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Index Fraud

In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. [1]

188 relations: Abuse, Adelphia Communications Corporation, Alfredo Sáenz Abad, Allen Stanford, Alves dos Reis, Andrew Carnegie, Asset specificity, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Bait-and-switch, Bank fraud, Barry Minkow, Bayou Hedge Fund Group, Bernard Ebbers, Bernard Madoff, Blake, Cassels & Graydon, Bloomberg News, Blue sky law, Breach of contract, Buffalo Sabres, Burden of proof (law), Caper story, Cassie Chadwick, Catch Me If You Can, Chargeback fraud, Charles Ponzi, Christophe Rocancourt, City of London Police, Civil law (common law), CNNMoney, Confidence trick, Confidentiality, Contract, Correlation and dependence, Cramming (fraud), Crazy Eddie, Creative accounting, Credit card, Crime Stoppers, Criminal Code (Canada), Criminal law, Cybercrime, Data analysis, Deception, Defense (legal), Dominican Republic, Edward Davenport (fraudster), Edward J. Balleisen, Electoral fraud, England and Wales, Enric Duran, ..., Enron, Equity (law), F. Bam Morrison, False Claims Act, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Financial crime, Financial Times, Forgery, Frank Abagnale, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fraud Act 2006, Fraud deterrence, Fraud in the factum, Fraud Squad (United Kingdom), Fred Cohen, Frederick Emerson Peters, Front running, Gaston Means, Geneivat da'at, Gert Postel, Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, Gregor MacGregor, Guinness share-trading fraud, Hitler Diaries, Hoax, Hollywood, Hospital Corporation of America, Identity management, Impersonator, Indictment, Insurance fraud, Intention (criminal law), Internal Revenue Service, Internet, Internet fraud, Interpol, Investor, James Paul Lewis Jr., John Bodkin Adams, John Rigas, John Spano, John Stonehouse, Jordan Belfort, Journalistic scandal, Kenneth Lay, Kevin Trudeau, Konrad Kujau, Law, Lawsuit, Leonardo DiCaprio, List of chief executive officers, List of Governors of Florida, List of impostors, Loan, Lou Pearlman, Mail and wire fraud, Marc Dreier, Mark Nigrini, Martin Frankel, Matt the Knife, MCI Inc., Medicare (United States), Michael I. Monus, Michael Sabo, Money laundering, Mortgage fraud, Mukhtar Ablyazov, National Audit Office (United Kingdom), National Council Against Health Fraud, National Fraud Authority, National Fraud Intelligence Bureau, National Hockey League, New York Islanders, New York Stock Exchange, Nick Leeson, Northern Ireland, Obstruction of justice, Office for National Statistics, Organized crime, Outlier, Parapsychology, Penny stock, Petters Group Worldwide, Phar-Mor, Phishing, Phone fraud, Placebo, Police impersonation, Political corruption, Ponzi scheme, Portuguese escudo, President of the United States, Proximate cause, Punitive damages, Quackery, Quatloos.com, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, Ramón Báez Figueroa, Reasonable doubt, Reuters, Richard Whitney (financier), Rick Scott, Royal assent, Salad Oil scandal, Samuel Israel III, Scientific misconduct, Scots law, Scott W. Rothstein, Secret profit, Security (finance), Security hacker, Serial killer, Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom), Shell corporation, Specific performance, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99: Consideration of Fraud, Stock market, Stockbroker, Summary offence, Supreme Court of Canada, Swampland in Florida, The Book of Swindles, The Sting, Theft Act 1978, Thomson Reuters, Time series, Tino De Angelis, Tobashi scheme, Tom Petters, Tort, Trade secret, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, United States Department of Justice, United States Postal Inspection Service, United States Secret Service, Warren G. Harding, Wetumka, Oklahoma, White-collar crime. Expand index (138 more) »


Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.

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Adelphia Communications Corporation

Adelphia Communications Corporation (former NASDAQ ticker symbol ADELQ), was a cable television company headquartered in Coudersport, Pennsylvania.

