432 relations: A Coruña, Abd el-Krim, Abortion, Abwehr, Acción Española, Admiral, Adolf Hitler, Agustín Muñoz Grandes, Airbridge (logistics), Aircraft pilot, Al Hoceima, Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alfredo Mayo, Algerian War, Alicante, Anarchism, Andalusia, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Andrew Sachs, Annual, Morocco, António de Oliveira Salazar, Anthony Quinn, Anti-clericalism, Anti-Comintern Pact, Anti-communism, Anti-Masonry, Antony Beevor, Aragon, Archive, Armed Police Corps, Army of Africa (Spain), Art exhibition, Assassination of Luis Carrero Blanco, Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory, Asturian miners' strike of 1934, Asturias, Augusto Pinochet, Austrians, Autarky, Autocracy, Aviation accidents and incidents, Axis powers, Álava, Álex de la Iglesia, Édouard Daladier, Baldachin, Balearic Islands, Balkans, Barakah, ..., Barcelona, Basque language, Basque nationalism, Basque Nationalist Party, Battle of Annual, Battle of Badajoz (1936), Battle of France, Battle of Guadalajara, Battle of Mérida, BBC, BBC News, Behold a Pale Horse (film), Benito Mussolini, Birth control, Biscay, Blue Division, Bordighera, Breton language, British Overseas Territories, Bullfighting, Burgos, By the Grace of God, Cadet, Calendar of saints, Cambridge University Press, Cameroon, Camp Vernet, Canary Islands, Capital punishment, Captain general, Captain general of the Air Force, Captain general of the Army, Captain general of the Navy, Cara al Sol, Carlism, Carlist Wars, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Carmen Franco, 1st Duchess of Franco, Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meirás, Castilian Spanish, Catalan independence movement, Catalan language, Catalan nationalism, Catalonia, Catholic Church, Caudillo, Cecil Bebb, Chevy Chase, Chile, Christian state, Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration, Civil Guard (Spain), Classical liberalism, Cold War, Colonel, Coma, Communism, Communist Party of Spain, Condor Legion, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, Congress of Deputies, Conservatism, Constitution of Spain, Corpo Truppe Volontarie, Cortes Generales, Crusades, Cuéntame cómo pasó, Currency of Spain, Czechoslovakia, De Havilland Dragon Rapide, Dictator, Diego Hidalgo y Durán, Disputed status of Gibraltar, Divine providence, Divorce, Drancy internment camp, Durruti Column, Dwight D. 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A Coruña (is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country. The city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having also served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean. It provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region.
Abd el-Krim (1882–83, Ajdir – February 6, 1963, Cairo) was a Riffian political and military leader.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
Acción Española (Spanish Action) or AE was a Spanish cultural association active during the Second Spanish Republic, meeting point of the ultraconservative and far right intellectual figures that endorsed the restoration of the Monarchy.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Agustín Muñoz Grandes (27 January 1896 – 11 July 1970) was a Spanish general, and politician, vice-president of the Spanish Government and minister with Francisco Franco several times; also known as the commander of the Blue Division between 1941 and 1942.
An airbridge is the route and means of delivering material from one place to another by an airlift.
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.
Al Hoceima (in the Berber language: Eřḥusima or Elḥusima, Taɣzut, Taghzut and also Tijdit, in Arabic: الحسيمة, in Spanish: Alhucemas) is a city in the north of Morocco, on the northern edge of the Rif Mountains and on the Mediterranean coast.
Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel y Nebreda, 1st Count of Rodríguez de Valcárcel (25 December 1917 – 22 November 1976) was a Francoist Spanish politician, who served in important positions under Francisco Franco.
Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.
Alfredo Fernández Martínez (born 17 May 1911 in Barcelona - 19 May 1985 in Palma de Mallorca) better known as Alfredo Mayo was a Spanish actor.
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber Kt (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre.
Andreas Siegfried "Andrew" Sachs (7 April 1930 – 23 November 2016) was a British actor.
Annual or Anoual (أنوال Anwāl) is a settlement in northeastern Morocco about 60 km west of Melilla.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
Antonio Rodolfo Oaxaca Quinn (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001), more commonly known as Anthony Quinn, was a Mexican-American actor, painter and writer.
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "avowed opposition to Freemasonry".
Sir Antony James Beevor, (born 14 December 1946) is an English military historian.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
The Policía Armada (Armed Police), conventional long names Cuerpo de Policía Armada y de Tráfico and Fuerzas de Policía Armada, —popularly known as los grises (the grey ones) owing to the color of their uniforms— was an armed urban police force of Spain established by the Francoist State in 1939 to enforce the repression of all opposition to the regime.
