261 relations: Abbey of Saint Scholastica, Subiaco, Acre, Israel, Agnes of Assisi, Al-Kamil, Alex Kronemer, All Creatures of Our God and King, Alms, Amy Beach, Angelo Branduardi, Anglican Communion, Apulia, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Argentina, Assisi, Assisi Cathedral, Baptism, Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, Bernard Malamud, Bethlehem, Blessing of animals, Bologna, Bomb disposal, Bonaventure, Brother Sun, Sister Moon, Calendar of saints, Calendar of saints (Anglican Church of Canada), Calendar of saints (Church of England), Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church), Calvin College, Cambridge University Press, Canon (priest), Canticle of the Sun, Caravaggio, Carlo Crivelli, Catania, Catherine of Siena, Catholic Action, Catholic Church, Catholic religious order, Cebu, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Christmas, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Clare of Assisi, Cláudio Hummes, CNN, College of Cardinals, Colorado, Columbidae, Cortona, ..., Count, Crusades, Cub Scout, Custody of the Holy Land, Dalmatia, Damietta, Deacon, Demi (author), Denver, Domenico Veneziano, Donald Spoto, Donkey, Doubleday (publisher), Duchy of Spoleto, Dwelling, Ecclesiastical province, El Greco, Elio Germano, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Enlightenment (spiritual), Environment (biophysical), Erwin Panofsky, Eucharist, Evangelical Church in Germany, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Feast of the Cross, Federico Fellini, Fifth Crusade, Fourth Council of the Lateran, Francesc Ribalta, Francesco (film), Francis of Assisi (film), Francis Poulenc, Franciscans, Francisco de Zurbarán, Franco Zeffirelli, Franz Liszt, Fraticelli, Freising, Fresco, Friar, Frick Collection, Fyodor Dostoevsky, G. K. Chesterton, Gallia Narbonensis, Garden City, New York, General Roman Calendar, Gian Francesco Malipiero, Giovanni Bellini, Giovanni di San Paolo, Gubbio, Hagiography, Helena Bonham Carter, Helmut Schlegel, Henry Adams, Holy Land, Holy Roman Empire, Italy, Jacint Verdaguer, Jan van Eyck, Jim Novak, Jim Shooter, Jo Duffy, John Buscema, John V. Tolan, José Benlliure y Gil, Julian of Speyer, Juniper (friar), Karlheinz Stockhausen, Kingdom of Jerusalem, La Verna, Laity, Lancaster, Lancashire, Laudato si' (oratorio), Legend, Leo Sowerby, Leper colony, Leprosy, Lewis Nielson, Libby Larsen, Liliana Cavani, List of places named after Saint Francis, Little Flowers of St. Francis, Los Angeles Times, Louis de Wohl, Lutheranism, Malayalam cinema, Mamluk, Marie Severin, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Marvel Comics, Massa, Merchant, Metuchen, New Jersey, Michael Curtiz, Michaelmas, Michele Soavi, Mickey Rourke, Mont Saint Michel and Chartres, Morocco, Naga, Cebu, Nativity scene, Natural environment, News.va, Nikos Kazantzakis, Nobilissima Visione, Nocera Umbra, Old Catholic Church, Old St. Peter's Basilica, Olivier Messiaen, Oratorio, Order of Friars Minor, Order of Saint Benedict, Ox, Palm Sunday, Papal Basilica of Saint Mary of the Angels in Assisi, Papal bull, Papal conclave, 2013, Papal name, Papal States, Passion of Jesus, Patron saint, Paul Hindemith, Penance, Perugia, Peter Janssens, Peter Reulein, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Pilgrimage, Poor Clares, Pope Clement VI, Pope Francis, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Innocent III, Pope John Paul II, Pope Paul VI, Pope Pius XII, Porziuncola, Pranchiyettan & the Saint, Prayer of Saint Francis, Property, Protestantism, Provence, Psalm 142, Quatre petites prières de saint François d'Assise, Raoul Bova, Raoul Manselli, Rapprochement, Religious ecstasy, Religious habit, Religious image, Religious vows, Roberto Rossellini, Rockford, Illinois, Roman Catholic Diocese of Assisi-Nocera Umbra-Gualdo Tadino, Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, Rubén Darío, Saint Dominic, Saint François d'Assise, Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy (Caravaggio), Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata (van Eyck), Saint-François, Saladin, Salina, Kansas, Samstag aus Licht, San Damiano cross, San Damiano, Assisi, San