264 relations: Abbreviation, Agnellus of Pisa, Al-Kamil, Albert of Pisa, Alexander of Hales, Alonso de Molina, Amico Bignami, Ancona, Andrés de Olmos, Angela of Foligno, Angelico Chavez, Angelo da Clareno, Anglican Communion, Annuario Pontificio, Answers.com, Anthony of Padua, Antipope, Antipope Nicholas V, Antoine Pagi, Anton Docher, Apostolic poverty, Arlotto of Prato, Asceticism, Assisi, Association of Franciscan Colleges and Universities, Augsburg, Augustín de Vetancurt, Avignon, Baibars, Bancroft Library, Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, Beatification, Beguines and Beghards, Beijing, Benedict Groeschel, Bernard of Quintavalle, Bernardino de Sahagún, Bernardino of Siena, Bertold of Regensburg, Bethlehem, Bible, Bologna, Bonagratia de San Giovanni in Persiceto, Bonagratia of Bergamo, Bonaventure, Brethren of the Common Life, Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St. Francis, Brothers of the Poor of St. Francis., Canterbury, Capuchin Poor Clares, ..., Cardinal (Catholic Church), Catholic Church, Catholic religious order, Catholic theology, Celestines, Cenacle, Christianity, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Cimabue, Cistercians, Clare of Assisi, Colettine Poor Clares, Columbia Encyclopedia, Community of St. Clare, Community of St. Francis, Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Constitution, Council of Constance, Council of Vienne, Crescentius of Jesi, Custody of the Holy Land, Dante Alighieri, Danube, David of Augsburg, Dietrich Coelde, Discalced, Dominican Order, Duns Scotus, Ecclesiology, Egypt, Elias of Cortona, Elizabeth of Hungary, Enclosed religious orders, Encyclopædia Britannica, Episcopal Church (United States), Eucharist, Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, Evangelism, Father Simpliciano of the Nativity, Fifth Council of the Lateran, Fifth Crusade, Foligno, François Rabelais, Francis of Assisi, Francis of Paola, Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate, Franciscan Friars of the Renewal, Franciscan Missionaries of the Eternal Word, Franciscan spirituality in Protestantism, Franciscan University of Steubenville, Franciscans, Franciscans International, Fraticelli, Fray Juan de Torquemada, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Gabriele Allegra, Geneva, Gerardo of Borgo San Donnino, Gerónimo de Mendieta, Giorgio Festa, Giotto, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, Giovanni di San Paolo, Giovanni Mincio da Morrovalle, Giovanni Parenti, Giuseppe Bastianelli, Gospel, Greyfriars, Canterbury, Haymo of Faversham, Hermit, Holy See, Hong Kong, Hyacintha Mariscotti, Hysteria, Incarnation (Christianity), Infection, Islam, Jacopone da Todi, Jerusalem, Jesus, Joachim of Fiore, John of Capistrano, John of Montecorvino, John of Parma, José Rodríguez Carballo, Joseph of Cupertino, Junípero Serra, Latin, Learned society, Leonard of Port Maurice, Leper colony, List of Ministers General of the Order of Friars Minor, Lithuania, London, Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Luchesius Modestini, Luke Wadding, Mamerto Esquiú, Maria Antonio of Vicenza, Martín de Valencia, Mary Frances Schervier, Matteo Bassi, Matthew 10, Matthew of Aquasparta, Matthew Paris, Maximilian Kolbe, Medical diagnosis, Mendicant orders, Michael of Cesena, Minim (religious order), Minister General (Franciscan), Monastery, Mount Zion, Mychal Judge, Nahuatl, Naples, Napoleon, Narbonne, New York City, Nicholas of Lyra, Non-governmental organization, Nun, Old Catholic Church, Oliver Maillard, Order of Friars Minor, Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, Order of Friars Minor Conventual, Order of Lutheran Franciscans, Order of Saint Benedict, Order of Saint Francis, Original sin, Oxford, Oxford Movement, Padre Pio, Palm Sunday, Paris, Pasquale Sarullo, Perugia, Peter John Olivi, Peter Waldo, Physician, Pietro Caperolo, Pisa, Poland, Poor Clares, Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration, Poor Sisters of St. Francis, Pope Alexander IV, Pope Benedict XV, Pope Clement V, Pope Clement VI, Pope Eugene IV, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Honorius III, Pope Innocent III, Pope Innocent IV, Pope John XXII, Pope Julius II, Pope Leo X, Pope Leo XIII, Pope Martin V, Pope Nicholas III, Pope Paul VI, Pope Pius V, Pope Sixtus IV, Post-nominal letters, Prayer, Protestantism, Provincial superior, Raymond