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Alfredo Sáenz Abad

Alfredo Sáenz Abad (born November 21, 1942) is a Spanish businessman who is the CEO and Vice-Chairman of the Spanish bank Santander Group, the largest bank in the Eurozone and one of the largest banks in the world in terms of market capitalisation.

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Allen Stanford

Robert Allen Stanford (born March 24, 1950) is an American former financier and sponsor of professional sports who is serving a 110-year federal prison sentence, having been convicted of charges that his investment company was a massive Ponzi scheme and fraud.

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Alves dos Reis

Artur Virgílio Alves Reis (Lisbon, 8 September 1896 – 9 June 1955) was a Portuguese criminal who perpetrated one of the largest frauds in history, against the Bank of Portugal in 1925, often called the Portuguese Bank Note Crisis.

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Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie (but commonly or;MacKay, p. 29. November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist.

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Asset specificity

Asset specificity is a term related to the inter-party relationships of a transaction.

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Association of Certified Fraud Examiners

Established in 1988, the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) is a professional organization of fraud examiners.

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Bait-and-switch is a form of fraud used in retail sales but also employed in other contexts.

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Bank fraud

Bank fraud is the use of potentially illegal means to obtain money, assets, or other property owned or held by a financial institution, or to obtain money from depositors by fraudulently posing as a bank or other financial institution.

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Barry Minkow

Barry Jay Minkow (born March 22, 1966) is a former American businessman, pastor, and convicted felon.

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Bayou Hedge Fund Group

The Bayou Hedge Fund Group was a group of companies and hedge funds founded by Samuel Israel III in 1996.

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Bernard Ebbers

Bernard John "Bernie" Ebbers (born August 27, 1941) is a Canadian businessman who was convicted of fraud and conspiracy as a result of WorldCom's false financial reporting.

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Bernard Madoff

Bernard "Bernie" Lawrence Madoff (born April 29, 1938) is an American former stockbroker, investment advisor, financier, and admitted fraudster.

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Blake, Cassels & Graydon

Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP (Blakes) is an international corporate law firm based in Canada.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Blue sky law

A blue sky law is a state law in the United States that regulates the offering and sale of securities to protect the public from fraud.

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Breach of contract

Breach of contract is a legal cause of action and a type of civil wrong, in which a binding agreement or bargained-for exchange is not honored by one or more of the parties to the contract by non-performance or interference with the other party's performance.

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Buffalo Sabres

The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York.

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Burden of proof (law)

The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.

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Caper story

The caper story is a subgenre of crime fiction.

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Cassie Chadwick

Cassie L. Chadwick (10 October 1857 – 10 October 1907) is the infamous name used by a Canadian woman who defrauded several U.S. banks out of millions of dollars by claiming to be an illegitimate daughter and heiress of Andrew Carnegie.

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Catch Me If You Can

Catch Me If You Can is a 2002 American biographical crime film directed and produced by Steven Spielberg from a screenplay by Jeff Nathanson.

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Chargeback fraud

Chargeback fraud, also known as friendly fraud, occurs when a consumer makes an online shopping purchase with their own credit card, and then requests a chargeback from the issuing bank after receiving the purchased goods or services.

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Charles Ponzi

Charles Ponzi, (born Carlo Pietro Giovanni Guglielmo Tebaldo Ponzi; March 3, 1882 – January 18, 1949), was an Italian swindler and con artist in the U.S. and Canada.

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Christophe Rocancourt

Christophe Thierry Daniel Rocancourt, sometimes also called Christopher Rocancourt (born 16 July 1967), is a French impostor and confidence man who scammed affluent people by masquerading in turn as a French nobleman, the heir to the Rockefeller family or family member of a celebrity.

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City of London Police

The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temples.

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Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law.

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CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by CNN.

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Confidence trick

A confidence trick (synonyms include con, confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam and stratagem) is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust.

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Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

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A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Cramming (fraud)

Cramming is a form of fraud in which small charges are added to a bill by a third party without the subscriber's consent or disclosure.

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Crazy Eddie

Crazy Eddie was a consumer electronics chain in the Northeastern United States.

