constitutional bishop of Blois and a revolutionary leader.

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Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.

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Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science.

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Henry IV (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), Henri-Quatre, also known by the epithet "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a polygon with six edges and six vertices.

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The causes and mechanisms of the decline of the Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

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The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age.

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The history of Roman Catholicism in France is inseparable from the history of France, and should be analyzed in its peculiar relationship with the State, with which it was progressively confused, confronted, and separated.

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The history of the Jews of France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

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Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.

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The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקוֹדֵשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة), is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea but also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

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The Holy Roman Emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser, Romanorum Imperator) was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.

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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.

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Homo is the genus comprising the species Homo sapiens, which includes modern humans, plus several extinct species classified as ancestral to or closely related to modern humans—as for example from Homo habilis to Homo neanderthalensis.

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Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise man") is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the human species.

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Honoré de Balzac (20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.

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The House of Bonaparte is an imperial and royal European dynasty founded in 1804 by Napoleon I, a French military leader who had risen to notability out of the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his ''coup d'état'' of November 1799.

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The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Les Capétiens, la Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.

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The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.

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A Huguenot is a member of a French Protestant denomination with origins in the 16th or 17th centuries.

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Hugues-Félicité Robert de Lamennais (or de la Mennais) (19 June 1782 - 27 February 1854), was a French Catholic priest, philosopher, and political theorist.

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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, Dec 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved Aug.

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Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Humanism in France found its way from Italy, but did not become a distinct movement until the 16th century was well on its way.

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The Hundred Days, sometimes known as the Hundred Days of Napoleon or Napoleon's Hundred Days, marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 111 days).

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The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom.

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A hunter-gatherer or early human society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.

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Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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France received immigrants in successive waves during the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

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Impressionism in music was a movement among various composers in Western classical music, mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere, "conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed tone‐picture".

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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface.

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The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) is an intergovernmental organization that was created in 1982 at Port Louis, Mauritius and institutionalized in 1984 by the Victoria Agreement in Seychelles.

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Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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The Inner Six, or simply The Six, were the six founding member states of the European Communities.

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The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière (National Institute of Geographic and Forestry Information), previously Institut Géographique National (National Geographic Institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940 to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories.

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The Institut Montaigne is a French think tank founded by Claude Bébéar in 2000, with the aim to promote both competitiveness and social cohesion and to help shape public policy to improve both economic and social environments in France.

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The French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) is a French research institute specialized in demography and population studies in general.

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The Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE), pronounced is in France the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies.

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International Affairs is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations established in 1922.

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The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures), is an international standards organisation, one of three such organisations established to maintain the International System of Units (SI) under the terms of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre).

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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Living is a publishing group founded in Baltimore, Maryland in 1979 as part of Agora, Inc. headed by Bill Bonner.

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The International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president.

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An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.

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The following are International rankings of France.

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Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial.

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The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle, OIPC - ICPO), or INTERPOL, is an intergovernmental organization facilitating international police cooperation.

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The Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso in A minor (Introduction et Rondo capriccioso en la mineur), Op. 28, is a composition for violin and orchestra written in 1863 by Camille Saint-Saëns for the virtuoso violinist Pablo de Sarasate.

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The Invasion of Normandy was the invasion by and establishment of Western Allied forces in Normandy, during Operation Overlord in 1944 during World War II; the largest amphibious invasion to ever take place.

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Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία or Ἰωνίη; İyonya) is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.

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Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636) served as Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and is considered, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world".

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Islam is the second-most widely professed religion in France behind Roman Catholicism by number of worshippers.

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ISO 4217 is a standard published by International Organization for Standardization, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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Etruscan bronze figures and a terracotta funerary reliefs include examples of a vigorous Central Italian tradition which had waned by the time Rome began building her empire on the peninsula.

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The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.

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Italian migration into what is today France has been going on, in different migrating cycles, for centuries, beginning in prehistoric times right to the modern age.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (République de Côte d'Ivoire), is a country in West Africa.