de Gaufredi, Religious habit, Religious institute, Religious order, Religious vows, Rhine, Robert, King of Naples, Roger Bacon, Roman Catholic Diocese of Assisi-Nocera Umbra-Gualdo Tadino, Roman Catholic Diocese of Belcastro, Roman Curia, Rome, Rule of Saint Francis, Sacro Convento, Sancia of Majorca, Saracen, Second Council of Lyon, Second Order (religious), Secular clergy, Secular Franciscan Order, Sefro, Singleness of heart, Society of Saint Francis, Society of the Atonement, Stigmata, Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Studium Biblicum Version, Syria, Tau Cross, Third order, Third Order of Saint Francis, Third Order Regular of Saint Francis of Penance, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas of Celano, Tonsure, Toribio de Benavente Motolinia, Twelve Apostles of Mexico, Ubertino of Casale, Umbria, United Nations, University of Paris, Via Dolorosa, Visions of Jesus and Mary, William of Ockham, Zelanti. 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An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
The Blessed Agnellus of Pisa, O.F.M. (1195–1236), was an Italian Franciscan monk.
Al-Kamil (الكامل) (full name: al-Malik al-Kamil Naser ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Muhammad) (c. 1177 – 6 March 1238) was a Kurdish ruler, the fourth Ayyubid sultan of Egypt.
Albert of Pisa, O.F.M. (died 23 January 1240), was an Italian Franciscan monk.
Alexander of Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.
Alonso de Molina (1513. or 1514.. – 1579 or 1585) was a Franciscan priest and grammarian, who wrote a well-known dictionary of the Nahuatl language published in 1571 and still used by scholars working on Nahuatl texts in the tradition of the New Philology.
Amico Bignami (15 April 1862 – 8 September 1929) was an Italian physician, pathologist, malariologist and sceptic.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
Andrés de Olmos (c.1485 – 8 October 1571), Franciscan priest and extraordinary grammarian and ethno-historian of Mexico's Indians, was born in Oña, Burgos, Spain, and died in Tampico in New Spain (modern-day Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico).
Angela of Foligno, T.O.S.F., (1248 – 4 January 1309) was an Italian Franciscan tertiary who became known as a mystic from her extensive writings about her mystical revelations.
Angelico Chavez, O.F.M., (April 10, 1910 – March 18, 1996) was an Hispanic American Friar Minor, priest, historian, author, poet and painter.
Angelo da Clareno (1247/1248 – 15 June 1337), also known as Angelo Clareno, was the founder and leader of one of the groups of Fraticelli in the early 14th century.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
The Annuario Pontificio (Italian for Pontifical Yearbook) is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church.
Answers.com is an Internet-based knowledge exchange, which includes WikiAnswers.
Saint Anthony of Padua (St.), born Fernando Martins de Bulhões (15 August 1195 – 13 June 1231), also known as Anthony of Lisbon, was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order.
An antipope (antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church.
Nicholas V, born Pietro Rainalducci (c. 125816 October 1333) was an antipope in Italy from 12 May 1328 to 25 July 1330 during the pontificate of Pope John XXII (1316–34) at Avignon.
Antoine Pagi (31 March 1624 – 5 June 1699) was a French ecclesiastical historian.
Anton Docher (1852–1928), Antonin Jean Baptiste Docher (pronounced ɑ̃tɔnɛ̃ ʒɑ̃ batist dɔʃe), was a French Franciscan Roman Catholic priest, who served as a missionary to Native Americans in New Mexico, in the American Southwest of the United States.
Apostolic poverty is a Christian doctrine professed in the thirteenth century by the newly formed religious orders, known as the mendicant orders, in direct response to calls for reform in the Roman Catholic Church.
Arlotto of Prato (died 1286) was an Italian Franciscan theologian.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Assisi (from the Asisium) is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. It is generally regarded as the birthplace of the Latin poet Propertius, born around 50–45 BC. It is the birthplace of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares after her death. The 19th-century Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was also born in Assisi.
