554 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Acclamation, Adjusted Compensation Payment Act, Admiralty law, Adolf Hitler, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Al Smith, Albert Einstein, Albert Ottinger, Alf Landon, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Alpha Delta Phi, America First Committee, American Civil War, American Experience, American Jews, American Legion, American Liberty League, American Presidents: Life Portraits, American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, Angina, Anna Roosevelt Halsted, Anschluss, Antisemitism, Anton Cermak, Arcadia Conference, Armed Forces of the Philippines, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Armistice of Cassibile, Arsenal of Democracy, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Atherosclerosis, Atlantic Charter, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Attack on Pearl Harbor, August Adolph Gennerich, Australia, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Axis powers, Bachelor of Arts, Banana Wars, Battle of France, Battle of Leyte Gulf, Battle of Midway, Battle of Stalingrad, Battleship, ..., Beekman Winthrop, Benito Mussolini, Black Cabinet, Board of Economic Warfare, Bonus Army, Bourbon Democrat, Brain trust, Breeching (boys), Bretton Woods Conference, British Malaya, C-SPAN, Cairo Conference, Calvin Coolidge, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Campobello Island, Car, Carter Ledyard & Milburn, Casablanca Conference, Cash and carry (World War II), Central Powers, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Edison, Charles Evans Hughes, Charles Francis Murphy, Charles Lindbergh, Charles W. 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Harding, Weapon of mass destruction, Wendell Willkie, West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, West Coast of the United States, Western Allied invasion of Germany, Western Europe, White House, Wiley Blount Rutledge, William B. Bankhead, William Borah, William D. Leahy, William Gibbs McAdoo, William H. Woodin, William Howard Taft, William O. Douglas, William S. Benson, Winston Churchill, Withholding tax, Woodrow Wilson, Works Progress Administration, World War I, World War II, Yalta Conference, 1912 Democratic National Convention, 1932 Democratic National Convention, 1933 Banking Act, 1936 Democratic National Convention, 1940 Democratic National Convention, 1944 Democratic National Convention, 73rd United States Congress, 74th United States Congress. Expand index (504 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
An acclamation, in its most common sense, is a form of election that does not use a ballot.
The Adjusted Compensation Payment Act (January 27, 1936, ch. 32, 49 Stat. 1099), one of several pieces of legislation popularly called the "Bonus Act," was enacted when Congress overrode President Franklin D. Roosevelt's veto on January 27, 1936.
Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was a United States federal law of the New Deal era designed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses.
Alfred Emanuel Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was an American politician who was elected Governor of New York four times and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Albert E. Ottinger (September 10, 1878 – January 13, 1938) was an American lawyer and politician.
Alfred Mossman Landon (September 9, 1887October 12, 1987) was an American politician from the Republican Party.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alpha Delta Phi (ΑΔΦ), commonly known as Alpha Delt, ADPhi, or ADP, is a North American Greek-letter secret and social college fraternity.
The America First Committee (AFC) was the foremost United States non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American Experience is a television program airing on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television stations in the United States.
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
The American Legion is a U.S. war veterans organization headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The American Liberty League was an American political organization formed in 1934, primarily of wealthy business elites and prominent political figures, who were conservatives opposed to the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
American Presidents: Life Portraits is a series produced by C-SPAN in 1999.
The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, or ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War in World War II.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Dall Boettiger Halsted (May 3, 1906 – December 1, 1975) was an American writer who worked as a newspaper editor, and in public relations.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Anton Joseph Cermak (Antonín Josef Čermák,; May 9, 1873 – March 6, 1933) was an American politician who served as the 34th mayor of Chicago, Illinois from April 7, 1931 until his death on March 6, 1933 from complications of an assassination attempt 23 days earlier.
The First Washington Conference, also known as the Arcadia Conference (ARCADIA was the code name used for the conference), was held in Washington, D.C., from December 22, 1941 to January 14, 1942.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) (Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas, Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
During the Second World War (1939–1945), "Arsenal of Democracy" was the slogan used by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a radio broadcast delivered on 29 December 1940.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy (ASN) is the title given to certain civilian senior officials in the United States Department of the Navy.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 August 1941, which defined the Allied goals for the post war world.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
August Adolph Gennerich (February 10, 1887 – December 1, 1936) was the bodyguard of Franklin Roosevelt.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
The Banana Wars were the occupations, police actions, and interventions on the part of the United States in Central America and the Caribbean between the end of the Spanish–American War in 1898 and the inception of the Good Neighbor Policy in 1934.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf (Filipino: Labanan sa Golpo ng Leyte) is generally considered to have been the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history.