Francisco, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Secular Franciscan Order, Seraph, Seth Bingham, Sheed and Ward, Siena, Simple living, Society of Saint Francis, Sofia Gubaidulina, St. Francis in Ecstasy, Stefano di Giovanni, Stigmata, Stowaway, Tapestry, Tau Cross, The Assistant (novel), The Brothers Karamazov, The Canticle of the Sun (Sowerby), The Flowers of St. Francis, The Hawks and the Sparrows, The New Yorker, Third Order of Saint Francis, Thomas of Celano, Tonsure, Trachoma, Tridentine Calendar, Troubadour, Turin, Ugolino Brunforte, Umbria, Union of Utrecht (Old Catholic), Venice, Vicar, Vision (spirituality), Visions of Jesus and Mary, Waldensians, Walter III, Count of Brienne, William Henry Draper (hymnwriter), William Walton, Wolf of Gubbio, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka. Expand index (211 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbey of Saint Scholastica, also known as Subiaco Abbey (Italian: Abbazia di Santa Scolastica), is located just outside the town of Subiaco in the Province of Rome, Region of Lazio, Italy; and is still an active Benedictine order, territorial abbey, first founded in the 6th century AD by Saint Benedict of Nursia.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Saint Agnes of Assisi, O.S.C., (1197/1198 – 16 November 1253) was the younger sister of Saint Clare of Assisi and one of the first abbesses of the Order of Poor Ladies (now the Poor Clares).
Al-Kamil (الكامل) (full name: al-Malik al-Kamil Naser ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Muhammad) (c. 1177 – 6 March 1238) was a Kurdish ruler, the fourth Ayyubid sultan of Egypt.
Alexander Kronemer (born 19 June 1960, Pennsylvania, United States) is the co-founder and executive producer of.
"All Creatures of Our God and King" is an English Christian Easter hymn by William Henry Draper, based on a poem by St. Francis of Assisi.
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.
Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (September 5, 1867December 27, 1944) was an American composer and pianist.
Angelo Branduardi (born February 12, 1950), is an Italian folk/folk rock singer-songwriter and composer who scored relative success in Italy and European countries such as France, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and Greece.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Assisi (from the Asisium) is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. It is generally regarded as the birthplace of the Latin poet Propertius, born around 50–45 BC. It is the birthplace of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares after her death. The 19th-century Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was also born in Assisi.
Assisi Cathedral (Cattedrale di Assisi or Cattedrale di San Rufino di Assisi), dedicated to San Rufino (Rufinus of Assisi) is a major church in Assisi, Italy.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Papal Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi (Basilica Papale di San Francesco, Basilica Sancti Francisci Assisiensis) is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Friars Minor Conventual in Assisi, a town of Umbria region in central Italy, where Saint Francis was born and died.
Bernard Malamud (April 26, 1914 – March 18, 1986) was an American novelist and short story writer.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Blessing of animals can be either of the animal or of the human-animal relationship, and can apply to pets and other companion animals, or to agricultural animals and working and other animals which humans depend on or interact with.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.
Saint Bonaventure (Bonaventura; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, scholastic theologian and philosopher.
Brother Sun, Sister Moon (Fratello Sole, Sorella Luna) is a 1972 film directed by Franco Zeffirelli and starring Graham Faulkner and Judi Bowker.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
Prior to the revision of the Anglican Church of Canada's (ACC) Book of Common Prayer (BCP) in 1962, the national church followed the liturgical calendar of the 1918 Canadian Book of Common Prayer.
