342 relations: Aachen, Aachen Cathedral, Adalgisel, Agen, Agilolfings, Alamannia, Alans, Alemanni, Ammianus Marcellinus, Ampsivarii, Antenor of Provence, Aquitaine, Arbogast (general), Archbishopric of Bremen, Archdiocese of Utrecht (695–1580), Armorica, Arnulf of Carinthia, Austrasia, Île-de-France, Barbarian kingdoms, Basileus, Basilica of St Denis, Basques, Battle of Soissons (718), Battle of Tertry, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Battle of Tolbiac, Battle of Tours, Battle of Vouillé, Battle of Wogastisburg, Belgium, Bernard Bachrach, Berthar, Berthoald, Duke of Saxony, Bessin, Biscay, Bobbio, Bordeaux, Bretons, Brittany, Bructeri, Brunhilda of Austrasia, Burgundians, Burgundy, Byzantine coinage, Byzantine Empire, Cahors, Cambrai, Canon law, Capitulary, ..., Carloman (mayor of the palace), Carloman I, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Empire, Carolingian minuscule, Carolingian Renaissance, Catalonia, Catholic Church, Celtic Britons, Central Europe, Chamavi, Charibert I, Charibert II, Charlemagne, Charles Martel, Charles the Bald, Charles the Fat, Chattuarii, Childebert I, Childebert II, Childebert III, Childebert the Adopted, Childebrand I, Childeric I, Childeric II, Childeric III, Chilperic I, Chilperic II, Chilperic of Aquitaine, Chlodio, Chlodomer, Chlothar I, Chlothar II, Chlothar III, Chlothar IV, Christendom, Christianity in Gaul, Chronicle of Fredegar, Civitas Tungrorum, Clovis I, Clovis II, Clovis III, Clovis IV, Columbanus, Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor), Count, Croatia, Dagobert I, Dagobert II, Dagobert III, Dark Ages (historiography), Denarius, Dentelin, Departments of France, Diocese, Donation of Constantine, Donation of Pepin, Dorestad, Dormelles, Duchy of Alsace, Duchy of Franconia, Duchy of Gascony, Duchy of Lorraine, Duchy of Saxony, Duke, Duke of Spoleto, Duke of Swabia, Duke of the Franks, Early Middle Ages, East Francia, East Frisia, Ebroin, Edict of Paris, Edward James (historian), Elbe, Emperor, Erchinoald, Exarchate of Ravenna, Fisc, Flanders, Flavius Aetius, Flavius Bauto, Foederati, France, Franconia, Frankenstein Castle, Frankfurt, Frankish language, Frankish mythology, Franks, Fredegund, French denier, Frisians, Gallo-Roman culture, Galswintha, Gascony, Gaul, Gelasian Sacramentary, Gepids, Germanic Christianity, Germany, Gipuzkoa, Gotfrid, Gothic War (535–554), Gregory of Tours, Grifo, Grimoald the Elder, Grimoald, King of the Lombards, Guntram, Guy III of Spoleto, Hereditary monarchy, Hiberno-Scottish mission, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of Auvergne, History of the Roman Empire, Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Capet, Hugbert of Bavaria, Hunald I, Insular art, Insular script, J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, Jovinus, Julian (emperor), Jura Mountains, Kingdom of Burgundy, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire), Kingdom of Soissons, Laeti, Lambert of Italy, Lantfrid, Late antiquity, Latin, Latin Church, Leadership, Lex Alamannorum, Lex Baiuvariorum, Lex Frisionum, Lex Ripuaria, Lex Saxonum, Liber Historiae Francorum, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Frankish kings, List of Frankish synods, List of French monarchs, List of German monarchs, List of rulers of Bavaria, List of rulers of Frisia, List of rulers of Thuringia, Liutfrid, Duke of Alsace, Loire Valley, Lombards, Lombardy, Lothair I, Lothair II, Lotharingia, Louis the German, Louis the Pious, Louis V of France, Luxembourg, Luxeuil-les-Bains, Magna Carta, Mallobaudes, Marca Hispanica, Maurontus, Mayor of the Palace, Münster, Merovingian dynasty, Metz, Meuse, Michael I Rangabe, Middle Ages, Middle Francia, Migration Period, Missus dominicus, Nanthild, Netherlands, Neustria, Noricum, Odilo, Duke of Bavaria, Odo of France, Odo the Great, Old High German, Orléans, Ormonde Maddock