The Battle of Midway was a decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II which occurred between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
Beekman Winthrop (September 18, 1874 – November 10, 1940) was an American lawyer, government official and banker.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The Black Cabinet, or Federal Council of Negro Affairs or Black Brain Trust, was the informal term for a group of African Americans who served as public policy advisors to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt in his 1933-45 terms in office.
The Office of Administrator of Export Control (also referred to as the Export Control Administration) was established in the United States by Presidential Proclamation 2413, July 2, 1940, to administer export licensing provisions of the act of July 2, 1940 (54 Stat. 714).
The Bonus Army were the 43,000 marchers—17,000 U.S. World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States in the later 19th century (1872–1904) to refer to members of the Democratic Party who were ideologically aligned with conservatism or classical liberalism, especially those who supported presidential candidates Charles O'Conor in 1872, Samuel J. Tilden in 1876, President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1888/1892–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904.
Brain trust began as a term for a group of close advisers, often academics, to a political candidate or incumbent, prized for their expertise in particular fields.
Breeching was the occasion when a small boy was first dressed in breeches or trousers.
The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
The Cairo Conference (codenamed Sextant) of November 22–26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia.
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was an American politician and the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929).
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Campobello Island is an island located at the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay, adjacent to the entrance to Cobscook Bay, and within the Bay of Fundy.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carter Ledyard & Milburn LLP is a New York City law firm.
The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.
Cash and carry was a policy by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at a special session of the United States Congress on September 21, 1939, subsequent to the outbreak of war in Europe.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Edison, (August 3, 1890 – July 31, 1969) was a son of Thomas Edison and Mina Miller Edison.
Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, Republican politician, and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States.
Charles Francis "Silent Charlie" Murphy (June 20, 1858 – April 25, 1924), also known as Boss Murphy, was an American political figure, Head of New York City's Tammany Hall from 1902–1924.
Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974), nicknamed Lucky Lindy, The Lone Eagle, and Slim was an American aviator, military officer, author, inventor, explorer, and environmental activist.
Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 – March 4, 1945) was an American politician who served as the 20th and 23rd Governor of Nebraska, and Mayor of Lincoln, Nebraska, and was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in 1924.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior officer in the United States Navy.
Child labor laws in the United States address issues related to the employment and welfare of working minors and children in the United States.
Civil liberties in the United States are certain unalienable rights retained by (as opposed to privileges granted to) citizens of the United States under the Constitution of the United States, as interpreted and clarified by the Supreme Court of the United States and lower federal courts.
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men.
Claire Lee Chennault (September 6, 1890 – July 27, 1958) was an American military aviator best known for his leadership of the "Flying Tigers" and the Republic of China Air Force in World War II.
Claude Augustus Swanson (March 31, 1862July 7, 1939) was an American lawyer and Democratic politician from Virginia.
Claude Raymond Wickard (February 28, 1893 – April 29, 1967) was a Democratic politician who served as the Secretary of Agriculture during the administrations of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman from 1940 to 1945.
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
Columbia County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York.
Columbia Law School (often referred to as Columbia Law or CLS) is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II.
The Combined Munitions Assignments Board or Combined Munitions Assignments Board was a major government agency for the U.S. and Britain in World War II.
The conservative coalition was an unofficial Congressional coalition bringing together a conservative majority of the Republican Party and the conservative, mostly Southern, wing of the Democratic Party.
Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
The Council of National Defense was a United States organization formed during World War I to coordinate resources and industry in support of the war effort, including the coordination of transportation, industrial and farm production, financial support for the war, and public morale.
Both during and after his presidential terms and continuing today, there has been much criticism of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cullen–Harrison Act, named for its sponsors, Senator Pat Harrison and Representative Thomas H. Cullen, enacted by the United States Congress March 21, 1933 and signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt the following day, legalized the sale in the United States of beer with an alcohol content of 3.2% (by weight) and wine of similarly low alcohol content, thought to be too low to be intoxicating, effective April 7, 1933.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States, has inspired or been portrayed in numerous cultural works.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Daniel Calhoun Roper (April 1, 1867April 11, 1943) was a U.S. administrator who served as the 7th United States Secretary of Commerce under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was the 5th United States Ambassador to Canada from May 19, 1939 until August 20, 1939.
The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
In the United States, notable members of the Delano family include U.S. presidents Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Calvin Coolidge, astronaut Alan B. Shepard, and writer Laura Ingalls Wilder.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The 1932 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1932 U.S. presidential election.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
In the Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom on September 2, 1940, fifty,, and US Navy destroyers were transferred to the Royal Navy from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions.
The Digital Library of Georgia (DLG) is an online, public collection of documents and media about the history and culture of the state of Georgia, United States.