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Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) was a German philologist, jurist and mythologist.

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Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France.

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Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;, pp. 12-13. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French philosopher, born in Algeria.

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Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981), known simply as Jacques Lacan, was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".

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Jacques Marescaux (born August 8, 1948) is a French doctor of international renown.

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Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period.

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Jacques the Fatalist and his Master (Jacques le fataliste et son maître) is a novel by Denis Diderot, written during the period 1765-1780.

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Jacques Tourneur (November 12, 1904 – December 19, 1977) was a French film director known for the classic film noir Out of the Past and a series of low-budget horror films he made for RKO Studios, including Cat People, I Walked with a Zombie, and The Leopard Man.

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Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was an influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.

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Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.

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Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 1621 – 13 April 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.

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Jean (or Jehan) Fouquet (1420–1481) was a preeminent French painter of the 15th century, a master of both panel painting and manuscript illumination, and the apparent inventor of the portrait miniature.

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Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

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Jean Michel Jarre (born Jean-Michel André Jarre; 24 August 1948) is a French composer, performer, and music producer.

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Jean Nouvel (born 12 August 1945) is a French architect.

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Jean Paul Gaultier (born 24 April 1952 in Arcueil, Val-de-Marne, France) is a French haute couture and prêt-à-porter fashion designer.

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Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.

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Jean-Antoine Watteau (baptised October 10, 1684 – died July 18, 1721), better known as Antoine Watteau, was a French painter whose brief career spurred the revival of interest in colour and movement, as seen in the tradition of Correggio and Rubens.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

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Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.

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Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching.

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Jean François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (variant spelling of his name comte "de La Pérouse"; 23 August 1741 – 1788?) was a French Naval officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania.

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Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.

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Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.

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Jean-Honoré Fragonard (5 April 1732 (birth/baptism certificate) in Grasse – 22 August 1806 in Paris) was a French painter and printmaker whose late Rococo manner was distinguished by remarkable facility, exuberance, and hedonism.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century.

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Jean-Michel Dubernard (born Lyon, 17 May 1941) is a medical doctor specializing in transplant surgery, as well as a former Deputy in the French National Assembly.

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Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

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Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era.

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Jeux d’eau is a piece for solo piano by Maurice Ravel.

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Joachim du Bellay (c. 1522 – 1 January 1560) was a French poet, critic, and a member of the Pléiade.

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Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc,; c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boullainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans) is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.

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Joseph-Marie, comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat.

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The Journal officiel de la République française (JORF or JO) is the official gazette of the French Republic.

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is a modern martial art, combat and Olympic sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).

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Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.

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Jules Hardouin-Mansart (16 April 1646 – 11 May 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV.

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Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.

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Jules Gabriel Verne (8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright best known for his adventure novels and his profound influence on the literary genre of science fiction.

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Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.

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The French Kingdom (Royaume français), commonly known as the July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet), was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 (also known as the Three Glorious Days) and ending with the Revolution of 1848.

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The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown.

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Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing high levels of calories from sugar or fat with little protein, vitamins or minerals.

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The Jura Mountains are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.

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Just "Justo" Fontaine (born 18 August 1933) is a retired French football player best known for being the record holder for most goals scored in a single edition of the FIFA World Cup, with 13 in six games in 1958.

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Justice (stylised as Jus†ice) is a French Grammy-award winning electronic music duo consisting of Gaspard Michel Andre Augé (born 21 May 1979 in Besançon, Franche-Comté) and Xavier de Rosnay (born 2 July 1982 in Ozoir-la-Ferrière, Ile de France).

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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe, the predecessor of the modern French Republic.

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The French Kingdom was a short-lived constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 to 21 September 1792.

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The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.

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The Kingdom of Soissons was a rump state of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul (present day France) for some twenty-five years during Late Antiquity.

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The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden;; Reino Hulandes), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with territory in western Europe and in the Caribbean.