Dalton, Ortenau, Osnabrück, Ostrogoths, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ottonian dynasty, Paderborn, Paganism, Pannonia, Papal States, Paris, Partible inheritance, Périgueux, Pepin of Herstal, Pepin of Landen, Pepin the Short, Pfennig, Pippinids, Plectrude, Plough, Poitiers, Poitou, Pope Gregory III, Pope Leo III, Pope Stephen II, Prince-elector, Procopius, Provence, Pyrenees, Rado (mayor of the palace), Radulf, King of Thuringia, Raetia, Ragenfrid, Redbad, King of the Frisians, Reims, Rhône, Rhine, Ripuarian Franks, Rivoli, Piedmont, Roi fainéant, Roman Empire, Roman law, Saint Judicael, Saintes, Charente-Maritime, Salian dynasty, Salian Franks, Salic law, Samo, Savaric of Auxerre, Saxons, Scheldt, Seine, Septimania, Sidonius Apollinaris, Sigebert I, Sigebert II, Sigebert III, Slavs, Soissons, Solidus (coin), Somme (river), Syagrius, Taifals, Teutons, Theodemer (Frankish king), Theudebald, Theudebert I, Theudebert II, Theuderic I, Theuderic II, Theuderic III, Theuderic IV, Theudoald, Three-field system, Thuringia, Thuringii, Tongeren, Toulouse, Tournai, Tours, Toxandri, Translatio imperii, Treaty of Andelot, Treaty of Meerssen, Treaty of Verdun, Triens, Trier, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, Uncial script, Utrecht, Veneto, Verden an der Aller, Visigothic Code, Visigoths, Vlie, Walter Goffart, Warnachar II, West Francia, West Frisia, Western Europe, Western Roman Empire, Widukind, Willehari, Willibrord. Expand index (292 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
Aachen Cathedral (German: Aachener Dom), traditionally called in English the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, western Germany, and the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aachen.
Adalgisel or Adalgis (Adalgyselus ducis in contemporary Latin) was a Frankish duke and the mayor of the palace of Austrasia.
The commune of Agen is the prefecture of the Lot-et-Garonne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
The Agilolfings were a noble family that ruled the Duchy of Bavaria on behalf of their Merovingian suzerains from about 550 until 788.
Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Germanic Alemanni after they broke through the Roman limes in 213 CE.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
The Ampsivarii, sometimes referenced by modern writers as Ampsivari (a simplification not warranted by the sources), were a Germanic tribe mentioned by ancient authors.
Antenor was the Patrician of Provence in the last years of the 7th and first years of the 8th century.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
Flavius Arbogastes (died September 8, 394), or Arbogast, was a Frankish general in the Roman Empire.
The Archdiocese of Bremen (also Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, Erzbistum Bremen, not to be confused with the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994) is a historical Roman Catholic diocese (787–1566/1648) and formed from 1180 to 1648 an ecclesiastical state (continued under other names until 1823), named Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen) within the Holy Roman Empire.
The historic Archdiocese of Utrecht (695–1580) was a Roman Catholic diocese and (from 1559) archdiocese in the Low Countries before and during the Protestant Reformation.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
Arnulf of Carinthia (850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.
Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
The barbarian kingdoms were Germanic, Hunnic and other kingdoms established all over Europe and North Africa during Late Antiquity, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Battle of Soissons of 718 was the last of the great pitched battles of the civil war between the heirs of Pepin of Heristal.
The Battle of Tertry was an important engagement in Merovingian Gaul between the forces of Austrasia on one side and those of Neustria and Burgundy on the other.