The dime, in U.S. usage, is a ten-cent coin, one tenth of a United States dollar, labeled formally as "one dime".
Diplomatic History is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the foreign relations history of the United States.
Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (April 6, 1892 – February 1, 1981) was an American aircraft industrialist and engineer.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.
The Dumbarton Oaks Conference or, more formally, the Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization was an international conference at which the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among international leaders.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
Dutchess County is a county located in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of New York.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. (October 22, 1900 – October 31, 1949) was an American businessman who served as United States Secretary of State under Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman from 1944 to 1945, and as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1945 to 1946.
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat and activist.
Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site was established by the U.S. Congress to commemorate the life and accomplishments of Eleanor Roosevelt.
Elihu Root (February 15, 1845February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt and as Secretary of War under Roosevelt and President William McKinley.
Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (February 28, 1860 – August 14, 1894) was an American socialite.
Elliott Roosevelt (September 23, 1910 – October 27, 1990) was an American aviation official and wartime officer in the United States Army Air Forces.
The Emergency Banking Act (the official title of which was the Emergency Banking Relief Act), Public Law 1, 48 Stat.
Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity by employers.
The Reverend Endicott Peabody (May 30, 1857 – November 17, 1944) was the American Episcopal priest who founded the Groton School for Boys (known today simply as Groton School), in Groton, Massachusetts in 1884.
Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasising the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.
Ernest Joseph King (23 November 1878 – 25 June 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) and Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
Europe first, also known as Germany first, was the key element of the grand strategy agreed upon by the United States and the United Kingdom during World War II.
In the United States, an excess profits tax is a tax, some say excise tax, on any profit above a certain amount.
The Executive Office of the President of the United States (acronyms: EOP) is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government.
Executive Order 6102 is a United States presidential executive order signed on April 5, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt "forbidding the Hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates within the continental United States".
Executive Order 8802 was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941, to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry.
Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
The Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) was created in 1941 in the United States to implement Executive Order 8802 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, "banning discriminatory employment practices by Federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work.", Our Documents, Executive Order 8802 dated June 25, 1941, General Records of the United States Government; Record Group 11; National Archives This was shortly before the United States entered World War II.
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (abbreviated as FLSA) is a United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.
The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was the new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the Emergency Relief Administration (ERA) which President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had created in 1933.
A Federal Reserve Bank is a regional bank of the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Fidelity and Deposit Company was a trust company in Baltimore, Maryland.
The Fifth Party System refers to the era of American national politics that began with the New Deal in 1932 under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
The fireside chats were a series of 31 evening radio addresses given by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (known colloquially as "FDR") between 1933 and 1944.
The first 100 days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency began on March 4, 1933, the day Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated as the 32nd President of the United States.
The first inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt as the 32nd President of the United States was held on Saturday, March 4, 1933.
The 1936–1937 Flint sit-down strike against General Motors (also known as the General Motors sit-down strike, the great GM sit-down strike, and other variants) changed the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
The Fly Club is a final club, traditionally "punching" (inviting to stand for election) male undergraduates of Harvard College during their sophomore or junior year.
The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, 1941.
The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.
Frances Perkins (born Fannie Coralie Perkins; April 10, 1880 – May 14, 1965) was an American sociologist and workers-rights advocate who served as the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, the longest serving in that position, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet.
Francis Beverley Biddle (May 19, 1886October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and judge who was Attorney General of the United States during World War II and who served as the primary American judge during the postwar Nuremberg trials.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Frank Comerford Walker (May 30, 1886 – September 13, 1959) was an American lawyer and politician.
William Franklin Knox (January 1, 1874 – April 28, 1944) was an American newspaper editor and publisher.
William Francis "Frank" Murphy (April 13, 1890July 19, 1949) was a Democratic politician and jurist from Michigan.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum holds the records of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945).
Franklin D. Roosevelt's paralytic illness began in 1921 when the future President of the United States was 39 years old.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (August 17, 1914 – August 17, 1988) was an American lawyer, politician, and businessman.
The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington D.C., dedicated to the memory of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States, and to the era he represents.
Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945 is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book written in 1999 by historian David M. Kennedy.
Freedom of contract is the freedom of private or public individuals and groups (of any legal entity) to form nonviolent contracts without government restrictions.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".
Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
The Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s).
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.