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The Order of the Knights of Saint John, also known as Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, and the Hospitallers, were among the most famous of the Roman Catholic military orders during the Middle Ages.

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The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), commonly known as the Knights Templar, the Order of Solomon's Temple (Ordre du Temple or Templiers) or simply as Templars, were among the most wealthy and powerful of the Western Christian military ordersMalcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple.

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Krzysztof Kieślowski (27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was an influential Polish film director and screenwriter known internationally for The Decalogue (1989), The Double Life of Véronique (1991), and The Three Colors Trilogy (1993–1994).

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L'Équipe (French for "the team") is a French nationwide daily newspaper devoted to sports, owned by Éditions Philippe Amaury.

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L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris.

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La Comédie humaine (The Human Comedy) is the title of Honoré de Balzac's (1799–1850) multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration and the July Monarchy (1815–1848).

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La Croix (English: The Cross) is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009.

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La Défense (pronounced) is a major business district of the Paris Metropolitan Area and of the Île-de-France region, located in the commune of Courbevoie, and parts of Puteaux and Nanterre, just west of the city of Paris.

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Étienne de Vignolles, called La Hire, (Préchacq-les-Bains, Landes, 1390 – 11 January 1443 in Montauban) was a French military commander during the Hundred Years' War.

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La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages) is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, conceived as an immense depiction of the history and evolution of humanity.

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L'église de la Madeleine (Madeleine Church; more formally, L'église Sainte-Marie-Madeleine; less formally, just La Madeleine) is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris.

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"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.

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La Pléiade is the name given to a group of 16th-century French Renaissance poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf.

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La Princesse de Clèves is a French novel which was published anonymously in March 1678.

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French secularity (French: laïcité, pronounced) is the absence of religious involvement in government affairs especially the prohibition of religious influence in the determination of state policies.

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The Lac de Vouglans is the reservoir of the hydro-electric power station at Vouglans on the River Ain in the département of Jura in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the Prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend written in French.

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Land registration generally describes systems by which matters concerning ownership, possession or other rights in land can be recorded (usually with a government agency or department) to provide evidence of title, facilitate transactions and to prevent unlawful disposal.

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The languages of France include the French language and some regional languages.

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Lascaux (Lascaux Caves) is the setting of a complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its Paleolithic cave paintings.

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The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary glaciation occurring during the last one hundred thousand years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 12,000 years ago.

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Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world.

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The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1301–1500).

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin peoples (also called Romance peoples) are members of an ethno-linguistic group who are a member of, or who are descended from, a Romance language-speaking community.

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Laurent Garnier (born 1 February 1966, Boulogne-sur-Seine, France), also known as Choice, is a French electronic music producer and DJ.

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Lausanne (Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital of the canton of Vaud.

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Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 39 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.

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The Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 (Loi sur la liberté de la presse du 29 juillet 1881), often called the Press Law of 1881, is a law that defines the freedoms and responsibilities of the media and publishers in France.

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Léo Ferré (24 August 1916 – 14 July 1993) was a Monegasque French poet and composer, and a dynamic and controversial live performer, whose career in France dominated the years after the Second World War until his death.

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Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman or The Middle-Class Aristocrat or The Would-Be Noble) is a five-act comédie-ballet—a play intermingled with music, dance and singing—by Molière, first presented on 14 October 1670 before the court of Louis XIV at the Château of Chambord by Molière's troupe of actors.

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Le Canard enchaîné (English: The Chained Duck or The Chained Paper, as "canard" is French slang meaning "newspaper") is a satirical weekly newspaper in France.

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Le Cid is a 5-act French tragicomedy written by Pierre Corneille, first performed in January 1637 at the Théâtre du Marais in Paris and published the same year.

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Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who was better known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.

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Le Figaro is a French daily newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.

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Le Monde (The World) is a French daily evening newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry and continuously published in Paris since its first edition on 19 December 1944.