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald, Hermannsschlacht, or Varusschlacht, Disfatta di Varo), described as the Varian Disaster (Clades Variana) by Roman historians, took place in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus.
The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks, who were fighting under Clovis I, and the Alamanni, whose leader is not known.
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
The Battle of Vouillé — or Vouglé (from Latin Campus Vogladensis) — was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Vouillé near Poitiers (Gaul), in the spring of 507 between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths commanded by Alaric II.
According to the contemporary Chronicle of Fredegar, the Battle of Wogastisburg was a battle between Slavs (Sclav, cognomento Winidi) under King Samo and Franks under King Dagobert I in 631.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bernard S. Bachrach (born 1939) is an American historian and a professor of history at the University of Minnesota.
Berthar (also Bertharius or Berchar) was the mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy from 686 to 687.
Berthoald (died 622) was the Duke of the Saxons during the reign of the Frankish kings Chlothar II and his son Dagobert I, the last ruling Merovingians.
The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasses tribe of Gaul who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin.
Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.
Bobbio (Bobbiese: Bòbi; Bêubbi; Bobium) is a small town and commune in the province of Piacenza in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Bructeri (Greek Βρούκτεροι; but Βουσάκτεροι in Strabo) were a Germanic tribe in Roman imperial times, located in northwestern Germany, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia.
Brunhilda (c. 543–613) was a Queen of Austrasia by marriage to the Merovingian King Sigebert I of Austrasia, part of Francia.
The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cahors (Caors) is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France.
Cambrai (Kimbré; Kamerijk; historically in English Camerick and Camericke) is a commune in the Nord department and in the Hauts-de-France region of France on the Scheldt river, which is known locally as the Escaut river.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
A capitulary (medieval Latin capitularium) was a series of legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, especially that of Charlemagne; the first emperor of the Romans in the west since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century.
Carloman (between 706 and 716 – 17 August 754) was the eldest son of Charles Martel, majordomo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud of Treves.
Carloman I, also Karlmann (28 June 751 – 4 December 771) was king of the Franks from 768 until his death in 771.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Chamavi were a Germanic tribe of Roman imperial times whose name survived into the Early Middle Ages.
Charibert I (Caribert; Charibertus; c. 517 – December 567) was the Merovingian King of Paris, the second-eldest son of Chlothar I and his first wife Ingund.
Charibert II (607/617–8 April 632), a son of Clotaire II and his junior wife Sichilde, was briefly King of Aquitaine from 629 to his death, with his capital at Toulouse.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888.
The Chattuarii or Attoarii were a Germanic tribe of the Franks.
Childebert I (c. 496 – 13 December 558) was a Frankish King of the Merovingian dynasty, as third of the four sons of Clovis I who shared the kingdom of the Franks upon their father's death in 511.
Childebert II (570–595) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia, which included Provence at the time, from 575 until his death in 595, the eldest and succeeding son of Sigebert I, and the king of Burgundy from 592 to his death, as the adopted and succeeding son of his uncle Guntram.
Childebert III, called the Just (le Juste) (c.683 – 23 April 711), son of Theuderic III and Clotilda (or Doda) and sole king of the Franks (695–711), he was seemingly but a puppet of the mayor of the palace, Pepin of Heristal, though his placita show him making judicial decisions of his own will, even against the Arnulfing clan.
Childebert III the Adopted (Childebertus Adoptivus) was a Frankish king.
Childebrand I (678, Heristal - 751) was a Frankish duke (dux), son of Pepin of Heristal and Alpaida, brother of Charles Martel.
Childeric I (Childéric; Childericus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hildirīk; – 481) was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul and a member of the Merovingian dynasty, described as a King (Latin Rex), both on his Roman-style seal ring, which was buried with him, and in fragmentary later records of his life.
Childeric II (c. 653 – 675) was the king of Austrasia from 662 and of Neustria and Burgundy from 673 until his death, making him sole King of the Franks for the final two years of his life.