The Army of Africa (Ejército de África, الجيش الإسباني في أفريقيا, Al-Jaysh al-Isbānī fī Afriqā) or "Moroccan Army Corps" (Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí') was a field army of the Spanish Army that garrisoned the Spanish protectorate in Morocco from the late 19th century until Morocco's independence in 1956. At the start of the 20th century, the Spanish Empire's colonial possessions in Africa comprised Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Cape Juby and Spanish Guinea.
An art exhibition is traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience.
The assassination of Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco, also known by its code name Operación Ogro (Operation Ogre) had far-reaching consequences within the politics of Spain.
The Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica or ARMH in Spanish) is a Spanish organization that collects the oral and written testimonies about the White Terror of Francisco Franco and excavates and identifies their bodies that were often dumped in mass graves.
The Asturian miners' strike of 1934 was a major strike action, against the entry of the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA) into the Spanish government on October 6, which took place in Asturias in northern Spain, that developed into a revolutionary uprising.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, where a person is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.
Alejandro "Álex" de la Iglesia Mendoza (born 4 December 1965) is a Spanish film director, screenwriter, producer and former comic book artist.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
A baldachin, or baldaquin (from baldacchino), is a canopy of state typically placed over an altar or throne.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
In Islam, Barakah or Baraka (بركة) is a kind of continuity of spiritual presence and revelation that begins with God and flows through that and those closest to God.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Basque nationalism (eusko abertzaletasuna) is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques, an ethnic group indigenous to the western Pyrenees, are a nation, and promotes the political unity of the Basques.
The Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ; Partido Nacionalista Vasco, PNV; Parti Nationaliste Basque, PNB; EAJ-PNV) is a Christian democratic and Basque nationalist party.
The Battle of Annual was fought on July 22, 1921, at Annual in Spanish Morocco, between the Spanish Army of Africa and Berber combatants of the Rif region during the Rif War.
The Battle of Badajoz was one of the first major Nationalist victories in the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Guadalajara (March 8–23, 1937) saw the People's Republican Army (Ejército Popular Republicano, or EPR) defeat Italian and Nationalist forces attempting to encircle Madrid during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Mérida saw Republican militia twice fail to halt the Spanish Army of Africa near the historic town of Mérida early in the Spanish Civil War.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Behold a Pale Horse is a 1964 film directed by Fred Zinnemann and starring Gregory Peck, Omar Sharif and Anthony Quinn.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.
The Blue Division (División Azul, Blaue Division), officially designated as División Española de Voluntarios by the Spanish Army and 250.
Bordighera (A Bordighea, locally A Burdighea) is a town and comune in the Province of Imperia, Liguria (Italy).
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations.
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile.
By the Grace of God (Latin Dei Gratia, abbreviated D.G.) is an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch historically considered to be ruling by divine right, not a title in its own right.
A cadet is a trainee.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Le Vernet Internment Camp, or Camp Vernet, was a concentration camp in Le Vernet, Ariège, near Pamiers, in the French Pyrenees.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank of general officer grade, and a gubernatorial title.
Air Captain General also named Captain General of the Air Force (Capitán General del Aire / Capitán General del Ejército del Aire in Spanish) is a five-star air force officer rank and the highest rank of the Spanish Air Force.
Captain General (Capitán General in Spanish) has been the highest rank in the Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra) since the 18th century.
Captain general of the Navy (capitán general de la Armada in Spanish) is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Spanish Navy (Armada Española).
Cara al Sol (Facing the Sun) is the anthem of the Falange Española de las JONS.
Carlism (Karlismo; Carlisme) is a Traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.
The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century.
Carlton Joseph Huntley Hayes (May 16, 1882 – September 2, 1964) was an American historian, educator, diplomat, devout Catholic and academic.
María del Carmen Franco y Polo, 1st Duchess of Franco, Grandee of Spain, Dowager Marchioness of Villaverde (14 September 1926 – 29 December 2017) was the only child of Spain's Caudillo General Francisco Franco and his wife Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdés.
María del Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdés, 1st Lady of Meirás, Grandee of Spain (11 June 1900 – 6 February 1988) was the wife of General and dictator Francisco Franco.
In English, Castilian Spanish sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.
The Catalan independence movement (independentisme català; Spanish: independentismo catalán) is a political movement historically derived from Catalan nationalism, which seeks independence of Catalonia from Spain.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalan nationalism is the ideology asserting that the Catalans are a nation.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A caudillo (Old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") was a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power.
Captain Charles William Henry "Cecil" Bebb (27 September 1905 – 2002) was a British commercial pilot and later airline executive, notable for flying General Francisco Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco in 1936, a journey which was to trigger the onset of the Spanish Civil War.