The Church of England commemorates many of the same saints as those in the General Roman Calendar, mostly on the same days, but also commemorates various notable (often post-Reformation) Christians who have not been canonised by Rome, with a particular though not exclusive emphasis on those of English origin.
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important and influential people of the Christian faith.
Calvin College is a liberal arts college located in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.
The Canticle of the Sun, also known as Laudes Creaturarum (Praise of the Creatures) and Canticle of the Creatures, is a religious song composed by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.
Carlo Crivelli (Venice c. 1430 – Ascoli Piceno 1495) was an Italian Renaissance painter of conservative Late Gothic decorative sensibility, who spent his early years in the Veneto, where he absorbed influences from the Vivarini, Squarcione and Mantegna.
Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea.
Saint Catherine of Siena (25 March 1347 in Siena – 29 April 1380 in Rome), was a tertiary of the Dominican Order and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian who had a great influence on the Catholic Church.
Catholic Action was the name of many groups of lay Catholics who were attempting to encourage a Catholic influence on society.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church.
Cebu (Lalawigan sa Sugbu; Lalawigan ng Cebu) is a province of the Philippines located in the region, and consisting of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets.
The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is a digital library that provides free electronic copies of Christian scripture and literature texts.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Saint Clare of Assisi (July 16, 1194 – August 11, 1253, born Chiara Offreduccio and sometimes spelled Clair, Claire, etc.) is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi.
Cláudio Hummes, OFM (born 8 August 1934) is a Brazilian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
Cortona is a town and comune in the province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cub Scouts, Cubs or Wolf Cubs are programs associated with Scouting for young children usually between 5 and 12, depending on the national organization to which they belong.
The Custody of the Holy Land (Latin: Custodia Terræ Sanctæ) is a custodian priory of the Franciscan order in Jerusalem, founded as Province of the Holy Land in 1217 by Saint Francis of Assisi, who also founded the Franciscan Order.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Damietta (دمياط,; ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ) also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
Demi (born Charlotte Dumaresq Hunt; September 2, 1942) is a children’s book author and illustrator.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Domenico Veneziano (c. 1410 – May 15, 1461) was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance, active mostly in Perugia and Tuscany.
Donald Spoto (born June 28, 1941) is an American biographer and theologian.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
The Duchy of Spoleto (Italian: Ducato di Spoleto, Latin: Dŭcā́tus Spōlḗtĭī) was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in central Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald.
In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households as a home, such as a house, apartment, mobile home, houseboat, vehicle or other 'substantial' structure.
An ecclesiastical province is one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
Elio Germano (born 25 September 1980) is an Italian actor.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Enlightenment is the "full comprehension of a situation".
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Erwin Panofsky (March 30, 1892 in Hannover – March 14, 1968 in Princeton, New Jersey) was a German-Jewish art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus.
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
Francesco Ribalta (2 June 1565 – 12 January 1628), also known as Francisco Ribaltá or de Ribalta, was a Spanish painter of the Baroque period, mostly of religious subjects.
Francesco is a 1989 docu-drama relating in flashback St. Francis of Assisi's evolution from rich man's son to religious humanitarian and finally to full-fledged saint.
Francis of Assisi is a 1961 DeLuxe CinemaScope film directed by Michael Curtiz, based on the novel The Joyful Beggar by Louis de Wohl.
Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (7 January 189930 January 1963) was a French composer and pianist.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Francisco de Zurbarán (baptized November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664) was a Spanish painter.
Franco Zeffirelli, KBE Grande Ufficiale OMRI (born 12 February 1923) is an Italian director and producer of operas, films and television.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
The Fraticelli ("Little Brethren") or Spiritual Franciscans were extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status.
Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the Freising district, with a total population of 45,227.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
The Frick Collection is an art museum located in the Henry Clay Frick House on the Upper East Side in Manhattan, New York City at 1 East 70th Street, at the northeast corner with Fifth Avenue.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
Garden City is an incorporated village in Nassau County, New York, United States, in the town of Hempstead.