Childeric III (c. 717 – c. 754) was King of Francia from 743 until he was deposed by Pope Zachary in March 751 at the instigation of Pepin the Short.
Chilperic I (c. 539 – September 584) was the king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death.
Chilperic II (c. 672 – 13 February 721), known as Daniel prior to his coronation, was the youngest son of Childeric II and his cousin Bilichild, king of Neustria from 715 and sole king of the Franks from 718 until his death.
Chilperic (sometimes Childeric in the chronicles of the time) was the infant son of Charibert II, and briefly king of Aquitaine in 632.
Chlodio (d. approx. 450) also Clodio, Clodius, Clodion, Cloio or Chlogio, was a king of the Franks who attacked and apparently then held Roman-inhabited lands and cities in the Silva Carbonaria and as far south as the river Somme, apparently starting from a Frankish base which was also technically within the Roman empire.
Chlodomer, also spelled Clodomir or Clodomer (c. 495 - 524) was the second of the four sons of Clovis I, King of the Franks.
Chlothar I (c. 497 – 29 November 561), also called "Clotaire I" and the Old (le Vieux), King of the Franks, was one of the four sons of Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty.
Chlothar II (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar; 584–629), called the Great or the Young, was King of Neustria and King of the Franks, and the son of Chilperic I and his third wife, Fredegund.
Chlothar III (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to the name Lothair; 652–73) was the eldest son of Clovis II, king of Neustria and Burgundy, and his queen Balthild.
Chlothar IV (died 718) was the king of Austrasia from 717 until his death.
Christendom has several meanings.
Gaul was an important early center of Latin Christianity in late antiquity and the Merovingian period.
The Chronicle of Fredegar is the conventional title used for a 7th-century Frankish chronicle that was probably written in Burgundy.
The Civitas Tungrorum was a large Roman administrative district dominating what is today eastern Belgium, and the southern Netherlands.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
Clovis II (634 – 27 November 657 or 658) succeeded his father Dagobert I in 639 as King of Neustria and Burgundy.
Clovis III was the king of Austrasia from 675 to 676.
Clovis IV (sometimes Clovis III if the other Clovis III is considered a usurper) (682–95), son of Theuderic III, was the sole king of the Franks from 691 until his death.
Columbanus (Columbán, 543 – 21 November 615), also known as St.
Conrad II (4 June 1039), also known as and, was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 until his death in 1039.
Flavius Claudius Constantinus,Jones, pg.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Dagobert I (Dagobertus; 603/605 – 19 January 639 AD) was the king of Austrasia (623–634), king of all the Franks (629–634), and king of Neustria and Burgundy (629–639).
Dagobert II (Dagobertus; 650 – December 23, 679 AD) was the king of Austrasia (676–79), the son of Sigebert III and Chimnechild of Burgundy.
Dagobert III (699–715) was Merovingian king of the Franks (711–715).
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Dentelin was a region of the Frankish Empire disputed between Austrasia and Neustria.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope.
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome.
Dorestad was an early medieval emporium, located in the southeast of the province of Utrecht in the Netherlands, close to the modern-day town of Wijk bij Duurstede.
Dormelles is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
The Duchy of Alsace (Ducatus Alsacensi, Ducatum Elisatium) was a large political subdivision of the Frankish Empire during the last century and a half of Merovingian rule.
The Duchy of Franconia (Herzogtum Franken) was one of the five stem duchies of East Francia and the medieval Kingdom of Germany emerging in the early 10th century.
The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia (Baskoniako dukerria; ducat de Gasconha; duché de Gascogne, duché de Vasconie) was a duchy in present southwestern France and northeastern Spain, part corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
The Duke of Spoleto was the ruler of Spoleto and most of central Italy outside the Papal States during the Early and High Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1300).
The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages.
The title Duke of the Franks (dux Francorum) has been used for three different offices, always with "duke" implying military command and "prince", on those occasions when it was used either with or in preference to "duke", implying something approaching sovereign or regalian rights.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland (Ostfriesland; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oostfreesland; Oost-Friesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
Ebroin (died 680 or 681) was the Frankish mayor of the palace of Neustria on two occasions; firstly from 658 to his deposition in 673 and secondly from 675 to his death in 680 or 681.