Cornelius Crane "Chevy" Chase (born October 8, 1943) is an American actor, comedian and writer.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
The Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration is a museum of immigration history located in the 12th arrondissement of Paris at 293, avenue Daumesnil.
The Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) is the oldest law enforcement agency in Spain.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España; PCE) is a historically Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, is part of the United Left coalition.
The Condor Legion (Legion Condor) was a unit composed of military personnel from the air force and army of Nazi Germany, which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939.
The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour; CNT) is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT).
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.
The Corps of Volunteer Troops (Corpo Truppe Volontarie, CTV) was a Fascist Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support the Nationalist forces under General Francisco Franco against the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, 1936–39.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cuéntame cómo pasó (Tell me how it happened), usually shortened to Cuéntame and also known in English as Remember When, is a Spanish television drama series which has been broadcast on La 1 of Televisión Española since 2001.
This is a list of currency of Spain.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide was a 1930s short-haul biplane airliner developed and produced by British aircraft company de Havilland.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Diego Hidalgo y Durán (1886–1961) was a Spanish intellectual and politician, who was appointed Minister of War during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1936).
Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the subject of an irredentist territorial claim by Spain.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
The Drancy internment camp was an assembly and detention camp for confining Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps during the German military administration of Occupied France during World War II.
The Durruti Column (Spanish: Columna Durruti), with about 6,000 people, was the largest anarchist column (or military unit) formed during the Spanish Civil War.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Eduardo López Ochoa y Portoundo (1877, Barcelona – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish general, Africanist, and prominent Freemason.
Agencia EFE, S.A. is a Spanish international news agency, the major multimedia news agency in Spanish language and the world's fourth largest wire service after the Associated Press, Reuters, and Agence France-Presse.
El Ministerio del Tiempo, or The Ministry of Time, is a Spanish fantasy television series created by Javier and Pablo Olivares and produced by Onza Partners and Cliffhanger for Televisión Española.
El Mundo (The World), formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno (The World of the Twenty-First Century) is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain.
El País (literally The Country) is the most read newspaper (231,140 printed copies) in Spain and the most circulated daily newspaper (180,765 circulation average), according to data certified by the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) and referring to the period of January 2017 to December 2017.
Eleuterio Sánchez Rodríguez (born 15 April 1942), known as El Lute, was at one time listed as Spain's "Most Wanted" criminal and later became a published writer.
Emilio Mola y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee of Spain (9 July 1887 – 3 June 1937) was a Spanish Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
Ernst Nolte (11 January 1923 – 18 August 2016) was a German historian and philosopher.
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty"), was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).
The European Civil War is a concept meant to describe a series of 19th and 20th century conflicts in Europe as segments of an overarching civil war within a supposed European society.
Euzko Gudarostea (modern spelling: Eusko Gudarostea, "Basque army") was the name of the army commanded by the Basque Government during the Spanish civil war.
Evita is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics and book by Tim Rice.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Spanish for "Spanish Phalanx of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive"; FE de las JONS for short), or simply called the Falange, was a fascist and national syndicalist political party founded in 1934 in the Spain Republic as merger of the Falange Española (founded in October 1933) and the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (founded in October 1931).
Falangism (falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fawlty Towers is a British television sitcom broadcast on BBC2 in 1975 and 1979.
Felipe González Márquez (born 5 March 1942) is a Spanish lawyer, professor, and politician, who was the Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) from 1974 to 1997, and the 3rd Prime Minister of Spain since the restoration of democracy, from 1982 to 1996.
Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium, modern day Cape Prior), is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain.
The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (English: Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist State in Spain.
The Fiat CR.32 was an Italian biplane fighter used in the Spanish Civil War and World War II.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.
The Spanish Civil War had large numbers of non-Spanish citizens participating in combat and advisory positions.
Francisco Gómez-Jordana y Sousa, 1st Count de Jordana, OCIII (1 February 1876 – 3 August 1944), was a Spanish soldier and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs during the rule of Francisco Franco.
Franco, ese hombre, translated into English as Franco, that man, is a 1964 documentary film by Spanish director José Luis Sáenz de Heredia.
In Francoist Spain between 1936 and 1947, concentration camps were created and coordinated by the Servicio de Colonias Penitenciarias Militarizadas.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The French Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) (FFL; Légion étrangère, L.É.) is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.
The Fueros of Navarre (Fuero General de Navarra, Nafarroako Foru Orokorra, meaning in English General Charter of Navarre) were the laws of the Kingdom of Navarre up to 1841, tracing its origins to the Early Middle Ages and issued from Basque consuetudinary law prevalent across the (western) Pyrenees.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.
