205 relations: Abel Douay, Adalbert von Bredow, Adolphe Niel, Adolphe Thiers, Albrecht von Roon, Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville, Alsace, Alsace-Lorraine, Amiens, Amphibious warfare, Anton von Werner, Army of Châlons, Army of the Vosges, Artillery battery, Attaque à outrance, August von Werder, Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot, Austria-Hungary, Austro-Prussian War, Émile Ollivier, Baltic Sea, Battle of Amiens (1870), Battle of Bapaume (1871), Battle of Bazeilles, Battle of Cannae, Battle of Coulmiers, Battle of Havana (1870), Battle of Königgrätz, Battle of Le Mans, Battle of Mars-la-Tour, Battle of Sedan, Battle of Spicheren, Battle of St. Quentin (1871), Battle of the Lisaine, Belfort, Belgium and the Franco-Prussian War, Blockade, Bordeaux, Breech-loading weapon, C64 (field gun), Canon de 75 modèle 1897, Caprera, Causes of World War I, Charge (warfare), Charles Auguste Frossard, Charles-Denis Bourbaki, Chassepot, Châlons-en-Champagne, Château de Ferrières, Classification yard, ..., Coal, Coastal artillery, Command and control, Communards, Commune, Congress of Vienna, Conscription, Corps législatif, Corvette, Crimean War, Denmark, Dijon, Dreyse needle gun, Eduard von Fransecky, Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel, Electoral Palatinate, Emmanuel Félix de Wimpffen, Ems Dispatch, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., English Channel, European balance of power, Flag of France, Floing, Ardennes, Florence, Forbach, Foreign relations of Germany, François Achille Bazaine, François Certain Canrobert, France, Franco-Prussian War order of battle, Francs-tireurs, Frœschwiller, Frederick III, German Emperor, French aviso Bouvet (1865), French conquest of Algeria, French corvette Dupleix (1861), French indemnity, French Navy, French Third Republic, French–German enmity, French–Habsburg relations, Garde Mobile, Georges Ernest Boulanger, German Empire, German General Staff, German Unification Wars, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Government of National Defense, Grand Duchy of Baden, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Havana, Havas, Hôtel de Ville, Paris, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Henry William Pullen, History of French foreign relations, History of rail transport in Germany, House of Hohenzollern, Indirect fire, International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919), Ironclad warship, Jäger (infantry), Jules Favre, Jules Simon, Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Württemberg, Krupp gun, Landwehr, Léon Gambetta, Left Bank of the Rhine, Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, Lille, Limbers and caissons, Line infantry, Lorraine, Louis Faidherbe, Louis-Jules Trochu, Marines, Military supply chain management, Mission-type tactics, Mitrailleuse, Mobilization, Moselle, Moselle (department), Muzzleloader, Muzzleloading, Nagasaki, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Wars, Nation state, National Guard (France), Needle gun, North German Confederation, North German Federal Navy, Operational level of war, Orléans, Otto von Bismarck, Paris Commune, Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, Pierre-Georges Jeanniot, Pincer movement, Pontarlier, Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia (1828–85), Prussian Army, Prussian Ministry of War, Prussian Staff College, Queen Victoria, Red flag (politics), Revanchism, Rhine, Rhine Province, Royal Danish Navy, Rozérieulles, Russian Empire, Russo-Japanese War, Saar (river), Saarlouis, Sönke Neitzel, Second Battle of Orléans (1870), Second French Empire, Second French intervention in Mexico, Second Italian War of Independence, Siding (rail), Siege of Metz (1870), Siege of Paris (1870–71), Spicheren, Strasbourg, Thionville, Thomas Nast, Topography, Toul, Treaties of Tilsit, Treaty of Frankfurt (1871), Trier, Troupes de marine, Tuileries Palace, Turret ship, Typhoid fever, Unification of Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Versailles, Yvelines, Victory parade, War reparations, Wœrth, West Africa, William I, German Emperor, William Manchester, Wissembourg, 16th Division (German Empire), 1st Guards Infantry Division (German Empire), 25th Division (German Empire), 4th Division (German Empire). Expand index (155 more) » « Shrink index
Charles Abel Douay (2 March 1809 – 4 August 1870) was a general in the French army during the reign of the Emperor Napoleon III.
Friedrich William Adalbert von Bredow (24 May 1814 – 3 March 1890) was a German cavalry officer.
Adolphe Niel (4 October 180213 August 1869) was a French Army general and statesman, also Marshal of France.
Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers (15 April 17973 September 1877) was a French statesman and historian.
Albrecht Theodor Emil Graf von Roon (30 April 180323 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and statesman.
Alphonse de Neuville (31 May 183518 May 1885) was a French Academic painter who studied under Eugène Delacroix.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Anton Alexander von Werner (9 May 18434 January 1915) was a German painter known for his history paintings of notable political and military events in the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Army de Châlons (Armée de Châlons (1870)) was a French military unit that fought during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
The Army of the Vosges was a volunteer force in the Franco-Prussian War, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
Attaque à outrance (Attack to excess) was the expression of a military philosophy common to many armies in the period before and during the earlier parts of World War I. This philosophy was a response to the increasing weight of defensive firepower that accrued to armies in the nineteenth century, as a result of several technological innovations, notably breech-loading rifled guns, machine guns, and light field artillery firing high-explosive shells.
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich August Leopold Graf von Werder (12 September 1808 – 12 September 1887) was a Prussian general.
Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot (24 February 1817 – 16 August 1882) was a French general.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Olivier Émile Ollivier (2 July 182520 August 1913) was a French statesman.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Battle of Amiens or Battle of Villers-Bretonneux was fought on 27 November 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, ending in a Prussian victory.
The Battle of Bapaume was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War which defeated French attempts to relieve the besieged city of Péronne, Somme.
The Battle of Bazeilles was fought on 1 September 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War as a portion of the larger Battle of Sedan and was one of the first battles to feature modern urban warfare tactics.
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy.
The Battle of Coulmiers was fought on 9 November 1870 between French and Bavarian forces during the Franco-Prussian War, ending in French victory.
The Battle of Havana on 9 November 1870 was a single ship action between the German gunboat and the French aviso ''Bouvet'' off the coast of Havana, Cuba during the Franco-Prussian War.
The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Le Mans was a German victory during the Franco-Prussian War that ended French resistance in western France.
The Battle of Mars-La-Tour was fought on 16 August 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, near the town of Mars-La-Tour in northeast France.
The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870.
The Battle of Spicheren, also known as the Battle of Forbach, was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War.
The Battle of St.
The Battle of the Lisaine, also known as the Battle of Héricourt was fought from 15 January to 17 January 1871 between German and French forces.
Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.
Though not actually a belligerent in the Franco–Prussian War (1870–71), Belgian society and politics were heavily affected by the conflict, and in particular the fear of invasion by either side.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
The Krupp C64 (sometimes C/64) steel, breech loaded field gun (8cm caliber, 4 pound projectile, 3800m range) was one of the main artillery pieces of the Prussians in the 1870-1871 war with France.
The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898.
Caprera is an island in the Maddalena archipelago off the coast of Sardinia, Italy.
The causes of World War I remain controversial.
A charge is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat.
Charles Auguste Frossard (26 April 1807 – 25 August 1875) was a French general.
Charles Denis Sauter Bourbaki (22 April 1816, Pau – 22 September 1897, Bayonne) was a French general.
The Chassepot, officially known as Fusil modèle 1866, was a bolt action military breechloading rifle, famous as the arm of the French forces in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871.
Châlons-en-Champagne is a city in the Grand Est region of France.
Château de Ferrières is a French château built between 1855 and 1859 for Baron James de Rothschild in the Goût Rothschild.
A classification yard (American and Canadian English) or marshalling yard (British, Hong Kong, Indian, Australian and Canadian English) is a railway yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railway cars onto one of several tracks.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
The Communards were members and supporters of the short-lived 1871 Paris Commune formed in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War and France's defeat.
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Corps législatif was a part of the French legislature during the French Revolution and beyond.
A corvette is a small warship.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
The Dreyse needle-gun (German Zündnadelgewehr, which translates roughly as "ignition needle rifle") was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the main infantry weapon of the Prussians, who accepted it for service in 1841 as the "leichtes Perkussionsgewehr Model 1841" ("light percussion rifle Model 1841"), with the name chosen to hide the revolutionary nature of the new weapon.
Eduard Friedrich Karl von Fransecky (16 November 1807 – 22 May 1890) was Prussian general who served in the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War.
Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel (24 February 1809 – 17 June 1885) was a German Generalfeldmarschall noted for his victories in the Franco-Prussian War.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Emmanuel Felix de Wimpffen (Graf von Wimpffen) (13 September 1811, in Laon – 26 February 1884) was a French soldier and general of Austrian descent.