The Association of Franciscan Colleges and Universities (AFCU) is an association of over 20 Franciscan colleges and universities and is located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Agustín de Vetancurt, also written Vetancourt, Betancourt, Betancur (1620–1700) was a Mexican Catholic historian and scholar of the Nahuatl language.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
The Bancroft Library in the center of the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, is the university's primary special-collections library.
The Papal Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi (Basilica Papale di San Francesco, Basilica Sancti Francisci Assisiensis) is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Friars Minor Conventual in Assisi, a town of Umbria region in central Italy, where Saint Francis was born and died.
Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.
The Beguines and the Beghards were Christian lay religious orders that were active in Northern Europe, particularly in the Low Countries in the 13th–16th centuries.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Benedict Joseph Groeschel, C.F.R. (July 23, 1933 – October 3, 2014) was an American Franciscan friar, Catholic priest, retreat master, author, psychologist, activist and television host.
Bernard, son of Quintavalle, son of Berardello, (died 1241) was one of the first followers of St. Francis of Assisi.
Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).
Bernardino of Siena, (also known as Bernardine; 8 September 138020 May 1444) was an Italian priest and Franciscan missionary.
Bertold of Regensburg (c. 1220 – 13 December 1272) was a German preacher during the high Middle Ages.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Bonagratia de San Giovanni in Persiceto (fl. 1278–1283) was an Italian Friar Minor, who became Minister General of the Order.
Bonagratia of Bergamo (c. 1265-1340) was a leading supporter of the Franciscan Spirituals from within the Franciscan movement.
Saint Bonaventure (Bonaventura; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, scholastic theologian and philosopher.
The Brethren of the Common Life (Latin: Fratres Vitae Communis, FVC) was a Roman Catholic pietist religious community founded in the Netherlands in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ.
The Brothers and Sisters of Penance of St.
The Poor Brothers of the Seraphic St.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
The Capuchin Poor Clares were founded in Naples, Italy, in 1538, by Ven.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church.
Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians.
The Celestines were a Roman Catholic monastic order, a branch of the Benedictines, founded in 1244.
The Cenacle (from Latin cēnāculum "dining room", later spelt coenaculum and semantically drifting towards "upper room"), also known as the "Upper Room", is a room in the David's Tomb Compound in Jerusalem, traditionally held to be the site of the Last Supper.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Cimabue (1240 – 1302),Vasari, G. Lives of the Artists.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Saint Clare of Assisi (July 16, 1194 – August 11, 1253, born Chiara Offreduccio and sometimes spelled Clair, Claire, etc.) is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi.
The Colettine Poor Clares are a reform branch of the Order of St. Clare, founded by Clare of Assisi in Italy in 1211.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
The Community of St.
The Community of St.
The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (Congregatio pro Institutis Vitae Consecratae et Societatibus Vitae Apostolicae) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for everything which concerns Institutes of Consecrated Life (orders and religious congregations, both of men and of women, as well as secular institutes) and Societies of Apostolic Life, regarding their government, discipline, studies, goods, rights, and privileges.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.
The Council of Vienne was the fifteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne.
Crescentius of Jesi, O.F.M., (died 1263) of the Grizi family, was an Italian Friar Minor, who became Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor in 1244.
The Custody of the Holy Land (Latin: Custodia Terræ Sanctæ) is a custodian priory of the Franciscan order in Jerusalem, founded as Province of the Holy Land in 1217 by Saint Francis of Assisi, who also founded the Franciscan Order.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
David of Augsburg (early 13th century – 19 November 1272) was a medieval German mystic, and a Franciscan friar.
Dietrich Coelde (1435 – 11 December 1515) was a German Franciscan missionary.
A discalced congregation is a religious congregation that goes barefoot or wears sandals.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
John Duns, commonly called Duns Scotus (1266 – 8 November 1308), is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages (together with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham).
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elias of Cortona was born, it is said, at Bevilia near Assisi, ca.
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F. (Heilige Elisabeth von Thüringen, Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet; 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231), also known as Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia or Saint Elisabeth of Thuringia, was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness.