George Henry Dern (September 8, 1872 – August 27, 1936) was an American politician, mining man, and businessman.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
George William Norris (July 11, 1861September 2, 1944) was a politician from the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States. He served five terms in the United States House of Representatives as a Republican, from 1903 until 1913, and five terms in the United States Senate, from 1913 until 1943, four terms as a Republican and the final term as an independent. Norris was defeated for reelection in 1942. Norris was a leader of progressive and liberal causes in Congress. He is best known for his intense crusades against what he characterized as "wrong and evil", his liberalism, his insurgency against party leaders, his isolationist foreign policy, his support for labor unions, and especially for creating the Tennessee Valley Authority. President Franklin Roosevelt called him "the very perfect, gentle knight of American progressive ideals," and this has been the theme of all of his biographers. A 1957 advisory panel of 160 scholars recommended that Norris was the top choice for the five best Senators in U.S. history.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gerald Prentice Nye (December 19, 1892 – July 17, 1971) was an American politician who represented North Dakota in the United States Senate from 1925 to 1945.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.
Giuseppe "Joe" Zangara (September 7, 1900 – March 20, 1933) was an Italian immigrant and naturalized citizen of the United States who attempted to assassinate then-President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 15, 1933.
The Good Neighbor policy was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt towards Latin America.
Gordon Woodbury (1863–1924) was the United States Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1920 to 1921.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Governor of the State of New York is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New York.
The Grand Alliance, also known as The Big Three, was a military alliance consisting of the three major Allied powers of World War II: the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Depression began in August 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
Grosvenor Square is a large garden square in the Mayfair district of London.
Groton School is a private Episcopal college preparatory boarding school located in Groton, Massachusetts, United States.
Groton is a town in northwestern Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, within the Greater Boston metropolitan area.
Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–1889 and 1893–1897).
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American political figure, lawyer, and jurist.
Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874 – February 3, 1952) was an American administrator and politician.
Harry Flood Byrd Sr. (June 10, 1887 – October 20, 1966) of Berryville in Clarke County, Virginia, was an American newspaper publisher, and for four decades political leader of the Democratic Party in Virginia as head of a political faction that became known as the Byrd Organization.
Harry Hines Woodring (May 31, 1887September 9, 1967) was an American politician.
Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was an American social worker, the 8th Secretary of Commerce, and one of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisors.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University.
Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) served as the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946).
Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 November 9, 1924) was an American Republican Congressman and historian from Massachusetts.
Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.
Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician.
Henry Morgenthau Jr. (May 11, 1891 – February 6, 1967) was the United States Secretary of the Treasury during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was a Democratic Party politician from New York.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866August 6, 1945) was initially a leading American progressive and then a Liberal Isolationist Republican politician from California.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site preserves the Springwood estate in Hyde Park, New York.
Homer Stille Cummings (April 30, 1870 – September 10, 1956) was a U.S. political figure who was United States Attorney General from 1933 to 1939.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Housing Act of 1937, formally the "United States Housing Act of 1937" and sometimes called the Wagner-Steagall Act, provided for subsidies to be paid from the U.S. government to local public housing agencies (LHAs) to improve living conditions for low-income families.
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. (May 27, 1911January 13, 1978) was an American politician who served as the 38th Vice President of the United States from 1965 to 1969.
The Hudson Valley comprises the valley of the Hudson River and its adjacent communities in the U.S. state of New York, from the cities of Albany and Troy southward to Yonkers in Westchester County.
Huey Pierce Long Jr. (August 30, 1893 – September 10, 1935), self-nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a member of the United States Senate from 1932 until his assassination in 1935.
Hugo Lafayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971.
Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, bordering the Hudson River north of Poughkeepsie.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy and also called water cure, is a part of alternative medicine, in particular of naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act, was a United States federal law that set quotas on the number of immigrants from certain countries while providing funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding (but hitherto unenforced) ban on other non-white immigrants.
The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, or the Wheeler-Howard Act, was U.S. federal legislation that dealt with the status of Native Americans (known in law as American Indians or Indians).
The Individual Income Tax Act of 1944, Pub.
The Infamy Speech was a speech delivered by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt to a Joint Session of the US Congress on December 8, 1941, one day after the Empire of Japan's attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and the Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British Empire.
International monetary systems are sets of internationally agreed rules, conventions and supporting institutions, that facilitate international trade, cross border investment and generally the reallocation of capital between nation states.
International security, also called global security, refers to the amalgamation of measures taken by states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, and others, to ensure mutual survival and safety.
The internment of German Americans refers to the detention of German nationals and German-American citizens in the United States during the periods of World War I and of World War II.
The internment of Italian Americans refers to the government's internment of Italian nationals in the United States during World War II, similar to that of the Internment of Japanese Americans and Internment of German Americans.
The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in camps in the western interior of the country of between 110,000 and 120,000Various primary and secondary sources list counts between persons.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
James Aloysius O'Gorman, Sr. (May 5, 1860 – May 17, 1943) was a one-term United States Senator from New York.