The Edict of Paris of Chlothar II, the Merovingian king of the Franks, promulgated 18 October 614 (or perhaps 615), is one of the most important royal instruments of the Merovingian period in Frankish history and a hallmark in the history of the development of the Frankish monarchy.
Edward Frederick James (born 14 May 1947) is a British scholar of medieval history and science fiction.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Erchinoald (also Erkinoald and, in French, Erchenout) succeeded Aega as the mayor of the palace of Neustria in 641 and succeeded Flaochad in Burgundy in 642 and remained such until his death in 658.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the fisc (from Latin fiscus, whence we derive "fiscal") applied to the royal demesne which paid taxes, entirely in kind, from which the royal household was meant to be supported, though it rarely was.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Flavius Aetius (Flavius Aetius; 391–454), dux et patricius, commonly called simply Aetius or Aëtius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire.
Flavius Bauto (died c. 385) was a Romanised Frank who served as a magister militum of the Western Roman Empire.
Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frankenstein Castle (Burg Frankenstein) is a hilltop castle in the Odenwald overlooking the city of Darmstadt in Germany.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
Golden cicadas or bees with garnet inserts, discovered in the tomb of Childeric I (died 482).
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fredegund or Fredegunda (Latin: Fredegundis; French: Frédégonde; died 8 December 597) was the Queen consort of Chilperic I, the Merovingian Frankish king of Soissons.
The denier (denarius;. d.) or penny was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Frankish coin first issued in the late seventh century; in English it is sometimes referred to as a silver penny.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Galswintha (540–568) was a queen consort of Neustria.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The so-called Gelasian Sacramentary (Latin: Sacramentarium Gelasianum) is a book of Christian liturgy, containing the priest's part in celebrating the Eucharist.
The Gepids (Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe.
The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gipuzkoa (in Guipúzcoa) is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
Gotfrid (also Gotefrid, modernized Gottfried; Gotfridus or Cotefredus; died 709) was the Duke of Alemannia in the late seventh century and until his death.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.
Grifo (726–753) was the son of the Frankish major domo Charles Martel and his second wife Swanahild.
Grimoald I (616–657), called the Elder (in French, Grimaud l'Ainé), was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia from 643 to 656.
Grimoald I (or Grimuald) (c. 610 – 671 CE) was duke of Benevento (647–662) and king of the Lombards (662–671).
Saint Gontrand (c. AD 532 in Soissons – 28 January AD 592 in Chalon-sur-Saône), also called Gontran, Gontram, Guntram, Gunthram, Gunthchramn, and Guntramnus, was the king of the Kingdom of Orleans from AD 561 to AD 592.
Guy of Spoleto (died 12 December 894), sometimes known by the Italian version of his name, Guido, or by the German version, Wido, was the Margrave of Camerino from 880 (as Guy I or Guy II) and then Duke of Spoleto and Camerino (as Guy III) from 883.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
The history of the Auvergne dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France.
The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of Ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in 476 AD.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
Hugbert (also Hukbert) of the Agilolfings was duke of Bavaria from 725 to 736.
Hunald I, also spelled Hunold, Hunoald, Hunuald or Chunoald (died 756), was the Duke of Aquitaine from 735 until 745.
Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain.
Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
John Michael Wallace-Hadrill CBE, FBA (29 September 1916 – 3 November 1985) was a senior academic and one of the foremost historians of the early Merovingian period.
Jovinus was a Gallo-Roman senator and claimed to be Roman Emperor (411–413 AD).
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
In historiography, the Kingdom or Domain of Soissons refers to a rump state of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul, between the Somme and the Seine, that lasted for some twenty-five years during Late Antiquity.
Laeti, the plural form of laetus, was a term used in the late Roman Empire to denote communities of barbari ("barbarians") i.e. foreigners, or people from outside the Empire, permitted to settle on, and granted land in, imperial territory on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman military.