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Creative accounting

Creative accounting is a euphemism referring to accounting practices that may follow the letter of the rules of standard accounting practices, but deviate from the spirit of those rules.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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Crime Stoppers

Crime Stoppers or Crimestoppers is a program in many communities in North America that allows persons to provide anonymous information about criminal activity.

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Criminal Code (Canada)

The Criminal Code (Code criminelThe citation of this Act by this short title is authorised by the French text of of this Act.) is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada.

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Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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Cybercrime, or computer oriented crime, is crime that involves a computer and a network.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making.

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Deception is the act of propagating a belief that is not true, or is not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).

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Defense (legal)

In civil proceedings and criminal prosecutions under the common law, a defendant may raise a defense (or defence) in an attempt to avoid criminal or civil liability.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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Edward Davenport (fraudster)

Edward Ormus Sharrington Davenport (born 11 July 1966) is a convicted English fraudster, socialite, and property developer.

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Edward J. Balleisen

Edward J. Balleisen is an American academic.

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Electoral fraud

Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.

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England and Wales

England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.

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Enric Duran

Enric Duran Giralt (born 23 April 1976, in Vilanova i la Geltrú) also known as Robin Banks or the Robin Hood of the Banks is a Catalan anticapitalist activist and a founding member of the Catalan Integral Cooperative (CIC - Cooperativa Integral Catalana) and Faircoop.

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Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas.

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Equity (law)

In jurisdictions following the English common law system, equity is the body of law which was developed in the English Court of Chancery and which is now administered concurrently with the common law.

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F. Bam Morrison


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False Claims Act

The False Claims Act, also called the "Lincoln Law") is an American federal law that imposes liability on persons and companies (typically federal contractors) who defraud governmental programs. It is the federal Government's primary litigation tool in combating fraud against the Government. The law includes a qui tam provision that allows people who are not affiliated with the government, called "relators" under the law, to file actions on behalf of the government (informally called "whistleblowing" especially when the relator is employed by the organization accused in the suit). Persons filing under the Act stand to receive a portion (usually about 15–25 percent) of any recovered damages. As of 2012, over 70 percent of all federal Government FCA actions were initiated by whistleblowers. Claims under the law have typically involved health care, military, or other government spending programs, and dominate the list of largest pharmaceutical settlements. The government recovered $38.9 billion under the False Claims Act between 1987 and 2013 and of this amount, $27.2 billion or 70% was from qui tam cases brought by relators.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Financial crime

Financial crime is crime committed against property, involving the unlawful conversion of the ownership of property (belonging to one person) to one's own personal use and benefit.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.

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Frank Abagnale

Frank William Abagnale Jr. (born April 27, 1948) is an American security consultant known for his history as a former confidance man, check forger, and impostor between the ages of 15 and 21 years old.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Fraud Act 2006

The Fraud Act 2006 (c 35) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which affects England and Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Fraud deterrence

Fraud deterrence has gained public recognition and spotlight since the 2002 inception of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

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Fraud in the factum

Fraud in the Factum is a type of fraud where misrepresentation causes one to enter a transaction without accurately realizing the risks, duties, or obligations incurred.

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Fraud Squad (United Kingdom)

A Fraud Squad is a police department which investigates fraud and other economic crimes.

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Fred Cohen

Frederick B. Cohen (born 1956) is an American computer scientist and best known as the inventor of computer virus defense techniques.

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Frederick Emerson Peters

Frederick Emerson Peters (September 28, 1885 – July 25, 1959) was an American impostor who wrote bad checks masquerading as scholars and famous people.

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Front running

Front running, also known as tailgating, is the prohibited practice of entering into an equity (stock) trade, option, futures contract, derivative, or security-based swap to capitalize on advance, nonpublic knowledge of a large pending transaction that will influence the price of the underlying security.

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Gaston Means

Gaston Bullock Means (July 11, 1879 – December 12, 1938) was an American private detective, salesman, bootlegger, forger, swindler, murder suspect, blackmailer, and con artist.