James Edwin Towner (May 29, 1851 – January 22, 1935) was an American politician from New York.
James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American judge and politician from the state of South Carolina.
James Aloysius "Jim" Farley (May 30, 1888 – June 9, 1976) was one of the first Irish Catholic politicians in American history to achieve success on a national level.
James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was the last Cabinet-level United States Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense.
James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 July 15, 1957) was the 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio, a U.S. Representative from Ohio, and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the election of 1920.
James MacGregor Burns (August 3, 1918 in Melrose, MA – July 15, 2014 in Williamstown, MA) was an American historian and political scientist, presidential biographer, and authority on leadership studies.
James "Jimmy" Roosevelt II (December 23, 1907 – August 13, 1991) was an American businessman, Marine, activist, and Democratic Party politician.
Jacobus "James" Roosevelt III (January 10, 1760 – February 6, 1847) was an American businessman and politician from New York City and a member of the Roosevelt family.
James Roosevelt I (July 16, 1828 – December 8, 1900), known as "Squire James", was an American businessman and horse breeder, and the father of American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
James Roosevelt "Rosy" Roosevelt (April 27, 1854 – May 7, 1927) was an American diplomat, heir, and the older half-brother of 32nd President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
James Watson Gerard Jr. (August 25, 1867 – September 6, 1951) was a United States lawyer and diplomat.
James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. (August 12, 1877June 21, 1952) was a Republican politician from New York.
are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
The Japanese invasion of Thailand occurred on 8 December 1941.
Jean Edward Smith (born October 13, 1932) is a biographer and the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University.
The Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C., dedicated to Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), one of the most important of the American Founding Fathers as the main drafter and writer of the Declaration of Independence, member of the Continental Congress, governor of the newly independent Commonwealth of Virginia, American minister to King Louis XVI, and the Kingdom of France, first U.S. Secretary of State under the first President George Washington, the second Vice President of the United States under second President John Adams, and also the third President (1801–1809), as well as being the founder of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, Virginia.
Jesse Holman Jones (April 5, 1874June 1, 1956) was a Democratic politician and entrepreneur from Houston, Texas.
Jesse Isidor Straus (June 25, 1872 – October 4, 1936) served as the American ambassador to France from 1933 to 1936.
John Aspinwall Roosevelt (March 13, 1916 – April 27, 1981) was an American businessman and the sixth and last child of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, and the only Roosevelt son who never sought political office.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Jay McCloy (born John Snader McCloy; March 31, 1895 – March 11, 1989) was an American lawyer and banker who served as Assistant Secretary of War during World War II.
John Llewellyn Lewis (February 12, 1880 – June 11, 1969) was an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960.
John Nance Garner III (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967), known among his contemporaries as "Cactus Jack", was an American Democratic politician and lawyer from Texas.
John William Bricker (September 6, 1893March 22, 1986) was a United States Senator and the 54th Governor of Ohio.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
The Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations was a statement issued on December 17, 1942, by the American and British governments on behalf of the Allied Powers.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Joseph Taylor Robinson (August 26, 1872 – July 14, 1937), also known as Joe T. Robinson, was an American politician from Arkansas.
Josephus Daniels (May 18, 1862 – January 15, 1948) was a progressive Democrat, and newspaper editor and publisher from North Carolina who became active in politics.
The Journal of Interdisciplinary History is a peer-reviewed academic journal published four times a year by the MIT Press.
The Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 (frequently called the "court-packing plan")Epstein, at 451.
In the United States, judicial review is the ability of a court to examine and decide if a statute, treaty or administrative regulation contradicts or violates the provisions of existing law, a State Constitution, or ultimately the United States Constitution.
The Judiciary Act of 1869 (16 Stat.), also called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, is a United States statute that stipulated that the makeup of the United States Supreme Court would consist of the Chief Justice and eight associate justices, any six of whom would constitute a quorum.
The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
Korematsu v. United States,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The concept of leapfrogging is used in many different domains of economics and business, and was originally developed in the field of industrial organization and economic growth.
Leapfrogging, also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II.
The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was an American program to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy by distributing food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.
Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler (September 24, 1869 in Newport, Rhode Island – February 28, 1942 in New York City) was a New York lawyer and politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1907 to 1908.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II.
This is a list of people appearing on the cover of ''Time'' magazine in the 1920s.
This is a list of people appearing on the cover of ''Time'' magazine in the 1940s.
The following is a list of critics of the New Deal.
This "List of Freemasons" page provides links to alphabetized lists of notable Freemasons.
Of the 44 men who have served as Presidents of the United States, at least half have displayed proficiency in speaking or writing a language other than English.