The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord (Jesus Christ) in the Roman Rite, wherever this liturgical rite is in use.
Gian Francesco Malipiero (18 March 1882 – 1 August 1973) was an Italian composer, musicologist, music teacher and editor.
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430 – 26 November 1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters.
Giovanni di San Paolo (died c. early 1215) was a Benedictine monk at San Paolo fuori le Muri in Rome.
Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia (Umbria).
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Helena Bonham Carter (born 26 May 1966) is an English actress best known for her roles in low-budget arthouse and independent films to large-scale Hollywood productions.
Helmut Schlegel OFM (born 15 May 1943) is a German Franciscan, Catholic priest, meditation instructor, author, librettist and songwriter.
Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian and member of the Adams political family, being descended from two U.S. Presidents.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a catalan writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era.
Jan van Eyck (before c. 1390 – 9 July 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges.
James R. Novak (born September 14) is a comic book creator primarily working as a letterer for Marvel Comics, where he has worked on almost every one of their ongoing series.
James Shooter (born September 27, 1951) is an American writer, occasional fill-in artist, editor, and publisher for various comic books.
Mary Jo Duffy (born February 9, 1954) is an American comic book editor and writer, known for her work for Marvel Comics in the 1980s and DC Comics and Image Comics in the 1990s.
John Buscema (born Giovanni Natale Buscema; December 11, 1927 – January 10, 2002), for Buscema, John N., Social Security Number 108-20-9641.
John Victor Tolan (born 1959) is a historian of religious and cultural relations between the Arab and Latin worlds in the Middle Ages.
José Benlliure y Gil (30 September 1858, Valencia – 5 April 1937, Valencia), was a Spanish painter.
Julian of Speyer (Julianus Teutonicus; died c. 1250), also known as Julian of Spires, was a German Franciscan composer, poet and historian of the thirteenth century.
The Servant of God, Juniper, O.F.M., best known as Brother Juniper (Fra Ginepro) (died 1258), called "the renowned jester of the Lord," was one of the original followers of St.
Karlheinz Stockhausen (22 August 1928 – 5 December 2007) was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
Other uses of La Verna include: La Verna cave and Laverna.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, England. It is on the River Lune and has a population of 52,234; the wider City of Lancaster local government district has a population of 138,375. Long a commercial, cultural and educational centre, Lancaster gives Lancashire its name. The House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, who is also the Duke of Lancaster. Lancaster is an ancient settlement, dominated by Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church and the Ashton Memorial. It is also home to Lancaster University and a campus of the University of Cumbria.
Laudato si' is an oratorio composed in 2016 by Peter Reulein on a libretto by Helmut Schlegel.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Leo Salkeld Sowerby (May 1, 1895 – July 7, 1968), American composer and church musician, was the winner of the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1946, and was often called the “Dean of American church music” in the early to mid 20th century.
A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to quarantine people with leprosy (Hansen's disease).
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Lewis Nielson (born 1950) is an American composer.
Elizabeth Brown Larsen (born December 24, 1950) is a contemporary American classical composer.
Liliana Cavani (born 12 January 1933) is an Italian film director and screenwriter.
The following is a list of places named after Saint Francis.
The Little Flowers of St.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis de Wohl, earlier Ludwig von Wohl, was a German-born Catholic author, and had served as an astrologer notable for his work with MI5 during World War II.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Marie Severin (born August 21, 1929) is an American comics artist and colorist best known for her work for Marvel Comics and the 1950s' EC Comics.
Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (3 April 1895 – 16 March 1968) was an Italian composer, pianist and writer.
Marvel Comics is the common name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc., formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media.
Massa is a town and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, the administrative centre of the province of Massa and Carrara.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Metuchen is a suburban borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, which is northeast of New Brunswick, southwest of Newark, southwest of Jersey City, and southwest of Manhattan, all part of the New York metropolitan area.