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Geneivat da'at

Geneivat da'at or g'neivat daat or genebath da'ath (גניבת דעת, "theft of the mind", from גנבה "stealing" of דעת "understanding") is a concept in Jewish law and ethics that refers to a kind of dishonest misrepresentation or deception.

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Gert Postel

Gert Postel (born June 18, 1958 in Bremen) is a German impostor, best known for successfully applying as a medical doctor several times without ever having received medical education.

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Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814

The Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814 was a hoax or fraud centered on false information about the Napoleonic Wars, affecting the London Stock Exchange in 1814.

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Gregor MacGregor

General Gregor MacGregor (24 December 1786 – 4 December 1845) was a Scottish soldier, adventurer and confidence trickster who attempted from 1821 to 1837 to draw British and French investors and settlers to "Poyais", a fictional Central American territory that he claimed to rule as "Cazique".

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Guinness share-trading fraud

The Guinness share-trading fraud was a major Irish business scandal of the 1980s.

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Hitler Diaries

The Hitler Diaries (Hitler-Tagebücher) were a series of sixty volumes of journals purportedly written by Adolf Hitler, but forged by Konrad Kujau between 1981 and 1983.

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A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth.

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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

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Hospital Corporation of America

Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) is an American for-profit operator of health care facilities that was founded in 1968.

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Identity management

Identity management, also known as identity and access management (IAM) is, in computer security, the security and business discipline that "enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times and for the right reasons".

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An impersonator is someone who imitates or copies the behaviour or actions of another.

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An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.

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Insurance fraud

Insurance fraud is any act committed with the intent to obtain a fraudulent outcome from an insurance process.

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Intention (criminal law)

In criminal law, intent is one of three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional, as opposed to strict liability, crime.

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Internal Revenue Service

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Internet fraud

Internet fraud is a type of fraud which makes use of the Internet.

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The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.

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An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.

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James Paul Lewis Jr.

James "Jim" Paul Lewis Jr. operated one of the largest and longest running Ponzi schemes in United States history.

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John Bodkin Adams

John Bodkin Adams (21 January 1899 – 4 July 1983) was a British general practitioner, convicted fraudster and suspected serial killer.

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John Rigas

John James Rigas (born November 14, 1924) is one of the founders of Adelphia Communications Corporation, which at its peak was one of the largest cable TV companies in the United States.

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John Spano

John Angelo Spano Jr. (born May 31, 1964) is an American businessman and admitted fraudster.

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John Stonehouse

John Thomson Stonehouse (28 July 192514 April 1988) was a British Labour and Co-operative Party politician and junior minister under Harold Wilson.

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Jordan Belfort

Jordan Ross Belfort (born July 9, 1962) is an American author, motivational speaker, and former stockbroker.

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Journalistic scandal

Journalism scandals are high-profile incidents or acts, whether intentional or accidental, that run contrary to the generally accepted ethics and standards of journalism, or otherwise violate the 'ideal' mission of journalism: to report news events and issues accurately and fairly.

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Kenneth Lay

Kenneth Lee "Ken" Lay (April 15, 1942 – July 5, 2006) was an American businessman best known for his involvement in the Enron scandal.

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Kevin Trudeau

Kevin Mark Trudeau (born February 6, 1963) is an American author, salesman, and pool enthusiast, known for his fraudulent promotion of his books and consequent legal cases.

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Konrad Kujau

Konrad Paul Kujau (27 June 1938 – 12 September 2000) was a German illustrator and forger.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Leonardo DiCaprio

Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974) is an American actor and film producer.

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List of chief executive officers

The following is a list of chief executive officers of notable companies.

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List of Governors of Florida

The Governor of Florida is the head of the executive branch of Florida's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.

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List of impostors

An impostor (also spelled imposter) is a person who pretends to be somebody else, often through means of disguise.

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In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, and/or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc.

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Lou Pearlman

Louis Jay "Lou" Pearlman (June 19, 1954 – August 19, 2016) was an American record producer and fraudster.

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Mail and wire fraud

In the United States, mail and wire fraud is any fraudulent scheme to intentionally deprive another of property or honest services via mail or wire communication.