Enclosed religious orders of the Christian churches have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary is an ecumenical, Lutheran based, religious order.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517) is the Eighteenth Ecumenical Council to be recognized by the Roman Catholic Church and the last one before the Protestant Reformation.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
Foligno is an ancient town of Italy in the province of Perugia in east central Umbria, on the Topino river where it leaves the Apennines and enters the wide plain of the Clitunno river system.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.
Saint Francis of Paola, O.M. (or: Francesco di Paola or Saint Francis the Fire Handler; 27 March 1416 – 2 April 1507) was an Italian mendicant friar and the founder of the Roman Catholic Order of Minims.
The Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate (Congregatio Fratrum Franciscanorum Immaculatae; F.F.I.) is a Roman Catholic institute of consecrated life with Pontifical Right established by Pope John Paul II on 1 January 1998.
The Community of the Franciscan Friars of the Renewal (abbreviated as "C.F.R.") is a religious institute in the Latin Church of the Catholic Church.
The Franciscan Missionaries of the Eternal Word (MFVA, Latin for Missionarii Franciscani Verbi Aeterni) is a Public Clerical Association of the Faithful, located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Birmingham in Alabama.
Franciscan spirituality in Protestantism refers to spirituality in Protestantism inspired by the Catholic friar Saint Francis of Assisi.
Franciscan University of Steubenville is a private and coeducational Catholic university in Steubenville, Ohio.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Franciscans International (FI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) with general Consultative Status at the United Nations.
The Fraticelli ("Little Brethren") or Spiritual Franciscans were extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status.
Juan de Torquemada (c. 1562 – 1624) was a Franciscan friar, active as missionary in Spanish colonial Mexico and considered the "leading Franciscan chronicler of his generation." Administrator, engineer, architect and ethnographer, he is most famous for his monumental work commonly known as Monarquía indiana ("Indian Monarchy"), a survey of the history and culture of the indigenous peoples of New Spain together with an account of their conversion to Christianity, first published in Spain in 1615 and republished in 1723.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
The Blessed Gabriele Allegra, O.F.M., (December 26, 1907 – January 26, 1976) was a Franciscan Friar and Biblical scholar.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Gerard of Borgo San Donnino was an Italian friar of the Order of Friars Minor.
Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta (1525–1604), alternatively Jerónimo de Mendieta, was a Franciscan missionary and historian, who spent most of his life in the Spanish Empire's new possessions in Mexico and Central America.
Giorgio Festa (Rome 1860- Frascati 1940) was an Italian physician.
Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.
Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, variously rendered in English as John of Pian de Carpine, John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (ca 1185 – 1 August 1252), was a medieval Italian diplomat, archbishop and explorer and one of the first Europeans to enter the court of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
Giovanni di San Paolo (died c. early 1215) was a Benedictine monk at San Paolo fuori le Muri in Rome.
Giovanni Minio or Mincio, of Morrovalle or Murrovale (died August 1312) was an Italian Franciscan who became Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, cardinal-bishop of Porto (1302), Protector of the Order of Friars Minors (1307) and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1311).
Giovanni Parenti, O.F.M., (died 1250) was an Italian Friar Minor and successor of St.
Giuseppe Bastianelli (25 October 1862 – 30 March 1959) was an Italian physician and zoologist who worked on malaria and was the personal physician of Pope Benedict XV.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Greyfriars was a Franciscan friary in Canterbury, the first friary of that order in England.
Haymo of Faversham, O.F.M., was an English Franciscan scholar.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hyacintha Mariscotti, T.O.R., or Hyacintha of Mariscotti (Giacinta Marescotti) was an Italian nun of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis.
Hysteria, in the colloquial use of the term, means ungovernable emotional excess.
In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos (Koine Greek for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh" and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Fra Jacopone da Todi, O.F.M. (ca. 1230 – 25 December 1306) was an Italian Franciscan friar from Umbria in the 13th century.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Joachim of Fiore, also known as Joachim of Flora and in Italian Gioacchino da Fiore (c. 1135 – 30 March 1202), was an Italian theologian and the founder of the monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore.
Saint John of Capestrano (Italian: San Giovanni da Capestrano, Hungarian: Kapisztrán János, Polish: Jan Kapistran, Croatian: Ivan Kapistran, Serbian: Јован Капистран, Jovan Kapistran) (24 June 1386 – 23 October 1456) was a Franciscan friar and Catholic priest from the Italian town of Capestrano, Abruzzo.