"Generalissimo Francisco Franco is still dead" is a catchphrase that originated in 1975 during the first season of NBC's Saturday Night (now called Saturday Night Live, or SNL) and which mocked the weeks-long media reports of the Spanish Caudillo's impending death.
The Government of Catalonia or the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan;,; Generalidad de Cataluña) is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gipuzkoa (in Guipúzcoa) is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Sierra, 1st Marquis of Queipo de Llano for one year, (5 February 1875 – 9 March 1951) was a Spanish military leader who rose to prominence during Francisco Franco's coup d'état and the subsequent Spanish Civil War and Spanish White Terror.
The Green March was a strategic mass demonstration in November 1975, coordinated by the Moroccan government, to force Spain to hand over the disputed, autonomous semi-metropolitan province of Spanish Sahara to Morocco.
The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian Peninsula and the second longest river with its entire length in Spain.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gurs Internment Camp was a internment camp and prisoner of war camp constructed in 1939 in Gurs, a site in southwestern France, not far from Pau.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Heinkel He 51 was a German single-seat biplane which was produced in a number of different versions.
Helen Graham (DPhil, Oxford) is an English historian, the Professor of Modern Spanish History at the Department of History, Royal Holloway University of London.
Hendaye (Basque: Hendaia) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department and Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
Law 57/2007 That recognises and broadens the rights and establishes measures in favour of those who suffered prosecution or violence during the Civil War and the Dictatorship (in Spanish: Ley 57/2007 por la que se reconocen y amplían derechos y se establecen medidas en favor de quienes padecieron persecución o violencia durante la Guerra Civil y la Dictadura), commonly known as Historical Memory Law (Sp: Ley de Memoria Histórica) is a Spanish law passed by the Congress of Deputies on 31 October 2007.
The documented history of Madrid dates to the 9th century, even though the area has been inhabited since the Stone Age.
The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Major Hugh Bertie Campbell Pollard (born London 6 January 1888: died Midhurst district March, 1966) was an author, firearms expert, and a British SOE officer.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ifni was a Spanish province on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands.
The Ifni War, sometimes called the Forgotten War in Spain (la Guerra Olvidada), was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by Moroccan insurgents that began in October 1957 and culminated with the abortive siege of Sidi Ifni.
An Ikastola (plural ikastolak) is a type of primary and secondary school in the Basque Autonomous Community, Navarre and (to a much lesser extent) the French Basque Country (see Basque Country) in which pupils are taught either entirely or predominantly in the Basque language.
According to the French national institute of statistics INSEE, the 2014 census counted nearly 6 million immigrants (foreign-born people) in France, representing 9.1% of the total population.
Infante Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona (Juan Carlos Teresa Silverio Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg; 20 June 1913 – 1 April 1993), was the third son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
There were internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II.
Irun (Irún, Irun) is a town of the Bidasoaldea region in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
Jean Stapleton (born Jeanne Murray; January 19, 1923 – May 31, 2013) was an American character actress of stage, television, and film.
John Marwood Cleese (born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, voice actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer.
Pär-Ola Jonas Jonasson (born Per Ola Jonasson; 6 July 1961) is a Swedish journalist and writer, best known as the author of the best-seller The Hundred-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared.
José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia, 1st Duke of Primo de Rivera, 3rd Marquis of Estella, GdE (April 24, 1903 – November 20, 1936), often referred to as José Antonio, was a Spanish lawyer, nobleman, politician, and founder of the Falange Española ("Spanish Phalanx"), later Falange Española de las JONS.
José Calvo Sotelo (6 May 1893 – 13 July 1936) was a Spanish politician, minister of Finance during the Dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera and a leading figure of the anti-republican radical right during the Second Republic.
José del Castillo Sáez de Tejada or José Castillo (29 June 1901, Alcalá la Real – 12 July 1936, Madrid) was a Spanish Police Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) lieutenant during the Second Spanish Republic.
José Enrique Varela Iglesias, 1st Marquis of San Fernando de Varela (April 17, 1891 in San Fernando, Cadiz, Spain – March 24, 1951 in Tangier) was a Spanish military officer noted for his role as a Nationalist commander in the Spanish Civil War.
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960) is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
José Luis Sáenz de Heredia (10 April 1911 – 4 November 1992) was a Spanish film director.
José Miaja Menant (20 April 1878 in Oviedo, Asturias – 14 January 1958 in Mexico) was an army officer of the Second Spanish Republic.
José Millán-Astray y Terreros (July 5, 1879 – January 1, 1954) was a Spanish soldier, the founder and first commander of the Spanish Foreign Legion, and a major early figure of Francisco Franco's Regime in Spain.