The United States has 60 protected areas known as national parks that are operated by the National Park Service, an agency of the Department of the Interior.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
There have been as many as 47 recessions in the United States dating back to the Articles of Confederation, and although economists and historians dispute certain 19th-century recessions, the consensus view among economists and historians is that "The cyclical volatility of GNP and unemployment was greater before the Great Depression than it has been since the end of World War II." Cycles in the country's agricultural production, industrial production, consumption, business investment, and the health of the banking industry contribute to these declines.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the modern Democratic Party of the United States.
In United States presidential elections, the national popular vote is the sum of all votes cast in every state and the District of Columbia.
The Little White House was the personal retreat of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States, located in the Historic District of Warm Springs, Georgia.
The Lochner era is a period in American legal history from 1897 to 1937 in which the Supreme Court of the United States is said to have made it a common practice "to strike down economic regulations adopted by a State based on the Court's own notions of the most appropriate means for the State to implement its considered policies," by using its interpretation of substantive due process to strike down laws held to be infringing on economic liberty or private contract rights.
The Long Island State Park Commission was created in 1924 by the New York State Legislature to build and operate parks and parkways on Long Island.
Louis McHenry Howe (January 14, 1871 – April 18, 1936) was an American reporter for the New York Herald best known for acting as an early political advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd (April 26, 1891 – July 31, 1948) was an American woman best known for her affair with future US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 1 is the first metro line of the Manila Light Rail Transit System.
March of Dimes is a United States nonprofit organization that works to improve the health of mothers and babies by preventing birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality.
Marguerite Alice "Missy" LeHand (September 13, 1896 – July 31, 1944) was private secretary to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) for 21 years.
Martin Henry Glynn (September 27, 1871December 14, 1924) was an American politician.
The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
The minimum wage in the United States is set by US labor law and a range of state and local laws.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States is a treaty signed at Montevideo, Uruguay, on December 26, 1933, during the Seventh International Conference of American States.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
National Historic Site (NHS) is a designation for an officially recognized area of national historic significance in the United States.
The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA) was a US labor law and consumer law passed by the US Congress to authorize the President to regulate industry for fair wages and prices that would stimulate economic recovery.
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (49 Stat. 449) (also known as the Wagner Act after New York Senator Robert F. Wagner) is a foundational statute of United States labor law which guarantees basic rights of private sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining for better terms and conditions at work, and take collective action including strike if necessary.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent US government agency with responsibilities for enforcing US labor law in relation to collective bargaining and unfair labor practices.
The National Recovery Administration was a prime New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933.
The National Youth Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency sponsored by the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States that focused on providing work and education for Americans between the ages of 16 and 25.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neutrality Acts were passed by the United States Congress in the, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Senate being the upper house.
The 1910 New York state election was held on November 8, 1910, to elect the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the Secretary of State, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General, the State Treasurer, the State Engineer and two judges of the New York Court of Appeals, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate.
The 1912 New York state election was held on November 5, 1912, to elect the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the Secretary of State, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General, the State Treasurer, the State Engineer and two judges of the New York Court of Appeals, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate.
The 1928 New York state elections were held on November 6, 1928, to elect the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General, a U.S. Senator and a judge of the New York Court of Appeals, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate.
The 1930 New York state election was held on November 4, 1930, to elect the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General and a judge of the New York Court of Appeals, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate.
New York State Legislature are the two houses that act as the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York.
The New York State Library was established in 1818 to serve the government of the state.
The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Assembly being the lower house.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Office of War Mobilization (OWM) was an independent agency of the United States government formed during World War II to coordinate all government agencies involved in the war effort.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours.
Owen Josephus Roberts (May 2, 1875 – May 17, 1955) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1930 to 1945.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Party divisions of United States Congresses have played a central role in the organization and operations of both chambers of the United States Congress—the Senate and the House of Representatives—since its establishment as the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States in 1789.
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.
The Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge conspiracy theory is the argument that U.S. Government officials had advance knowledge of Japan's December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
A boss, in politics, is a person who controls a unit of a political party, although he/she may not hold political office.
A political machine is a political group in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
The Preparedness Movement was a campaign led by Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt to strengthen the military of the United States after the outbreak of World War I.Roosevelt wrote two books, America and the World War, and Fear God and Take Your Own Part to popularize the movement.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Princess Märtha of Sweden (Märtha Sofia Lovisa Dagmar Thyra; 28 March 1901 – 5 April 1954) was Crown Princess of Norway as the spouse of the future King Olav V from 1929 until her death in 1954.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
was an advisory council to the Emperor of Japan that operated from 1888 to 1947.