John of Montecorvino or Giovanni da Montecorvino in Italian (1247–1328) was an Italian Franciscan missionary, traveller and statesman, founder of the earliest Roman Catholic missions in India and China, and archbishop of Peking.
The Blessed John of Parma, O.F.M., was an Italian Franciscan friar, who served as one of the first Ministers General of the Order of Friars Minor (1247–1257).
José Rodríguez Carballo (born 11 August 1953) is a Catholic archbishop and official of the Roman Curia.
Joseph of Cupertino, O.F.M. Conv. (Giuseppe da Copertino) (June 17, 1603 – September 18, 1663) was an Italian Conventual Franciscan friar who is honored as a Christian mystic and saint.
Saint Junípero Serra y Ferrer, O.F.M., (Juníper Serra i Ferrer) (November 24, 1713August 28, 1784) was a Roman Catholic Spanish priest and friar of the Franciscan Order who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, in what was then Alta California in the Province of Las Californias, New Spain.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.
Saint Leonard of Port Maurice, O.F.M., (San Leonardo da Porto Maurizio) (born 20 December 1676, at Porto Maurizio on the Riviera di Ponente; died at the friary of St. Bonaventure, Rome, 26 November 1751) was an Italian Franciscan preacher and ascetic writer.
A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to quarantine people with leprosy (Hansen's disease).
This is a list of the ministers general of the Order of Friars Minor.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
Luchesius Modestini, T.O.S.F. (also Luchesio, Lucchese, Lucesio, Lucio, or Luchesius of Poggibonsi) (1180 - 1260) is honored by tradition within the Franciscan Order as being, along with his wife, Buonadonna de' Segni, the first members of the Franciscan Order of Penance, most commonly referred to as the Third Order of St. Francis.
Luke Wadding, O.F.M. (16 October 1588 – 18 November 1657), was an Irish Franciscan friar and historian.
Mamerto Esquiú Medina (11 May 1826 - 10 January 1883) - born Mamerto de la Ascensión Esquiú - was an Argentine Roman Catholic professed member from the Order of Friars Minor and the Bishop of Córdoba from 1880 until his death.
Antonio of Vicenza (1 March 1834 — 22 June 1884) born in Vicenza, died in Rovigno, was a Reformed Minorite.
Martín de Valencia was born in Valencia de Don Juan, in the bishopric of Oviedo, Spain, ca.
The Blessed Mary Frances Schervier, S.P.S.F., (8 January 1819 – 14 December 1876) was the foundress of two religious congregations of Religious Sisters of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis, both committed to serving the neediest of the poor.
Matteo Serafini (Matteo da Bascio) (b. in 1495, at Molino di Bascio, Diocese of Montefeltro, in the Duchy of Urbino; d. at Venice in 1552) was the co-founder and first Superior-General of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, the principal branch of the Franciscans issued from the Reform of the Observance.
Matthew 10 is the tenth chapter in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament section of the Christian Bible.
Matthew of Aquasparta (Matteo di Aquasparta, 1240 – 29 October 1302) was an Italian Friar Minor and scholastic philosopher.
Matthew Paris, known as Matthew of Paris (Latin: Matthæus Parisiensis, "Matthew the Parisian"; c. 1200 – 1259), was a Benedictine monk, English chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts and cartographer, based at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire.
Saint Maximilian Maria Kolbe (Maksymilian Maria Kolbe; 8 January 1894 – 14 August 1941) was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Mendicant orders are, primarily, certain Christian religious orders that have adopted a lifestyle of poverty, traveling, and living in urban areas for purposes of preaching, evangelism, and ministry, especially to the poor.
Michael of Cesena (Michele di Cesena or Michele Fuschi) (c. 1270 – 29 November 1342) was an Italian Franciscan, general of that Order, and theologian.
The Minims (also called the Minimi or Order of Minims, abbreviated O.M.) are members of a Roman Catholic religious order of friars founded by Saint Francis of Paola in fifteenth-century Italy.
Minister General is the term used for the leader or Superior General of the different branches of the Order of Friars Minor.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Mount Zion (הַר צִיּוֹן, Har Tsiyyon; جبل صهيون, Jabal Sahyoun) is a hill in Jerusalem just outside the walls of the Old City.