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Marc Dreier

Marc Stuart Dreier (born May 12, 1950) is a former American lawyer who was sentenced to 20 years in federal prison in 2009 for committing investment fraud using a Ponzi scheme.

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Mark Nigrini

Mark J. Nigrini, born in Cape Town, South Africa, is a faculty member at the College of Business and Economics at West Virginia University in Morgantown in the US state of West Virginia.

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Martin Frankel

Martin R. "Marty" Frankel (born 1954) is an American financial criminal who conducted a series of investment frauds in the late 20th century, causing hundreds of millions of dollars in losses.

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Matt the Knife

Not to be confused with Matt the Knife the WFTDA referee from Rainy City Roller Girls. "Matt the Knife" (also called MTK; born 1987) was born in Massachusetts and grew up in Boston, but now resides in Rhode Island.

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MCI Inc.

MCI, Inc. (d/b/a Verizon Business) was an American telecommunication corporation, currently a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, with its main office in Ashburn, Virginia.

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Medicare (United States)

In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.

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Michael I. Monus

Michael I. "Mickey" Monus (born 1947) is the former president of Phar-Mor, Inc., a defunct deep-discount drug and grocery retail chain that established a strong national presence before declaring bankruptcy in the early 1990s.

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Michael Sabo

Michael Sabo (born 1945) is an American consultant and speaker on identity theft and fraud in the business and personal sectors.

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Money laundering

Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.

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Mortgage fraud

Mortgage fraud is a crime in which the intent is to materially misrepresent or omit information on a mortgage loan application in order to obtain a loan or to obtain a larger loan than could have been obtained had the lender or borrower known the truth.

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Mukhtar Ablyazov

Mukhtar Kabyluly Ablyazov translit, born 16 May 1963) is a Kazakh dissident, politician, businessman, and banker accused of embezzling and mismanaging $6 billion of bank assets while serving as bank chairman in one of the biggest financial frauds in history. He was the founder of Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan (DCK), a political party that disbanded in 2005. He is also the author of Ablyazov against Nazarbayev. Ablyazov is alleged to have embezzled $6 billion from BTA Bank while serving as chairman. From July 2013 to December 2016, Ablyazov was detained by French authorities,, Agence France-Presse (December 10, 2016). as Russia sought Ablyazov's extradition from France, but Ablyazov argued that extradition would place him at risk of ill-treatment and an unfair trial. Human rights groups Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as many members of the European Parliament, wrote in opposition to extradition of Ablyazov. In 2015, a French court in Lyon issued an extradition order.Jim Armitage,, The Independent (October 12, 2015). However, in December 2016, France's highest administrative court, the Conseil d'Etat, canceled the extradition order, on the ground that Russia had a political motive in making the extradition request., Reuters (December 9, 2016). Ablyazov was released from the Fleury-Mérogis Prison. Latvian MEP Iveta Grigule-Pēterse warned European Union NGOs and advocacy groups to scrutinize the source of the funds or donations received, citing Ablyazov's use of allegedly embezzled BTA Bank funds to underwrite PR campaigns to minimize Ablyazov's fraud and to present Ablysov as a political dissident.

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National Audit Office (United Kingdom)

The National Audit Office (NAO) is an independent Parliamentary body in the United Kingdom which is responsible for auditing central government departments, government agencies and non-departmental public bodies.

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National Council Against Health Fraud

The National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) was a not-for-profit, US-based organization, run by Dr.

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National Fraud Authority

The National Fraud Authority (NFA) was an executive agency of the United Kingdom Home Office responsible for increasing protection for the UK economy from the harm caused by fraud.

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National Fraud Intelligence Bureau

The National Fraud Intelligence Bureau is a police unit in the United Kingdom responsible for gathering and analysing intelligence relating to fraud and financially-motivated cyber crime.

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National Hockey League

The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.

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New York Islanders

The New York Islanders are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City.

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New York Stock Exchange

The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.