General José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, 1st Marquess of the Rif (28 March 1872 – 20 July 1936), was a General in the Spanish Army who was one of the chief conspirators in the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
Juan Diego (born 14 December 1942 in Bormujos, Seville, Spain), full name Juan Diego Ruíz Montero is a Spanish actor who has appeared on stage, in television and film productions since 1957.
Juan Echanove Labanda (1 April 1961, Madrid) is a Spanish actor.
Juan Negrín y López (3 February 1892 – 12 November 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician.
Juan Yagüe y Blanco, 1st Marquis of San Leonardo de Yagüe (19 November 1891 – 21 October 1952) was a Spanish army officer during the Spanish Civil War, one of the most important in the National side.
The Junkers Ju 52/3m (nicknamed Tante Ju ("Aunt Ju") and Iron Annie) is a German trimotor transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952.
Kenneth Charles Loach (born 17 June 1936) is an English director of television and independent film.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Land and Freedom (or Tierra y Libertad) is a 1995 film directed by Ken Loach and written by Jim Allen.
Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of the Spanish language (Castilian) over the other languages of Spain.
The Royal and Military Order of Saint Ferdinand (Real y Militar Orden de San Fernando), is a Spanish military order whose decoration, known as Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand (Cruz Laureada de San Fernando), is Spain's highest military decoration for gallantry.
Law enforcement in France has a long history dating back to AD 570, when night watch systems were commonplace.
The Law of Political Responsibilities (Ley de Responsabilidades Políticas) was a law issued by the Francoist dictatorship on 13 February 1939 two months before the end of the Spanish Civil War.
Léo Ferré (24 August 1916 – 14 July 1993) was a French-born Monégasque poet and composer, and a dynamic and controversial live performer, whose career in France dominated the years after the Second World War until his death.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The League of Polish Families (Polish: Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) is a nationalist conservative political party in Poland, part of the Catholic-National Movement and with many elements of far-right ideology.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Legitimists (Légitimistes) are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
This is a list of Spanish Heads of State; that is, kings and presidents that governed the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Spain is the head of the Government of Spain.
Lluís Companys i Jover (June 21, 1882 – October 15, 1940) was a Spanish politician from Catalonia.
A loan guarantee, in finance, is a promise by one party (the guarantor) to assume the debt obligation of a borrower if that borrower defaults.
A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.
In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, 1st Duke of Carrero Blanco, GE, OCIII, OIC (4 March 1904 – 20 December 1973) was a Spanish Navy officer and politician, who was Prime Minister of Spain from June to December 1973.
Maciej Marian Giertych (born March 24, 1936 in Warsaw) is a Polish dendrologist and social conservative politician of the League of Polish Families (LPR).
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (24 March 1903 – 14 November 1990) was an English journalist and satirist.
The Maltese Government 2013–2017 was the current Government of Malta from 11 March 2013 till 1 May 2017.
Manuel Alexandre Abarca OAXS MML (11 November 1917 – 12 October 2010) was a Spanish film and television actor.
Manuel Azaña Díaz (10 January 1880 – 3 November 1940) was the second Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1933), and later served again as Prime Minister (1936), and then as the second and last President of the Republic (1936–1939).
Manuel Fal Conde, 1st Duke of Quintillo (1894–1975) was a Spanish Catholic activist and a Carlist politician.
Manuel Hedilla Larrey (born July 18, 1902 in Ambrosero, Cantabria – died February 4, 1970 in Madrid) was a Spanish political figure who was a leading member of the Falange and an early rival for power towards Francisco Franco.
Maqueda is a Spanish town located 80 kilometers from Madrid and 45 kilometers from Toledo.
María Teresa Fernández de la Vega Sanz, LLD (born 15 June 1949) is a Spanish Socialist politician.
The "Marcha Real" ("Royal March") is the national anthem of Spain.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by the Catholic Church to the people who were killed by Republicans during the war because of their faith.
The Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen (roughly east of Linz, Upper Austria) plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany.
Meg Ryan (born Margaret Mary Emily Anne Hyra; November 19, 1961) is an American actress, director, and producer.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer (1 January 1872 in Cartagena – 14 May 1938) was a Spanish Army officer during the Spanish Civil War.
Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, GE, OIC, OSH, LCSF, OMC, OTS, KOC (8 January 1870 – 16 March 1930) was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Miranda de Ebro is a city on the Ebro river in the province of Burgos in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
Mohammed V (10 August 1909 – 26 February 1961) (محمد الخامس) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1953; he was recognized as Sultan again upon his return from exile in 1955, and as King from 1957 to 1961.