Michael Curtiz (born Manó Kaminer; December 24, 1886 April 11, 1962) was a Hungarian-born American film director, recognized as one of the most prolific directors in history.
Michaelmas (also known as the Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, and Sosa, the Feast of the Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels) is a minor Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September.
Michele Soavi, sometimes known as Michael Soavi (born 3 July 1957)Baldassarre, Angela (1999) "The Great Dictators: Interviews with Filmmakers of Italian Descent", Guernica Editions, is an Italian filmmaker, actor, and screenwriter best known for his work in the horror film genre, working alongside directors like Dario Argento and Lucio Fulci.
Philip Andre "Mickey" Rourke Jr. (born September 16, 1952), is an American actor, screenwriter, and retired boxer, who has appeared primarily as a leading man in drama, action, and thriller films.
Mont Saint Michel and Chartres is a book written by the American historian and scholar Henry Adams (1838–1918).
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Naga, officially called the City of Naga and often referred to as Naga City, is a city in the province of, Philippines.
In the Christian tradition, a nativity scene (also known as a manger scene, crib, crèche (or, or in Italian presepio or presepe) is the special exhibition, particularly during the Christmas season, of art objects representing the birth of Jesus.Berliner, R. The Origins of the Creche. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 30 (1946), p. 251. While the term "nativity scene" may be used of any representation of the very common subject of the Nativity of Jesus in art, it has a more specialized sense referring to seasonal displays, either using model figures in a setting or reenactments called "living nativity scenes" (tableau vivant) in which real humans and animals participate. Nativity scenes exhibit figures representing the infant Jesus, his mother, Mary, and her husband, Joseph. Other characters from the nativity story, such as shepherds, sheep, and angels may be displayed near the manger in a barn (or cave) intended to accommodate farm animals, as described in the Gospel of Luke. A donkey and an ox are typically depicted in the scene, and the Magi and their camels, described in the Gospel of Matthew, are also included. Several cultures add other characters and objects that may or may not be Biblical. Saint Francis of Assisi is credited with creating the first live nativity scene in 1223 in order to cultivate the worship of Christ. He himself had recently been inspired by his visit to the Holy Land, where he'd been shown Jesus's traditional birthplace. The scene's popularity inspired communities throughout Catholic countries to stage similar pantomimes. Distinctive nativity scenes and traditions have been created around the world, and are displayed during the Christmas season in churches, homes, shopping malls, and other venues, and occasionally on public lands and in public buildings. Nativity scenes have not escaped controversy, and in the United States their inclusion on public lands or in public buildings has provoked court challenges.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
News.va (The Vatican Today) is a news information portal provided by the Pontifical Council for Social Communications which "aggregate information from the Vatican’s various print, online, radio and television media in a one-stop shop for news about the Holy See." The site was launched on June 27, 2011.
Nikos Kazantzakis (Νίκος Καζαντζάκης; 18 February 188326 October 1957) was a Greek writer.
Nobilissima visione (The Noblest Vision) is a 50-minute ballet (or, more precisely, a "dance legend") in six scenes by Paul Hindemith, originally choreographed by Léonide Massine for the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo.
Nocera Umbra is a town and comune in the province of Perugia, Italy, 15 kilometers north of Foligno, at an altitude of 520 m above sea-level.
The term Old Catholic Church was used from the 1850s, by groups which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had already existed long before the term.
Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen (December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century.
An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; postnominal abbreviation O.F.M.) is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.
The Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli (Saint Mary of the Angels) is a church situated in the plain at the foot of the hill of Assisi, Italy, in the frazione of Santa Maria degli Angeli.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The papal conclave of 2013 was convened to elect a pope to succeed Pope Benedict XVI following his resignation on 28 February 2013.
A papal name is the regnal name taken by a pope.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 – 28 December 1963) was a prolific German composer, violist, violinist, teacher and conductor.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.
Peter Janssens (17 June 1934 – 24 December 1998) was a German musician and composer who wrote and performed incidental music for several theatres, and songs and musicals of the genre Neues Geistliches Lied, a pioneer of.