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L'Obs (initially France Observateur, later Le Nouvel Observateur, since 23 October 2014 simply L'Obs)) is a weekly French newsmagazine. Based in Paris, it is the most prominent French general information magazine in terms of audience and circulation.

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Le Parisien (French for "The Parisian") is a French daily newspaper covering both international and national news, and local news of Paris and its suburbs.

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Le Point is a French weekly political and news magazine published in Paris, France.

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Le tombeau de Couperin is a suite for solo piano by Maurice Ravel, composed between 1914 and 1917, in six movements based on those of a traditional Baroque suite.

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Le Zénith is the name given to a series of indoor arenas in France.

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The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 May 1802.

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In political science, legitimacy is the popular acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

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Les biches is a ballet choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska to music by Francis Poulenc, premiered by the Ballets Russes on 6 January 1924.

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Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) is a collection of poetry by Victor Hugo, published in 1856.

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Les Invalides, officially known as L'Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as L'Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.

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Les Misérables (pronounced or) is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.

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Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (meaning "the most beautiful villages of France") is an independent association, created in 1982, that aims to promote small and picturesque French villages of quality heritage.

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Les Rita Mitsouko (The Rita Mitsoukos) was a French pop rock group formed by the guitarist Fred Chichin and the singer Catherine Ringer.

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Les Rougon-Macquart is the collective title given to a cycle of twenty novels by French writer Émile Zola.

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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.

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LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons.

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Liberal democracy is a political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism.

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Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.

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Ligue 1 (League 1, formerly known as Division 1), is the French professional league for association football clubs.

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The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who gave their name to Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.

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Lille (Rijsel) is a city in the North of France.

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A limes (Latin limites) was a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome.

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The Lindbergh operation was a complete tele-surgical operation carried out by a team of French surgeons located in New York on a patient in Strasbourg, France (over a distance of several thousand miles) using telecommunications solutions based on high-speed services and sophisticated Zeus surgical robot.

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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.

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Liquified petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

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This is a list of airports in France, grouped by department and sorted by commune.

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Basilica churches, many of great architectural significance, can be found throughout France.

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This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department.

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This is a list of cathedrals in France and in the French overseas departments, territories and collectivities, including both actual and former diocesan cathedrals (seats of bishops).

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The French public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities.

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This is a list of communes in France with a population over 20,000 at the March 8, 1999 census.

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This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity.

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This is a list of countries by credit rating, showing long-term foreign currency credit ratings for sovereign bonds as reported by the three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's.

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Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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This is a collection of lists of countries by life expectancy at birth.

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This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.

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This is a list of diplomatic missions of France, excluding honorary consulates.

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The monarchy of the Kingdom of England began with Alfred the Great and ended with Queen Anne, who became Queen of Great Britain when England merged with Scotland to form a union in 1707.

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This is a list of cheeses from France.

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The monarchs of France ruled from the establishment of Francia in 486 to 1870.

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An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories and variety of different ethnic groups.

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This article lists the most visited art museums in the world (significant museums where art is the major focus; i.e., some museums that contain art are not included such as the Natural History Museum) based on an attendance survey for 2014 compiled by The Art Newspaper.

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List of museums in France by location.

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This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country.

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This is a sortable list of all European countries by their gross domestic product in USD at market or official government exchange rates (nominal GDP).

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There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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On the Eiffel Tower, seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions.

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List of uninhabited regions includes a changing number of places.

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This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 500,000 inhabitants each, in 2014.

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This is a list of World Heritage Sites in France with properties of cultural and natural heritage in France as inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List or as on the country's tentative list.

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A literary genre is a category of literary composition.

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The territory of the former Alsace-Lorraine, commonly known as Alsace-Moselle, is a region in the eastern part of France, bordering with Germany.

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The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France.

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The Loire Valley (Vallée de Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, primarily within the administrative region named Centre-Val de Loire.

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The London Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in the City of London in the United Kingdom.

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Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a former duchy annexed to France in 1766.