Mychal Judge, O.F.M. (aka Michael Fallon Judge, May 11, 1933 – September 11, 2001), was a Franciscan friar and Catholic priest who served as a chaplain to the New York City Fire Department.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
__notoc__ 1479 Nicholas of Lyra (Nicolas de Lyre; c. 1270 – October 1349), or Nicolaus Lyranus, a Franciscan teacher, was among the most influential practitioners of Biblical exegesis in the Middle Ages.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
The term Old Catholic Church was used from the 1850s, by groups which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had already existed long before the term.
Oliver Maillard (b. at Juignac, (?), Brittany, about 1430; d. at Toulouse, 22 July 1502) was a Breton Franciscan preacher.
The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; postnominal abbreviation O.F.M.) is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi.
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (postnominal abbr. O.F.M.Cap.) is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans.
The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv), commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, or Minorites, is a branch of the Catholic Order of Friars Minor, founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209.
The Order of Lutheran Franciscans is a religious order affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
The Order of Saint Francis (OSF) is an active, Apostolic Christian religious order within the in the Franciscan tradition.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism.
Padre Pio, also known as Saint Pio of Pietrelcina (Pio da Pietrelcina), O.F.M. Cap. (May 25, 1887September 23, 1968), was a friar, priest, stigmatist, and mystic, now venerated as a saint of the Catholic church.
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pasquale Sarullo was a 19th-century Franciscan friar, priest and artist.
Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.
Peter John Olivi, also Pierre de Jean Olivi or Petrus Joannis Olivi (1248 – March 14, 1298), was a Franciscan theologian who, although he died professing the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, became a controversial figure in the arguments surrounding poverty at the beginning of the 14th century.
Peter Waldo, Valdo, Valdes, or Waldes (c. 1140 – c. 1205), also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was a leader of the Waldensians, a Christian spiritual movement of the Middle Ages.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Pietro Caperolo (date of birth unknown; d. at Velletri in 1480) was an Italian Franciscan preacher.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poor Clares, officially the Order of Saint Clare (Ordo sanctae Clarae) – originally referred to as the Order of Poor Ladies, and later the Clarisses, the Minoresses, the Franciscan Clarist Order, and the Second Order of Saint Francis – are members of a contemplative Order of nuns in the Catholic Church.
The Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration (PCPA) are a branch of the Poor Clares, a contemplative order of nuns in the Franciscan tradition.
The Poor Sisters of St.
Pope Alexander IV (1199 or ca. 1185 – 25 May 1261) was Pope from 12 December 1254 to his death in 1261.
Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922), was head of the Catholic Church from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922.
Pope Clement V (Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314.
Clement VI (Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352.
Pope Eugene IV (Eugenius IV; 1383 – 23 February 1447), born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447.
Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.
Pope Martin V (Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born Otto (or Oddone) Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431.
Pope Nicholas III (Nicolaus III; c. 1225 – 22 August 1280), born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.
Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate that that individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute or fraternity.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A provincial superior is a major superior of a religious institute acting under the institute's Superior General and exercising a general supervision over all the members of that institute in a territorial division of the order called a province—similar to but not to be confused with an ecclesiastical province made up of particular churches or dioceses under the supervision of a Metropolitan Bishop.
Raymond de Gaufredi (died 1310), sometimes anglicized as Raymond Godefroy, was Minister General of the Francican Order from 1289 to 1295.
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.
In the Roman Catholic Church, a religious institute is "a society in which members...pronounce public vows...and lead a life of brothers or sisters in common".
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.
Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Robert of Anjou (Roberto d'Angiò), known as Robert the Wise (Roberto il Saggio; 1275 – 20 January 1343), was King of Naples, titular King of Jerusalem and Count of Provence and Forcalquier from 1309 to 1343, the central figure of Italian politics of his time.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Assisi-Nocera Umbra-Gualdo Tadino (Dioecesis Assisiensis-Nucerina-Tadinensis) in Umbria, has existed since 1986.
The Diocese of Belcastro (Latin: Dioecesis Bellicastrensis) in the town of Belcastro in the province of Catanzaro, in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
As known, Saint Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule.