The Ems Dispatch (Dépêche d'Ems, Emser Depesche), sometimes called the Ems Telegram, incited France to declare the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The European balance of power referred to European international relations before the First World War, which evolved into the present states of Europe.
The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.
Floing is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Forbach (Lorraine Franconian: Fuerboch, Forbach) is a commune in the department of Moselle in the northeastern French Region of Grand Est.
The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is a Central European country and member of the European Union, G4, G8, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
François Achille Bazaine (13 February 181123 September 1888) was an officer of the French army.
François Marcellin Certain de Canrobert, born François Certain de Canrobert at Saint-Céré on June 27, 1809, and died in Paris on January 28, 1895, was a French Marshal.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
This is an order of battle of the French and German Armies at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.
Francs-tireurs (French for "free shooters") was a term for irregular military applied to formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71).
Frœschwiller is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Frederick III (Friedrich; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors.
Bouvet was a sail and steam aviso of the French Navy, lead ship of her class.
The French conquest of Algeria took place between 1830 and 1847.
The Dupleix was a steam and sail corvette of the French Marine Nationale.
The French indemnity was the indemnity the French Third Republic paid to the German Empire after the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
French–German (Franco-German) enmity (Rivalité franco-allemande Deutsch–französische Erbfeindschaft) was the idea of unavoidably hostile relations and mutual revanchism between Germans and French people that arose in the 16th century and became popular with the Franco–Prussian War of 1870–1871.
The term France–Habsburg rivalry describes the rivalry between the House of Habsburg and the Kingdom of France.
The Garde mobile ("Mobile Guard"; also called Garde nationale mobile though it had nothing to do with the Garde nationale) was intended to be the body which would in effect conscript all who had been able to avoid military service.
Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger (29 April 1837 – 30 September 1891), nicknamed Général Revanche, was a French general and politician.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
During the Wars of German Unification, Prussia set the founding blocks for forming a German national state in the sense of the Lesser Germany solution.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
The Government of National Defense (Gouvernement de la Défense nationale) was the first government of the Third Republic of France from 4 September 1870 to 13 February 1871 during the Franco-Prussian War.
The Grand Duchy of Baden (Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a state in western Germany that existed from the German mediatization to the end of the German Empire.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Havas SA is a French multinational advertising and public relations company, headquartered in Paris, France.
The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France, is the building housing the city's local administration.
Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (26 October 1800, Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 24 April 1891, Berlin) was a German Field Marshal.
Henry William Pullen (1836–1903) was an English cleric and writer.
The History of French foreign relations Covers French diplomacy and foreign relations down to 1954.
The history of rail transport in Germany can be traced back to the 16th century.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919, particularly the "Big Four".
An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.
Jäger (singular Jäger, plural Jäger) is a German military term that originally referred to light infantry, but has come to have wider usage.
Jules Claude Gabriel Favre (21 March 1809 – 20 January 1880) was a French statesman.
Jules François Simon (31 December 1814 – 8 June 1896) was a French statesman and philosopher, and one of the leaders of the Moderate Republicans in the Third French Republic.
Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz (27 December 1796 – 2 August 1877) was a German Generalfeldmarschall.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg.
The Krupp gun is a family of artillery pieces that was used by several world armies from the nineteenth century onwards.
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe.
Léon Gambetta (2 April 1838 – 31 December 1882) was a French statesman, prominent during and after the Franco-Prussian War.
The Left Bank of the Rhine (Linkes Rheinufer, Rive gauche du Rhin) was the region north of Lauterbourg, in present-day western Germany, that was conquered during the War of the First Coalition and annexed by France.
Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern (Leopold Stephan Karl Anton Gustav Eduard Tassilo Fürst von Hohenzollern) (22 September 1835 – 8 June 1905) was the head of the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, and played a fleeting role in European power politics, in connection with the Franco-Prussian War.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
A limber is a two-wheeled cart designed to support the trail of an artillery piece, or the stock of a field carriage such as a caisson or traveling forge, allowing it to be towed.
Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Louis Léon César Faidherbe (3 June 1818 – 29 September 1889) was a French general and colonial administrator.
Louis-Jules Trochu (12 March 18157 October 1896) was a French military leader and politician.
Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.
Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services for military applications.
Mission-type tactics (Auftragstaktik, from Auftrag and Taktik; also known as mission command in the US and UK), is a form of military tactics where the emphasis is on the outcome of a mission rather than the specific means of achieving it.