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Progressivism in the United States is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class and reformist in nature.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
Public Works Administration (PWA), part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes.
Putnam County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York.
A realigning election (often called a critical election, political realignment, or critical realignment) is a term from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system.
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) was a government corporation in the United States between 1932 and 1957 that provided financial support to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations, and other businesses.
Jean Raphaël Adrien René Viviani (8 November 18637 September 1925) was a French politician of the Third Republic, who served as Prime Minister for the first year of World War I. He was born in Sidi Bel Abbès, in French Algeria.
The Reorganization Act of 1939,, codified at, is an American Act of Congress which gave the President of the United States the authority to hire additional confidential staff and reorganize the executive branch (within certain limits) for two years subject to legislative veto.
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The United States Revenue Act of 1942, Pub.
Robert Alphonso Taft Sr. (September 8, 1889 – July 31, 1953) was an American conservative politician, lawyer, and scion of the Taft family.
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was an American attorney and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Robert Marion "Young Bob" La Follette Jr. (February 6, 1895 – February 24, 1953) was a U.S. senator from Wisconsin from 1925 to 1947.
Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 – July 29, 1981) was an American public official who worked mainly in the New York metropolitan area.
The Roberts Commission is one of two presidentially-appointed commissions.
The Roosevelt family is an American business and political family from New York whose members have included two United States Presidents, a First Lady, and various merchants, politicians, inventors, clergymen, artists, and socialites.
Roosevelt LRT station, also called Congressional Avenue or Muñoz LRT station, is the northern terminus of the Manila LRT Line 1 and has been constructed during the Line 1 North Extension Project.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
Samuel Irving Rosenman (February 13, 1896 – June 24, 1973) was an American lawyer, judge, Democratic Party activist and presidential speechwriter.
Sara Ann Delano Roosevelt (September 21, 1854 – September 7, 1941) was the second wife of James Roosevelt I (from 1880), the mother of President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, her only child, and subsequently the mother-in-law of Eleanor Roosevelt.
The Second Bill of Rights is a list of rights that was proposed by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his State of the Union Address on Tuesday, January 11, 1944.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
A security is a tradable financial asset.
The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, also known as the Burke-Wadsworth Act,, was the first peacetime conscription in United States history.
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.
The sinking of the Cunard ocean liner RMS ''Lusitania'' occurred on Friday, 7 May 1915 during the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against the United Kingdom which had implemented a naval blockade of Germany.
Social insurance is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
The Social Security Act of 1935, now codified as, created Social Security in the United States, and is relevant for US labor law.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Japanese War (Советско-японская война; ソ連対日参戦, "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
SS Leviathan, originally built as Vaterland, was an ocean liner which regularly crossed the North Atlantic from 1914 to 1934.
Stanley Forman Reed (December 31, 1884 – April 2, 1980) was a noted American attorney who served as United States Solicitor General from 1935 to 1938 and as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1938 to 1957.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The Sunshine Special was the official state car used by Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Taconic State Park is located in Columbia and Dutchess County, New York abutting Massachusetts and Connecticut within the Taconic Mountains.
Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St.
The tariff history of the United States spans from colonial times to present.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
The Telecommunications policy in the US is a framework of law directed by government and the Regulatory Commissions, most notably the Federal Communications Commission.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941–1945, published in 1984, is an influential book by David S. Wyman, former Josiah DuBois professor of history at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.
The Harvard Crimson, the daily student newspaper of Harvard University, was founded in 1873.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Second World War is a history of the period from the end of the First World War to July 1945, written by Winston Churchill.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Third party is a term used in the United States for American political parties other than the Republican and Democratic parties.
Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was an American lawyer, prosecutor, and politician.
Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the 28th Vice President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The Tidal Basin is a partially man-made reservoir between the Potomac River and the Washington Channel in Washington, D.C. It is part of West Potomac Park and is a focal point of the National Cherry Blossom Festival held each spring.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
Truman is a 1992 biography of the 33rd President of the United States Harry S. Truman written by popular historian David McCullough.
The Truman Committee, formally known as the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program, was a United States Congressional investigative body, headed by Senator Harry S. Truman.
The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) to the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times a person is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
Unemployment benefits (depending on the jurisdiction also called unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation) are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), commonly known as the San Francisco Conference, was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, California.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United States antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers.
The United States Asiatic Fleet was a fleet of the United States Navy during much of the first half of the 20th century.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked a special joint session of the United States Congress for a declaration of war against the German Empire.
On December 8, 1941, the United States Congress declared war (Public Law 77-328, 55 STAT 795) on the Empire of Japan in response to that country's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day.