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Monorchism (also monorchidism) is the state of having only one testicle within the scrotum.
Morón Air Base is located at in southern Spain, approximately southeast of the city of Seville.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement) was the name given to the nationalist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which purported to be the only channel of participation to Spanish public life.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Naval Station Rota, also known as NAVSTA Rota, (Base Naval de Rota), is a Spanish naval base commanded by a Spanish Rear Admiral and fully funded by the United States of America.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
Nicolás Franco Bahamonde (1 July 1891 - 15 April 1977) was a Spanish politician.
During the Spanish Civil War, several countries followed a principle of non-intervention, to avoid any potential escalation and possible expansion of the war to other nations, which would result in the signing of the Non-Intervention Agreement in August 1936 and the setting up of the Non-Intervention Committee, which first met in September.
Nazism and occultism describes a range of theories, speculation and research into the origins of Nazism and its possible relation to various occult traditions.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Opus Dei, formally known as The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei (Praelatura Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei), is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church which teaches that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity.
The Organisation armée secrète or OAS (meaning Secret Army Organisation) was a short-lived right-wing French dissident paramilitary organization during the Algerian War (1954–62).
Otto von Habsburg (20 November 1912 4 July 2011), also known by his traditional royal title of Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1919, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
Oviedo or Uviéu (officially in Asturian) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region.
Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto (12 July 1904 – 23 September 1973), better known by his pen name and, later, legal name Pablo Neruda, was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician.
The Pact of Madrid, signed in 1953 by Spain and the United States of America, ended a period of virtual isolation for Spain.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pan's Labyrinth (lit) is a 2006 dark fantasy drama film written and directed by Guillermo del Toro.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Sir Paul Preston CBE (born 21 July 1946 in Liverpool) is an English historian and Hispanist, biographer of Franco, specialist in Spanish history, in particular the Spanish Civil War, which he has studied for more than 30 years.
Pazo de Meirás is a pazo (manor house) in Sada, Province of A Coruña, Galicia, Spain.
Pedro Aguirre Cerda (February 6, 1879 – November 25, 1941) was a Chilean political figure.
Pegaso ("Pegasus") was a Spanish manufacturer of trucks, omnibuses, tractors, armored vehicles, and, for a while, sports cars.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
The plazas de soberanía (literally "places of sovereignty") are the Spanish sovereign territories in North Africa.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The Popular Front (Frente Popular) in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organizations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election.
Positive Christianity (Positives Christentum) was a movement within Nazi Germany which mixed ideas of racial purity and Nazi ideology with elements of Christianity.
President of the Republic (Presidente de la República) was the title of the head of state during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39).
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
A pronunciamiento (pronunciamento; "pronouncement, announcement or declaration") is a form of military rebellion or coup d'état particular to Spain, Portugal and Latin America, particularly in the 19th century.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quinqui jargon is associated with quincalleros (tinkers), a semi-nomadic group who live mainly in the northern half of Spain.
The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.
Rainier III (born Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 1923 – 6 April 2005) ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost 56 years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs in European history.
Ramón Franco Bahamonde (born 2 February 1896 in the naval station of Ferrol in Galicia, Spain –28 October 1938), was a Spanish pioneer of aviation, a political figure and brother of later caudillo Francisco Franco.
Ramón Serrano Suñer (12 September 1901 – 1 September 2003), was a Spanish politician during the first stages of General Francisco Franco's Spanish State, between 1938 and 1942, when he held the posts of President of the Spanish Falange caucus (1936), and then Interior Minister and Foreign Affairs Minister.
Raza (English: Race) is a 1942 Spanish war film directed by José Luis Sáenz de Heredia.
The Red Terror in Spain (Terror Rojo) is the name given by some historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas ("Indigenous Regular Forces"), known simply as the Regulares (Regulars), are volunteer infantry units of the Spanish Army, largely recruited in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
Reichsführer-SS ("Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
Renovación Española (RE) was a Spanish monarchist political party active during the Second Spanish Republic, advocating the restoration of Alfonso XIII of Spain as opposed to Carlism.
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
The Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, ERC) is a Catalan nationalist and democratic socialist political party in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.
The Republican Union (Unión Republicana) was a Spanish republican party founded in 1934 by Diego Martinez Barrio.
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
The Revolution of 1934, also known as the Revolution of October 1934, or the Revolutionary General Strike of 1934 was a revolutionary strike movement that took place between October 5 and October 19, 1934, during the black biennium of the Second Spanish Republic.
Ricardo de la Cierva y Hoces (9 November 1926 – 19 November 2015) was a Spanish historian and politician.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Republic of the Rif (officially The Confederal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif) was a republic in northern Morocco that existed between 1921 and 1926.