Lambert (c. 880 – 15 October 898) was the King of Italy from 891, Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892, and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino (as Lambert II) from his father's death in 894.
Lantfrid (also Landfrid or Lanfred, Latinised Lantfridus or Lanfredus) (died 730) was duke of Alamannia under Frankish sovereignty from 709 until his death.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
The Lex Alamannorum and Pactus Alamannorum were two early medieval law codes of the Alamanni.
The Lex Baiuvariorum (also Lex Baiuwariorum, Lex Bajuvariorum, or Lex Baivariorum) was a collection of the tribal laws of the Bavarii of the sixth through eighth centuries.
Lex Frisionum, the "Law Code of the Frisians", was recorded in Latin during the reign of Charlemagne, after the year 785, when the Frankish conquest of Frisia was completed by the final defeat of the Saxon rebel leader Widukind.
The Lex Ripuaria or Ribuaria is a 7th-century collection of Germanic law, the laws of the Ripuarian Franks.
The Lex Saxonum are a series of laws issued by Charlemagne between 782 and 803 as part of his plan to subdue the Saxon nation.
Liber Historiae Francorum ("The Book of the History of the Franks") is a chronicle anonymously written during the 8th century.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
A list of church synods held in the Frankish kingdom and its immediate predecessors in the Frankish area, including the Visigothic Kingdom, the Ostrogothic Kingdom, and the Kingdom of Burgundy.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
Of the first historically verifiable rulers of Frisia, whether they are called dukes or kings, the last royal dynasty below is established by the chronicles of Merovingian kings of the Franks, with whom they were contemporaries.
This is a list of the rulers of Thuringia, an historical and political region of Central Germany.
Liutfrid, Leodefred, Leudefred, or Leudefrid (died probably 742) was the Duke of Alsace, the third in a line of Etichonid dukes dating back to circa 670.
The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
Lothair II (835 –) was the king of Lotharingia from 855 until his death.
Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 805-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Louis V (– 21 May 987), also known as Louis the Do-Nothing (Louis le Fainéant), was the king of West Francia from 986 until his premature death a year later.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxeuil-les-Bains is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Mallobaudes or Mellobaudes was a 4th-century Frankish king who also held the Roman title of comes domesticorum.
The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
Maurontus, Maurente, or Maurontius was the Duke or Patrician of Provence in the early 8th century (720s and 730s).
Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (maior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king.
Münster (Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city (Kreisfreie Stadt) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
Michael I Rhangabe (Μιχαῆλ Ῥαγγαβέ, Michaēl Rhangabe; c. 770 – 11 January 844) was Byzantine Emperor from 811 to 813.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "envoy of the lord " or palace inspector, also known in Dutch as Zendgraaf (German: Sendgraf), meaning "sent Graf", was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or Holy Roman Emperor to supervise the administration, mainly of justice, in parts of his dominions too remote for frequent personal visits.
Nanthild (c. 610 – 642), also known as Nantéchilde, Nanthechilde, Nanthildis, Nanthilde, or Nantechildis, was a Frankish queen consort and regent, the third of many consorts of Dagobert I, king of the Franks (629–639).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neustria, or Neustrasia, (meaning "western land") was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
Odilo, also Oatilo or Uatilo (died 18 January 748) of the Agilolfing dynasty was Duke of Bavaria from 736 until his death.
Odo (or Eudes) (c. 859/860 – 1 January 898) was the elected King of Francia from 888 to 898 as the first king from the Robertian dynasty.
Odo the Great (also called Eudes or Eudo) (died 735), was the Duke of Aquitaine by 700.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Ormonde Maddock Dalton (1866–1945) was a British museum curator and archaeologist.
The Ortenau, originally called Mortenau, is a historic region in the present-day German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony.
Paderborn is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Partible inheritance is a system of inheritance in which property is apportioned among heirs.
Périgueux (Peireguers or Periguers) is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Pepin II (c. 635 – 16 December 714), commonly known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death.