Peter Reulein (born 1966) is a German composer, organ improviser, academic teacher and church musician, from 2000 at the church Liebfrauen in Frankfurt am Main.
Pier Paolo Pasolini (5 March 1922 – 2 November 1975) was an Italian film director, poet, writer, and intellectual.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
The Poor Clares, officially the Order of Saint Clare (Ordo sanctae Clarae) – originally referred to as the Order of Poor Ladies, and later the Clarisses, the Minoresses, the Franciscan Clarist Order, and the Second Order of Saint Francis – are members of a contemplative Order of nuns in the Catholic Church.
Clement VI (Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352.
Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
Porziuncola, also called Portiuncula (in Latin) or Porzioncula, is a small Catholic church located within the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary of the Angels in Assisi in the frazione of Santa Maria degli Angeli, situated about from Assisi, Umbria (central Italy).
Pranchiyettan & the Saint is a 2010 Malayalam satirical comedy film written, directed, and produced by Ranjith.
The anonymous text that is usually called the Prayer of Saint Francis (or Peace Prayer, or Simple Prayer for Peace, or Make Me an Instrument of Your Peace) is a widely known Christian prayer for peace.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Psalm 142 is the 142nd psalm from the Book of Psalms in the Masoretic and modern numbering, corresponding to psalm 141 in the Vulgata Clementina.
Quatre petites prières de saint François d'Assise, FP 142 (Four small prayers of Saint Francis of Assisi) are a sacred choral work by Francis Poulenc for a cappella men's chorus, composed in 1948.
Raoul Bova (born 14 August 1971) is an Italian actor.
Raoul Manselli (1917–1984) was an Italian historian.
In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations, as between two countries.
Religious ecstasy is a reported type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional (and sometimes physical) euphoria.
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.
A religious image, sometimes called a votive image, is a work of visual art that is representational and has a religious purpose, subject or connection.
Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.
Roberto Gastone Zeffiro Rossellini (8 May 1906 – 3 June 1977) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.
Rockford is the third largest city in the U.S. state of Illinois, the 171st most populous city in the United States, the largest city in Illinois outside the Chicago metropolitan area, and the city of the 148th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Assisi-Nocera Umbra-Gualdo Tadino (Dioecesis Assisiensis-Nucerina-Tadinensis) in Umbria, has existed since 1986.
The Diocese of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto (originally Sabina) (Lat.: Sabinensis-Mandelensis) a suburbicarian see of the Holy Roman Church (which means it carries the rare rank of cardinal-bishop) and a diocese of the Catholic Church in Italy in the Roman province of the Pope.
Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867 – February 6, 1916), known as Rubén Darío, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century.
Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán (8 August 1170 – 6 August 1221), was a Castilian priest and founder of the Dominican Order.
Saint François d'Assise is an opera in three acts and eight scenes by French composer and librettist Olivier Messiaen, written from 1975 to 1983.
Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy (or The Ecstasy of Saint Francis) is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.
Saint Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata is the name given to two unsigned paintings completed around 1428–32 that art historians usually attribute to the Flemish artist, Jan van Eyck.
Saint-François is the French form of Saint Francis, and is the name of many locations.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Salina is a city in and the county seat of Saline County, Kansas, United States.
Samstag aus Licht (Saturday from Light) is an opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen in a greeting and four scenes, and was the second of seven to be composed for the opera cycle Licht: die sieben Tage der Woche (Light: The Seven Days of the Week).
The San Damiano Cross is the large Romanesque rood cross before which St. Francis of Assisi was praying when he is said to have received the commission from the Lord to rebuild the Church.
San Damiano is a church with a monastery near Assisi, Italy.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Santa Fe (or; Tewa: Ogha Po'oge, Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Saint Mary above Minerva, Sancta Maria supra Minervam) is one of the major churches of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers (better known as the Dominicans) in Rome, Italy.