The Rif War was an armed conflict fought from 1920 to 1927 between the colonial power Spain (later joined by France) and the Berber tribes of the Rif mountainous region. Led by Abd el-Krim, the Riffians at first inflicted several defeats on the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics and captured European weapons. After France's military intervention against Abd el-Krim's forces and the major landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, considered the first amphibious landing in history to involve the use of tanks and aircraft, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French and was taken into exile. In 1909, Rifian tribes aggressively confronted Spanish workers of the iron mines of the Rif, near Melilla, which led to the intervention of the Spanish Army. The military operations in Jebala, in the Moroccan West, began in 1911 with the Larache Landing. Spain worked to pacify a large part of the most violent areas until 1914, a slow process of consolidation of frontiers that lasted until 1919 due to World War I. The following year, after the signing of the Treaty of Fez, the northern Moroccan area was adjudicated to Spain as a protectorate. The Riffian populations strongly resisted the Spanish, unleashing a conflict that would last for several years. In 1921, the Spanish troops suffered the catastrophic Disaster of Annual, the biggest defeat in the history of Spain, in addition to a rebellion led by Rifian leader Abd el-Krim. As a result, the Spanish retreated to a few fortified positions while Abd el-Krim ultimately created an entire independent state: the Republic of the Rif. The development of the conflict and its end coincided with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who took on command of the campaign from 1924 to 1927. In addition, and after the Battle of Uarga in 1925, the French intervened in the conflict and established a joint collaboration with Spain that culminated in the notorious renowned Alhucemas landing. By 1926 the area had been pacified; Abd-el-Krim surrendered in July 1927; and the Spanish regained the previously lost territory. The Rif War is still considered controversial among historians. Some see in it a harbinger of the decolonization process in North Africa. Others consider it one of the last colonial wars, as it was the decision of the Spanish to conquer the Rif — nominally part of their Moroccan protectorate but de facto independent — that catalyzed the entry of France in 1924. The Rif War left a deep memory both in Spain and in Morocco. The Riffian insurgency of the 1920s can be interpreted as a precursor to the Algerian war of independence, which took place three decades later.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
The Gypsies in Spain, generally known as gitanos, belong to the Iberian Kale group, with smaller populations in Portugal (known as ciganos) and in southern France.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Band of Castile (Banda Real de Castilla), was the heraldic flag of the monarchs of the Crown of Castile, a personal banner of military use, distinctive indicating to the troops the presence of the monarch and allowed them to have identified his position in the battles.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Palace of El Pardo (Palacio Real de El Pardo) is a historic building near Madrid, Spain, in the present-day district of Fuencarral-El Pardo.
The Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, S.A. (Spanish Radio and Television Corporation) is the state-owned public corporation that assumed the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service formerly called Ente Público Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE Public Entity) in 2007.
Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood, (24 February 1880 – 7 May 1959), more commonly known as Sir Samuel Hoare, was a senior British Conservative politician who served in various Cabinet posts in the Conservative and National governments of the 1920s and 1930s.
Santiago Casares y Quiroga (A Coruña, Galicia, 8 May 1884 – Paris, 17 February 1950) was Prime Minister of Spain from 13 May to 19 July 1936.
The sardana (plural sardanes) is a type of circle dance typical of Catalan culture.
Saturday Night Live (SNL) is an American late-night live television variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol.
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero (Italian for sparrowhawk) was a three-engined Italian medium bomber developed and manufactured by aviation company Savoia-Marchetti.
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 Pipistrello (Italian: bat) was the first three-engine bomber/transport aircraft serving in the Italian Regia Aeronautica.
Scott Anderson is an American novelist, journalist, and a veteran war correspondent.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
SEAT, S.A. (Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo) is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Martorell, Catalonia.
The Second Melillan campaign (the "Melilla War" or Guerra de Melilla in Spanish) was a conflict in 1909 and 1910 in Morocco around Melilla.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
Shock troops or assault troops are formations created to lead an attack.
The Siege of Madrid was a two and a half year siege of the Spanish capital city of Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic Nationalist victory in Toledo in the opening stages of the Spanish Civil War.
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write, compose, and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish State under the dictatorship of General Franco did not officially join the Axis Powers during World War II.
The Spanish Armed Forces are in charge of guaranteeing the sovereignty and independence of Spain, defender of its territorial integrity and the constitutional order, according to the functions entrusted in the Constitution of 1978.
The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra; "Army of the Land/Ground") is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, CEDA) was a Spanish political party in the Second Spanish Republic.