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Lothair I or Lothar I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario, Dutch: Lotharius) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the King of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).

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Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (12 November 1729 – 31 August 1811) was a French admiral and explorer.

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Louis Gabriel Ambroise, Vicomte de Bonald (2 October 1754, Le Monna (part of Millau), Rouergue (now Aveyron) – 23 November 1840, Le Monna), was a French counter-revolutionary philosopher and politician.

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Louis Lavelle (July 15, 1883 – September 1, 1951) was a French philosopher.

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Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 810 – 28 August 876), also known as Louis II, was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

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Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781.

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Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged to the French crown.

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Louis XIV (5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi-Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death.

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Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (Louis le bien aimé), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death.

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Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), also known as Louis Capet, was King of France from 1774 until his deposition in 1792, although his formal title after 1791 was King of the French.

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Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the pen name of Dr.

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Lourdes (pronunciation:; Lorda in Occitan, pron.) is a small market town lying in the foothills of the Pyrenees.

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The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is one of the world's largest museums and a historic monument in Paris, France.

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The Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois.

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The Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid designed by Chinese architect I.M. Pei, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) in Paris.

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Luc Besson (born 18 March 1959) is a French film director, screenwriter, and producer.

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Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was a very important Roman city in Gaul.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Luxury yacht (also super yacht, large yacht and mega yacht) is a very expensive, privately owned, professionally crewed sailing or motor yacht.

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LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE, better known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate, headquartered in Paris.

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Lyon or Lyons (or;, locally:; Liyon) is a city in east-central France, in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille.

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The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union or TEU) undertaken to integrate Europe was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands.

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A macaron is a French sweet meringue-based confection made with egg white, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, and food colouring.

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Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne, comtesse de La Fayette (baptized 18 March 1634 – 25 May 1693), better known as Madame de La Fayette, was a French writer, the author of La Princesse de Clèves, France's first historical novel and one of the earliest novels in literature.

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Magazines are publications, usually periodical publications, that are printed or electronically published.

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Maghrebis or Maghrebians are the inhabitants of the Maghreb countries in western North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania).

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François-Pierre-Gonthier Maine de Biran (November 29, 1766 – July 20, 1824), usually known simply as Maine de Biran, was a French philosopher.

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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa.

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Mano Negra was a music band in France, from 1987 to 1995, fronted by Manu Chao.

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Manon is an opéra comique in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille, based on the 1731 novel L’histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut by the Abbé Prévost.

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Manuel Carlos Valls Galfetti (born 13 August 1962) is a French politician who has been the Prime Minister of France since 31 March 2014.

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Marc Zakharovich Chagall (28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist.

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Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 – 24 February 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era.

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Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922) was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier translated as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.

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Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, an allegory of liberty and reason, and a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty.

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Marie Claire is an international monthly magazine for women.

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Marie Skłodowska Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.

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Marigot is the main town and capital on the French side of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin.

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Marin Marais (31 May 1656, Paris – 15 August 1728, Paris) was a French composer and viol player.

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Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans or large lakes.

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Marseille (locally:; Marselha), also known as Marseilles in English, is a city in France.

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Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a variety of reasons: self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, entertainment, as well as mental, physical, and spiritual development.

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Martin Picandet, known as Martin Solveig, (born Paris, France 22 September 1976), is a French electro and nu disco DJ and producer.

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Martinique is an island in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 386,486 inhabitants (as of January 2013).

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The Massif Central (Occitan: Massís Central / Massís Centrau) is an elevated region in south-central France, consisting of mountains and plateaux.

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Mata-Utu (ʻUvean: Matāutu) is the capital of Wallis and Futuna, an overseas collectivity of France.

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The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of literature and legendary material associated with the history of France, in particular involving Charlemagne and his associates.

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Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French painter.

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Maurice Ohana (June 12, 1913 – November 13, 1992 in Paris) was a French composer.

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Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.

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Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.

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The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.

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Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (maior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king.