The Secular Franciscan Order (Ordo Franciscanus Saecularis, postnominal abbreviation O.F.S.; also called the Third Order Secular) is a community of Catholic men and women in the world who seek to pattern their lives after Jesus in the spirit of Francis of Assisi.
A seraph ("the burning one"; pl. seraphs or seraphim, in the King James Version also seraphims (plural); Hebrew: שָׂרָף śārāf, plural שְׂרָפִים śərāfîm; Latin: seraphim and seraphin (plural), also seraphus (-i, m.); σεραφείμ serapheím Arabic: مشرفين Musharifin) is a type of celestial or heavenly being in Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
Seth Daniels Bingham (April 16, 1882 – June 21, 1972) was an American organist and prolific composer.
Sheed and Ward was a publishing house founded in London in 1926 by Catholic activists Frank Sheed and Maisie Ward.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle.
The Society of Saint Francis (SSF) is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion.
Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina (Софи́я Асгáтовна Губaйду́лина, София Әсгать кызы Гобәйдуллина; born 24 October 1931) is a Tatar-Russian composer.
The Ecstasy of St.
For the village near Livorno, see Sassetta, Tuscany Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo, known as il Sassetta (ca.1392–1450 or 1451) was an Italian painter who is considered one of the most important representatives of Sienese Renaissance painting.
Stigmata (singular stigma) is a term used by members of the Catholic faith to describe body marks, sores, or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ, such as the hands, wrists, and feet.
A stowaway is a person who secretly boards a vehicle, such as a ship, an aircraft, a train, cargo truck or bus, in order to travel without paying and without being detected.
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
The tau cross is a T-shaped cross all three ends of which are sometimes expanded.
The Assistant (1957) is Bernard Malamud's second novel.
The Brothers Karamazov (Бра́тья Карама́зовы, Brat'ya Karamazovy), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The Canticle of the Sun is a musical composition by Leo Sowerby (1895–1968) setting Matthew Arnold's English translation of Francis of Assisi's "Canticle of the Sun" for chorus and orchestra in 1945; the work was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Music the following year.
The Flowers of St.
The Hawks and the Sparrows (Uccellacci e uccellini, literally "Birds of prey and Little Birds") is a 1966 Italian film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Third Order of Saint Francis, historically known as the Order of Penance of Saint Francis, is a third order within the Franciscan movement of the Catholic Church.
Thomas of Celano (italic; c. 1185 – 4 October 1265) was an Italian friar of the Franciscans (Order of Friars Minor) as well as a poet and the author of three hagiographies about Saint Francis of Assisi.
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
The Tridentine Calendar is the calendar of saints to be honoured in the course of the liturgical year in the official liturgy of the Roman Rite as reformed by Pope Pius V, implementing a decision of the Council of Trent, which entrusted the task to the Pope.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Ugolino Brunforte (c. 1262 – c. 1348) was an Italian Friar Minor and chronicler, known principally as the author of the Fioretti or Little Flowers of St.
Umbria is a region of central Italy.
The Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches (UU) is a federation of Old Catholic churches, nationally organised from 1870 schisms which rejected Roman Catholic doctrines of the First Vatican Council; its member churches are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").
A vision is something seen in a dream, trance, or religious ecstasy, especially a supernatural appearance that usually conveys a revelation.
Since the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Calvary, a number of people have claimed to have had visions of Jesus Christ and personal conversations with him.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
Walter III of Brienne (Gautier, Gualtiero; died 14 June 1205) was a nobleman from northern France.
William Henry Draper (19 December 1855 – 9 August 1933) was an English hymnodist and clergyman who composed about sixty hymns.
Sir William Turner Walton, OM (29 March 19028 March 1983) was an English composer.
The Wolf of Gubbio was a wolf that, according to the Fioretti di San Francesco, terrorized the Umbrian city of Gubbio until it was tamed by St. Francis of Assisi acting on behalf of God.
Zofia Kossak-Szczucka (10 August 1889 – 9 April 1968) was a Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter.
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