A Spanish constitutional referendum was held on Wednesday, 6 December 1978, to gauge support for either the ratification or repealing of the Spanish Constitution which had been approved by the Cortes Generales on 31 October 1978.
The Spanish coup of July 1936 (Golpe de Estado de España de julio de 1936) fractured the Spanish Republican Armed Forces and marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.
Legislative elections were held in Spain on 16 February 1936.
The 2004 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 14 March 2004, to elect the 8th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain.
The Spanish Labour Organization (Organización Sindical Española), commonly known as the Vertical Labour Union (Sindicato Vertical), was the sole legal trade union in Francoist Spain.
The Spanish Legion (Legión Española, La Legión), informally known as the Tercio or the Tercios, is a unit of the Spanish Army and Spain's Rapid Reaction Force.
The Spanish Maquis were Spanish guerrillas exiled in France after the Spanish Civil War who continued to fight against the Spanish State until the early 1960s, carrying out sabotage, robberies (to help fund guerrilla activity), occupations of the Spanish Embassy in France and assassinations of Francoists, as well as contributing to the fight against Nazi Germany and the Vichy regime in France during World War II.
The Spanish miracle (El Milagro español, literally "The Spanish Miracle") was the name given to a broadly based economic boom in Spain from 1959 to 1974.
The Spanish Navy (Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world.
The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
The Spanish Republican Army (Ejército de la República Española) was the main branch of the Armed Forces of the Second Spanish Republic between 1931 and 1939.
Spanish Sahara (Sahara Español; الصحراء الإسبانية As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah), officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain as the Transition (La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
SS Winnipeg was a French steamer notable for arriving at Valparaíso, Chile, on 3 September 1939, with 2,200 Spanish immigrants aboard.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Stanley George Payne (born September 9, 1934 in Denton, Texas) is an American historian of modern Spain and European Fascism at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Straperlo was a business which tried to introduce in Spain in the 1930s a fraudulent roulette which could be controlled electrically with the push of a button.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
The symbols of Francoism were iconic references to identify the Francoist State in Spain between 1936 and 1975.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
Tétouan (تطوان, ⵜⵉⵟⵟⴰⵡⵉⵏ, Tétouan, Tetuán) is a city in northern Morocco.
Technocracy is a proposed system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge.
Televisión Española (acronym TVE, on lowercase letters: tve, in English "Spanish Television") is the national state-owned public-service television broadcaster in Spain.
Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.
The Hundred-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared (Hundraåringen som klev ut genom fönstret och försvann, also known as The Hundred-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out of the Window and Disappeared (UK) and The 100-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared in the US) is a 2009 comic novel by the Swedish author Jonas Jonasson.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Last Circus (Balada Triste de Trompeta; "Sad Trumpet Ballad") is a 2010 Spanish dark comedy drama film written and directed by Álex de la Iglesia.
Together (Tillsammans) is a Swedish comedy-drama film, which was released to cinemas in Sweden on 25 August 2000.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker.
Torrejón Air Base (Base Aérea de Torrejón de Ardoz) is both a major Spanish Air Force base and the co-located Madrid–Torrejón Airport, a secondary civilian airport for the city and metropolitan area of Madrid.
Torrelodones is a municipality in the northwest of the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain.
Triage is a 1998 novel by Scott Anderson.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT, General Union of Workers) is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Wisconsin Press (sometimes abbreviated as UW Press) is a non-profit university press publishing peer-reviewed books and journals.
An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.
Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
The Valle de los Caídos ("Valley of the Fallen") is a Catholic basilica and a monumental memorial in the municipality of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, erected at Cuelgamuros Valley in the Sierra de Guadarrama, near Madrid, conceived by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco to honour and bury those who died in the Spanish Civil War.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Volksgemeinschaft is a German expression meaning "people's community".
Wait for Me in Heaven (Espérame en el cielo) is a 1988 Spanish comedy film directed by Antonio Mercero.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Weekend Update is a Saturday Night Live sketch and fictional news program that comments on and parodies current events.
In the history of Spain, the White Terror (also known as the Francoist Repression, la Represión franquista) was the series of assassinations realized by the Nationalist faction during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), and during the first nine years of the régime of General Francisco Franco.
Wilhelm Franz Canaris (1 January 1887 – 9 April 1945) was a German admiral and chief of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944.
You've Got Mail is a 1998 American romantic comedy-drama film starring Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan, directed by Nora Ephron, and co-written by Nora and Delia Ephron, inspired by the play Parfumerie by Miklós László.
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero formed the Zapatero government on 18 April 2004 after being nominated by King Juan Carlos I to form a government as a result of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's victory at the 2004 general election.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
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