The Sacro Convento is a Franciscan friary in Assisi, Umbria, Italy.
Sancia of Majorca (c. 1285 – 28 July 1345), also known as Sancha, was Queen of Naples from 1309 until 1343 as the wife of Robert the Wise.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1274.
When referring to Roman Catholic religious orders, the term Second Order refers to those Orders of cloistered nuns which are a part of the mendicant Orders that developed in the Middle Ages.
The term secular clergy refers to deacons and priests who are not monastics or members of a religious institute.
The Secular Franciscan Order (Ordo Franciscanus Saecularis, postnominal abbreviation O.F.S.; also called the Third Order Secular) is a community of Catholic men and women in the world who seek to pattern their lives after Jesus in the spirit of Francis of Assisi.
Sefro is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Macerata in the Italian region Marche, located about southwest of Ancona and about southwest of Macerata.
Singleness of heart (also called singleheartedness) is the ideal of having sole devotion to a task or endeavour.
The Society of Saint Francis (SSF) is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion.
The Society of the Atonement, also known as the Friars and Sisters of the Atonement or Graymoor Friars and Sisters is a Franciscan religious congregation in the Latin Rite branch of the Catholic Church.
Stigmata (singular stigma) is a term used by members of the Catholic faith to describe body marks, sores, or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ, such as the hands, wrists, and feet.
Studium Biblicum Franciscanum is a Franciscan academic society based in Jerusalem.
The Studium Biblicum Version (Sīgāo Běn 思高本) is the predominant Chinese language translation of the Bible used by Chinese Catholics.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The tau cross is a T-shaped cross all three ends of which are sometimes expanded.
In relation to religious orders, a third order is an association of persons who live according to the ideals and spirit of a Catholic, Anglican, or Lutheran religious order, but do not belong to its "first order" (generally, in the Catholic Church, the male religious: for example Franciscans, Dominicans, Carmelite and Augustinian friars), or its "second order" (contemplative female religious associated with the "first order").
The Third Order of Saint Francis, historically known as the Order of Penance of Saint Francis, is a third order within the Franciscan movement of the Catholic Church.
The Third Order Regular of St.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas of Celano (italic; c. 1185 – 4 October 1265) was an Italian friar of the Franciscans (Order of Friars Minor) as well as a poet and the author of three hagiographies about Saint Francis of Assisi.
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
Toribio of Benavente, O.F.M. (1482, Benavente, Spain – 1568, Mexico City, New Spain), also known as Motolinía, was a Franciscan missionary who was one of the famous Twelve Apostles of Mexico who arrived in New Spain in May 1524.
The Twelve Apostles of Mexico, or Twelve Apostles of New Spain, were a group of twelve Franciscan missionaries who arrived in the newly-founded Viceroyalty of New Spain on May 13 or 14, 1524 and reached Mexico City on June 17 or 18.
Ubertino of Casale (1259 – c. 1329) was an Italian Franciscan and one of the leaders (together with Michael of Cesena) of the Spirituals, the stricter branch of the Franciscan order.
Umbria is a region of central Italy.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The Via Dolorosa (Latin for "Way of Grief," "Way of Sorrow," "Way of Suffering" or simply "Painful Way"; Hebrew: ויה דולורוזה; طريق الآلام) is a street within the Old City of Jerusalem, believed to be the path that Jesus walked on the way to his crucifixion.
Since the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Calvary, a number of people have claimed to have had visions of Jesus Christ and personal conversations with him.
William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.
In Roman Catholicism, the expression zelanti has been applied to conservative members of the clergy and their lay supporters since the thirteenth century.
Francis, Rule of Saint, Franciscan, Franciscan Friars, Franciscan Friars Minor, Franciscan Order, Franciscan Order in modern times, Franciscan Orders, Franciscan friar, Franciscan friars, Franciscan monk, Franciscan movement, Franciscan order, Franciscan order in modern times, Franciscan priest, Franciscan priests, Franciscan spirituality, Franciscanism, Fransiscan, Frati Minori, Fratres Minores, Fratres minores, Friar Minor, Friar minor, Friars Minor, Grey Friars, Grey friar, Grey friars, Greyfriar, List of Franciscan organizations, Minor Friars, Minorite, Minorites, Observance movement, Order of St Francis, Order of St. Francis.