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Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an overseas department and region of France officially named Département de Mayotte.

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Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in 1641 (in Latin).

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The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.

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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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The European Union (EU) comprises 28 member states, which are party to the founding treaties of the union and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of membership.

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The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century AD.

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The metric system is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement.

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Metro International is a Swedish media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. Metro International's advertising sales have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 41 percent since launch of the first newspaper edition in 1995. It is a freesheet, meaning that distribution is free, with revenues thus generated entirely through advertising. This newspaper is primarily intended for commuters who move daily in and out of big cities' business areas, mainly during rush hours. The company was founded by Per Andersson and started as a subsidiary of the Modern Times Group along with Viasat Broadcasting. It is now controlled through investment company Kinnevik. The first edition of the newspaper was published as Metro Stockholm and distributed in the Stockholm metro., all European editions (except for the Hungarian one) have been sold, reportedly so that Metro International can focus on Latin America, considered the last growth market for free newspapers.

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Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe.

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Michael Haneke (born 23 March 1942) is an Austrian film director and screenwriter best known for films such as Funny Games (1997), Caché (2005), The White Ribbon (2009) and Amour (2012).

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Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.

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Michel Foucault (born Paul-Michel Foucault) (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, philologist and literary critic.

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Michel François Platini (born 21 June 1955) is a current football administrator, serving as the president of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) since 2007, and formerly a French football player and manager.

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Michel Richard Delalande (15 December 1657 - 18 June 1726) was a French Baroque composer and organist who was in the service of King Louis XIV.

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Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin) are a series of annual guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than one hundred years.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microscopic organisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle Francia (Francia media) was an ephemeral (843–855) Frankish kingdom.

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The Migration Period, better known as the Barbarian Invasions also referred to as the Völkerwanderung (in German), was a period of intensified barbarian invasion in Europe, often defined from the period when it seriously impacted the Roman world, as running from about 376 to 800 AD during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.

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The Millau Viaduct (le Viaduc de Millau) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France.

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The mille-feuille ("a thousand leaves"),The name is also written as "millefeuille" and "mille feuille".

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MINES ParisTech (officially École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris (MINES ParisTech), also known as École des Mines de Paris, ENSMP, Mines Paris or simply les Mines), created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is one of the most prominent French engineering schools (see Grandes écoles) and a member of ParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology) and PSL* (Paris Sciences et Lettres).

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The Minister of Culture is, in the Government of France, the cabinet member in charge of national museums and monuments; promoting and protecting the arts (visual, plastic, theatrical, musical, dance, architectural, literary, televisual and cinematographic) in France and abroad; and managing the national archives and regional "maisons de culture" (culture centres).

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The Minister of Defence (Ministre de la Défense) is the French cabinet member charged with running the military of France.

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The Minister of the Interior (ministʁ də lɛ̃teˈʁjœʁ) in France is one of the most important French government cabinet positions.

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The Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy (French: Ministère de l'Écologie, du Développement durable et de l’Énergie) is an agency of the Government of France, centred on a cabinet member who is often referred to as the "Minister of Ecology".

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The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.

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The Minister of National Education, Youth, and Sport (Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de la Jeunesse et de la Vie associative), or simply "Minister of National Education," as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic) is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations. The Ministry's headquarters is located in the 18th century Hôtel de Rochechouart on the rue de Grenelle in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. Given that National Education is France's largest employer, and employs more than half of the French state civil servants, the position is traditionally a fairly strategic one. The current minister is Najat Vallaud-Belkacem.

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The Ministry of Overseas France (French: "Ministère des Outre-mers") is a ministry in the Government of France, responsible for overseeing the Overseas departments and territories of France (such as the départements d'outre-mer and collectivités d'outre-mer).

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Mireille Mathieu (born 22 July 1946) is a French singer.

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Miroirs is a suite for solo piano written by French composer Maurice Ravel between 1904 and 1905.

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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.