On December 11, 1941, the United States Congress declared war upon Germany (Sess. 1, ch. 564), hours after Germany declared war on the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan.
The 1910 United States elections elected the members of the 62nd United States Congress, occurring during the Fourth Party System.
The 1922 United States elections were held on November 7, 1922.
The 1934 United States elections were held on November 6, 1934.
The 1938 United States elections were held on November 8, 1938, in the middle of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term.
Midterm elections in the United States are the general elections held in November of even-numbered years not divisible by four, and thus near the midpoint of a president's four-year term of office.
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Navy Reserve (USNR), known as the United States Naval Reserve from 1915 to 2005, is the Reserve Component (RC) of the United States Navy.
Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations in order to avoid being drawn into wars not related to direct territorial self-defense, has had a long history of popularity in the government and among the people of the United States at various periods in time.
The United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915, when 330 US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on the authority of US President Woodrow Wilson.
The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a Pacific Ocean theater-level component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to the United States Indo-Pacific Command.
The election of President and Vice President of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors.
The United States presidential election of 1796 was the third quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1912 was the 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.
The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920.
The United States presidential election of 1924 was the 35th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1924.
The United States presidential election of 1928 was the 36th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1928.
The United States presidential election of 1932 was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932.
The United States presidential election of 1936 was the thirty-eighth quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1936.
The United States presidential election of 1940 was the 39th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1940.
The United States presidential election of 1944 was the 40th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1944.
The United States presidential election of 1964, the 45th quadrennial American presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964.
The 1911 United States Senate election in New York was held from January 17 to March 31, 1911, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 1) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
The USS Panay incident was a Japanese attack on the American gunboat while it was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking (now spelled Nanjing), China on 12 December 1937.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States (VFW, or simply Veterans of Foreign Wars) is an American war veterans organization headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
A voting bloc is a group of voters that are strongly motivated by a specific common concern or group of concerns to the point that such specific concerns tend to dominate their voting patterns, causing them to vote together in elections.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
The Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC), formerly known as the National Naval Medical Center and colloquially referred to as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, Walter Reed, or Navy Med, is a United States' tri-service military medical center, located in the community of Bethesda, Maryland, near the headquarters of the National Institutes of Health.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War Refugee Board, established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in January 1944, was a U.S. executive agency to aid civilian victims of the Nazi and Axis powers.
Warm Springs Historic District is a historic district in Warm Springs, Georgia.
Warm Springs is a city in Meriwether County, Georgia, United States.
Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician who served as the 29th President of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
Wendell Lewis Willkie (born Lewis Wendell Willkie; February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was an American lawyer and corporate executive, and the 1940 Republican nominee for President.
West Coast Hotel Co.
The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean.
The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
Wiley Blount Rutledge Jr. (July 20, 1894 – September 10, 1949) was an American educator and justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1943–49).
William Brockman Bankhead (April 12, 1874 – September 15, 1940) was an American politician who served as the 42nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1936 to 1940, representing Alabama's 10th and later 7th congressional districts as a Democrat from 1917 to 1940.
William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865 – January 19, 1940) was an outspoken Republican United States Senator, one of the best-known figures in Idaho's history.
Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 – July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer who served as the senior-most United States military officer on active duty during World War II.
William Gibbs McAdoo, Jr.McAdoo is variously differentiated from family members of the same name.
William Hartman Woodin (May 27, 1868 – May 3, 1934) was a U.S. industrialist.
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
William Shepherd Benson (25 September 1855 – 20 May 1932) was an admiral in the United States Navy and the first Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), holding the post throughout World War I.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
A withholding tax, or a retention tax, is an income tax to be paid to the government by the payer of the income rather than by the recipient of the income.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The Works Progress Administration (WPA; renamed in 1939 as the Work Projects Administration) was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
The 1912 Democratic National Convention was held at the Fifth Regiment Armory off North Howard Street in Baltimore from June 25 to July 2, 1912.
The 1932 Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois June 27 – July 2, 1932. The convention resulted in the nomination of Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York for President and Speaker of the House John N. Garner from Texas for Vice President. Beulah Rebecca Hooks Hannah Tingley was a member of the Democratic National Committee and Chair of the Democratic Party of Florida. She seconded the nomination of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, becoming the second woman to address a Democratic National Convention.
The Banking Act of 1933 was a statute enacted by the United States Congress that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and imposed various other banking reforms.
The 1936 Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from June 23 to 27, 1936.
The 1940 Democratic National Convention was held at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois from July 15 to July 18, 1940.
The 1944 Democratic National Convention was held at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois from July 19 to July 21, 1944.
The seventy-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
The Seventy-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
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