A mitrailleuse (from French mitraille, "grapeshot") is a type of volley gun with multiple barrels of rifle calibre that can fire either multiple rounds at once or several rounds in rapid succession.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department.
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).
Muzzleloading is the shooting sport of firing muzzleloading guns.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Guard (la Garde nationale) is a French gendarmerie that existed from 1789 to 1872, including a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, re-founded in 2016.
A needle gun is a firearm that has a needle-like firing pin, which can pass through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
The North German Federal Navy (Norddeutsche Bundesmarine or Marine des Norddeutschen Bundes), was the Navy of the North German Confederation, formed out of the Prussian Navy in 1867.
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, 6th Marquess of MacMahon, 1st Duke of Magenta (born Marie Edme Patrice Maurice; 13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893), was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France.
Pierre-Georges Jeanniot (1848–1934) was a Swiss-French Impressionist painter, designer, watercolorist, and engraver who was born in Geneva, Switzerland, and died in France.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
Pontarlier (Latin: Ariolica) is a commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France near the Swiss border.
Prince Friedrich Carl Nicolaus of Prussia (20 March 1828 – 15 June 1885) was the son of Prince Charles of Prussia (1801–1883) and his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877).
The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Prussian War Ministry was gradually established between 1808 and 1809 as part of a series of reforms initiated by the Military Reorganization Commission created after the disastrous Treaty of Tilsit.
The Prussian Staff College, also Prussian War College (Preußische Kriegsakademie) was the highest military facility of the Kingdom of Prussia to educate, train, and develop general staff officers.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
In politics, a red flag is predominantly a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, and left-wing politics; it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution (1789–99).
Revanchism (from revanche, "revenge") is the political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war or social movement.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz), also known as Rhenish Prussia (Rheinpreußen) or synonymous with the Rhineland (Rheinland), was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822 to 1946.
The Royal Danish Navy (Søværnet) is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force.
Rozérieulles (Roseringen) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Saar (Sarre; Saar) is a river in northeastern France and western Germany, and a right tributary of the Moselle.
Saarlouis (Sarrelouis) is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis.
Sönke Neitzel (born June 26, 1968) is a German historian who has written extensively about the Second World War.
The Second Battle of Orléans was a battle of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Second French Intervention in Mexico (Sp.: Segunda intervención francesa en México, 1861–67) was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70).
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
A siding, in rail terminology, is a low-speed track section distinct from a running line or through route such as a main line or branch line or spur.
The Siege of Metz lasting from 19 August – 27 October 1870 was fought during the Franco-Prussian War and ended in a decisive Prussian victory.
The Siege of Paris, lasting from 19 September 1870 to 28 January 1871, and the consequent capture of the city by Prussian forces, led to French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of the German Empire as well as the Paris Commune.
Spicheren is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Thionville (Diedenhofen) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a German-born American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon".
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Frankfurt (Traité de Francfort; Friede von Frankfurt) was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The Troupe de marine (TDM) are a corps of the French Army which regroups several specialties: infantry, artillery, armoured and airborne.
The Tuileries Palace (Palais des Tuileries) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine.
Turret ships were a 19th-century type of warship, the earliest to have their guns mounted in a revolving gun turret, instead of a broadside arrangement.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
A victory parade is a parade held to celebrate a victory.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
Wœrth or Woerth is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
William Raymond Manchester (April 1, 1922 – June 1, 2004) was an American author, biographer, and historian.
Wissembourg (South Franconian: Weisseburch, pronounced; German) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
The 16th Division (16. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.
The 1st Guards Infantry Division (German: 1. Garde-Infanterie-Division) was a unit of the Prussian (and later) Imperial German Army and was stationed in Berlin.
The 25th Division (25. Division), officially the Grand Ducal Hessian (25th) Division (Großherzoglich Hessische (25.) Division), was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.
The 4th Division (4. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.
1870 War, Battle of Sarrebruck, Deutsch-Franzosischer Krieg, Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, First Battle of Orleans, France german war, Franco Prussian War, Franco-German War, Franco-German War of 1870, Franco-German war, Franco-Prussian war, Franco-prussian war, Franco/Prussian Wars, Francoprussian war, Franco–Prussian War, French german war, French-German War, French-Prussian War, French-Prussian war, German-French War, Guerre Franco-Allemande, Guerre franco-allemande, Invasion of France (1870), Loire Campaign (1870), Prussian-French war, War of 1870.