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Modern philosophy is a branch of philosophy that originated in Western Europe in the 17th century, and is now common worldwide.

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Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (p; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".

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The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait of a woman by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, which has been acclaimed as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".

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Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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Monarchy abolishment has occurred throughout history, either through revolutions, coups d'état, wars, or legislative reforms (such as abdications).

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Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco, both meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest peak in Europe outside of the Caucasus range.

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Le Mont-Saint-Michel is an island commune in Normandy, France.

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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment.

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Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique.

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The term monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.

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Morality (from the Latin "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper: In other words, it is the disjunction between right and wrong.

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Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.

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A mousse (French 'foam') is a prepared food that incorporates air bubbles to give it a light and airy texture.

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The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA), Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJWA), or Jamāʿat at-tawḥīd wal-jihād fī gharb ʾafrīqqīyā (جماعة التوحيد والجهاد في غرب أفريقيا, Mouvement pour l'Unicité et le Jihad en Afrique de l'Ouest (MUJAO)) is an active militant organisation that broke off from Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.

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The municipal arrondissement is a subdivision of the commune, used in the three largest cities: Paris, Lyon and Marseille.

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Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris ((City of Paris' Museum of Modern Art) is a major municipal museum dedicated to Modern and Contemporary art of the 20th and 21st centuries. It is located at 11, Avenue du Président Wilson in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. The Museum is one of the 14 City of Paris' Museums that have been incorporated since January 1, 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées.

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The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine.

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The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon is a museum of fine arts opened in 1787 in Dijon, France.

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The musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen is an art museum in Rouen, northern France.

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The Musée National d'Art Moderne (National Museum of Modern Art) is the national museum for modern art of France.

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The Musée Picasso is an art gallery located in the Hôtel Salé in rue de Thorigny, in the Marais district of Paris dedicated to the work of the artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973).

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The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon (Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon.

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The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes (Musée des beaux-arts de Rennes) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Rennes, the capital of Brittany.

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The Museum of Grenoble (Musée de Grenoble) is a municipal museum of Fine Arts and antiquities in the city of Grenoble in the Isère region of France.

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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.

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The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.

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Mylène Farmer (born Mylène Jeanne Gautier;; born 12 September 1961) is a French recording artist, songwriter, occasional actress, writer and entrepreneur.

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Nancy (German: Nanzig) is a city in the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.

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Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in West France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

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Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the only President (1848–52) of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor (1852–70) of the Second French Empire.

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The Napoleonic Code (and officially Code civil des Français) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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Nation branding aims to measure, build and manage the reputation of countries (closely related to place branding).

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The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic.

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During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale), which existed from June 13, 1789 to July 9, 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate (the common people) of the Estates-General; thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on Sept. 30, 1791) it was known as the National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante), though popularly the shorter form persisted.

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The National Convention (Convention nationale) was a single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire IV under the Convention's adopted calendar) during the French Revolution.

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The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) is a branch of the French Armed Forces, in charge of public safety, with police duties among the civilian population in France.

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The National Gendarmerie Intervention Group, commonly abbreviated GIGN (Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale), is a special operations unit of the French Armed Forces.

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National health insurance (NHI) – sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI) – is a legally enforced scheme of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care.

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The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad or the Azawad National Liberation Movement (Tamasheq: ⵜⴰⵏⴾⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⴹ ⴰⵙⵍⴰⵍⵓ ⵏ ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴷ, الحركة الوطنية لتحرير أزواد, Mouvement National pour la Libération de l'Azawad; MNLA), formerly National Movement of Azawad (Mouvement national de l'Azawad; MNA) is a political and military organisation based in Azawad/northern Mali.

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A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.

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A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people; it can appear in both editorial cartoons and propaganda.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos and κλασσικός klassikòs classicus) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.

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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763.

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The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), sometimes known as the "Big Board", is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States.

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Niagara is the name of a French synthpop duo that achieved popularity both in France and Canada from 1986 to 1989.

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