Pepin I (also Peppin, Pipin, or Pippin) of Landen (c. 580 – 27 February 640), also called the Elder or the Old, was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia under the Merovingian king Dagobert I from 623 to 629.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
The pfennig (. pfennigs or; symbol Pf. or ₰) or penny is a former German coin or note, which was official currency from the 9th century until the introduction of the euro in 2002.
The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles in the Pippinid dynasty.
Plectrude (Plectrudis; Plektrud, Plechtrudis) (died 718) was the consort of Pepin of Herstal, the mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, from about 670.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
Pope Gregory III (Gregorius III; died 28 November 741) was Pope from 11 February 731 to his death in 741.
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Stephen II (Stephanus II (or III); 714-26 April 757 a Roman aristocrat was Pope from 26 March 752 to his death in 757. He succeeded Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen (sometimes called Stephen II). Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Byzantine Papacy and the Frankish Papacy. The safety of Rome was facing invasion by the Kingdom of the Lombards. Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to seek assistance against the Lombard threat from Pepin the Short. Pepin had been anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons by Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, but named his price. With the Frankish nobles agreeing to campaign in Lombardy, the Pope consecrated Pepin a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius Romanorum (Latin for "Patrician of the Romans") in the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope, eventually leading to the establishment of the Papal States.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Rado (or Radon), a brother of Audoin/Ouen and son of Saint Authaire (Audecharius), was the mayor of the palace of Burgundy from 613 to 617.
Radulf was the Duke of Thuringia (dux Thoringiae) from 632 or 633 (certainly before 634) until his death after 642.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
Ragenfrid (also Ragenfred, Raganfrid, or Ragamfred) (died 731) was the mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy from 715, when he filled the vacuum in Neustria caused by the death of Pepin of Heristal, until 718, when Charles Martel finally established himself over the whole Frankish kingdom.
Redbad (alt. Radbod, Raedbed) (died 719) was the king (or duke) of Frisia from c. 680 until his death.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks (Latin: Ripuarii or Ribuarii) were one of the two main groupings of early Frankish people, and specifically it was the name eventually applied to the tribes who settled in the old Roman territory of the Ubii, with its capital at Cologne on the Rhine river in modern Germany.
Rivoli, is a comune (municipality) established around the 1st century CE, in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, about west of Turin.
Roi fainéant, literally "do-nothing king" and so presumably "lazy king", is a French term primarily used to refer to the later kings of the Merovingian dynasty after they seemed to have lost their initial energy, from the death of Dagobert I in 639 (or alternatively from the accession of Theuderic III in 673) until the deposition of Childeric III in favour of Pepin the Short in 751.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Saint Judicael or Judicaël (– 16 or 17 December 658), also spelled Judhael (with many other variants), was the king of Domnonée and high king of the Bretons in the mid-7th century.
Saintes is a commune and historic town in southwestern France, in the Charente-Maritime department of which it is a sub-prefecture, in Nouvelle-Aquitaine.
The Salian dynasty (Salier; also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and position as dukes of Franconia) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages.
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
Samo founded the first recorded political union of Slavic tribes, known as Samo's Empire (realm, kingdom, or tribal union), stretching from Silesia to present-day Slovenia, ruling from 623 until his death in 658.
Savaric (died 715) was the Bishop of Auxerre from 710 until his death.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Septimania (Septimanie,; Septimània,; Septimània) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.
Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.
Sigebert I (c. 535 – c. 575) was a frankish king of Austrasia from the death of his father in 561 to his own death.
Sigebert II (601–613) or Sigisbert II, was the illegitimate son of Theuderic II, from whom he inherited the kingdoms of Burgundy and Austrasia in 613.
Sigebert III (630–656) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia from 633 to his death around 656.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Soissons is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France.
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
Syagrius (430 – 486 or 487) was the last Roman military commander of a Roman rump state in northern Gaul, now called the Kingdom of Soissons.
The Taifals or Tayfals (Taifali, Taifalae or Theifali) were a people group of Germanic or Sarmatian origin, first documented north of the lower Danube in the mid third century AD.
The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors.
Theodemer (also Theudomer) was a Frankish king.
Theudebald or Theodebald (in modern English, Theobald; in French, Thibaut or Théodebald; in German, Theudowald) (c. 535–555), son of Theudebert I and Deuteria, was the king of Metz, Rheims, or Austrasia—as it's variously called—from 547 or 548 to 555.
Theudebert I (Thibert/Théodebert) (c. 503 – 547 or 548) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia from 533 to his death in 548.
Theudebert II (586-612), King of Austrasia (595–612 AD), was the son and heir of Childebert II.
Theuderic I (c. 487 – 533/4) was the Merovingian king of Metz, Rheims, or Austrasia—as it is variously called—from 511 to 533 or 534.
Theuderic II (also Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) (587–613), king of Burgundy (595–613) and Austrasia (612–613), was the second son of Childebert II.
Theuderic III (or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) (654–691) was the king of Neustria (including Burgundy) on two occasions (673 and 675–691) and king of Austrasia from 679 to his death in 691.
Theuderic IV (c. 712 – 737) or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry was the Merovingian King of the Franks from 721 until his death in 737.
Theudoald (or Theodald; 707/708 – 741) was the mayor of the palace, briefly unopposed in 714 after the death of his grandfather, Pepin of Herstal.
The three-field system is a regime of crop rotation that was used in medieval and early-modern Europe.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
The Thuringii or Toringi, were a Germanic tribe that appeared late during the Migration Period in the Harz Mountains of central Germania, still called Thuringia.
Tongeren (Tongres, Tongern) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
The Toxandri (or Texuandri, Taxandri, Toxandrians etc.) were a people living at the time of the Roman empire.
Translatio imperii (Latin for "transfer of rule") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, i.e., the Eastern Byzantine Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).
The Treaty of Andelot (or the Pact of Andelot), was signed at Andelot-Blancheville in 587 between King Guntram of Burgundy and Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia.
The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen, concluded on 8 August 870, was a treaty of partition of the realm of Lothair II by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as (4 unciae).
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Verden an der Aller, also called Verden (Aller) or simply Verden, is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the river Aller.
The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum or Liber Iudiciorum; Spanish, Libro de los Jueces, Book of the Judges), also called Lex Visigothorum (English: Law of the Visigoths) is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth (642-653) of the Visigothic Kingdom in his second year of rule (642-643) that survives only in fragments.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
The Vlie or Vliestroom is the seaway between the Dutch islands of Vlieland, to its southwest, and Terschelling, to its northeast.
Walter Andre Goffart (b. February 22, 1934), born a Belgian, came to America in 1941, is a historian of the later Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages who specializes in research on the barbarian kingdoms of those periods.
Warnachar (sometimes numbered Warnachar II; in modern French, Warnachaire or Garnier) was the mayor of the palace of Burgundy (617-626) and briefly Austrasia (612-617).
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
West Frisia or West Friesland is along with East Frisia and North Frisia one of the most commonly used subdivisions of Frisia.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Widukind, also known as Widuking or Wittekind, was a leader of the Saxons and the chief opponent of the Frankish king Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 777 to 785.
Willehari or Willihari (Vilarius, Wilharius, Willeharius, or Willicharius) was an Alemannic duke (dux) in the Ortenau in the early eighth century.
Willibrord (658 – 7 November AD 739) was a Northumbrian missionary saint, known as the "Apostle to the Frisians" in the modern Netherlands.
Division of the Frankish Empire, Empire of Francia, Empire of the Franks, Francland, Frankenreich, Frankish Christianity, Frankish Church, Frankish Empire, Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Kingdoms, Frankish Realm, Frankish State, Frankish empire, Frankish kingdom, Frankish kingdoms, Frankish realm, Frankish realms, Kingdom of Francia, Kingdom of Franks, Kingdom of the Franks, Regnum Francorum.