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Nick Leeson

Nicholas William "Nick" Leeson (born 25 February 1967) is a former derivatives broker whose fraudulent, unauthorised speculative trading, for which he was sentenced to prison, caused the spectacular collapse of Barings Bank, the United Kingdom's oldest merchant bank.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Obstruction of justice

Obstruction of justice, in United States jurisdictions, is the crime of obstructing prosecutors or other (usually government) officials.

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Office for National Statistics

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

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Organized crime

Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.

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In statistics, an outlier is an observation point that is distant from other observations.

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Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.

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Penny stock

Penny stocks, also known as cent stocks in some countries, are common shares of small public companies that trade at low prices per share.

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Petters Group Worldwide

Petters Group Worldwide was a diversified company based in Minnetonka, Minnesota that was turned into a $3.65 billion Ponzi scheme by its founder and CEO, Tom Petters.

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Phar-Mor (stylized as PHA℞-MOR) was a United States chain of discount drug stores, based in Youngstown, Ohio, and founded by Michael "Mickey" Monus and David Shapira in 1982.

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Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

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Phone fraud

Phone fraud, or more generally communications fraud, is the use of telecommunications products or services with the intention of illegally acquiring money from, or failing to pay, a telecommunication company or its customers.

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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Police impersonation

Police impersonation is an act of falsely portraying oneself as a member of the police, for the purpose of deception.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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Ponzi scheme

A Ponzi scheme (also a Ponzi game) is a form of fraud in which a purported businessman lures investors and pays profits to earlier investors using funds obtained from newer investors.

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Portuguese escudo

The Portuguese escudo is the currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999 and its removal from circulation on 28 February 2002.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Proximate cause

In the law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to an injury that the courts deem the event to be the cause of that injury.

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Punitive damages

Punitive damages, or exemplary damages, are damages intended to reform or deter the defendant and others from engaging in conduct similar to that which formed the basis of the lawsuit.

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Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.

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Quatloos.com is an anti-fraud website maintained by a non-profit corporation, Financial and Tax Fraud Education Associates, Inc.

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Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act

The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, commonly referred to as the RICO Act or simply RICO, is a United States federal law that provides for extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization.

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Ramón Báez Figueroa

Ramón Buenaventura Báez Figueroa (born in 1956) is the former president of Banco Intercontinental (BANINTER) from the Dominican Republic, accused in 2003 of masterminding the country's most spectacular banking fraud scandal, amounting to more than US$2.2 billion.

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Reasonable doubt

Reasonable doubt is a term used in jurisdiction of common law countries.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Richard Whitney (financier)

Richard Whitney (August 1, 1888 – December 5, 1974) was an American financier, president of the New York Stock Exchange from 1930 to 1935.

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Rick Scott

Richard Lynn Scott (born December 1, 1952) is an American businessman and politician serving as the 45th and current Governor of Florida since 2011.

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Royal assent

Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.

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Salad Oil scandal

The Salad Oil scandal, also referred to as the "Soybean Scandal", was a major corporate scandal in 1963 that ultimately caused over $150 million – approximately $1.45 billion in 2017 dollars – in losses to corporations including American Express, Bank of America and Bank Leumi, as well as many international trading companies.

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Samuel Israel III

Samuel Israel III (born July 20, 1959) is an American-born former hedge fund manager for the Bayou Hedge Fund Group, which he founded in 1996.

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Scientific misconduct

Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in the publication of professional scientific research.

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Scots law

Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.

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Scott W. Rothstein

Scott W. Rothstein (born June 10, 1962) is a disbarred lawyer and the former managing shareholder, chairman, and chief executive officer of the now-defunct Rothstein Rosenfeldt Adler law firm.

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Secret profit

In English law, a secret profit is a profit made by an employee who uses his employer's premises and business facilities in order to engage in unauthorised trade on his own behalf.

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Security (finance)

A security is a tradable financial asset.

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Security hacker

A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.

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Serial killer

A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more people,A serial killer is most commonly defined as a person who kills three or more people for psychological gratification; reliable sources over the years agree.

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Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom)

The Serious Fraud Office (SFO) is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom department that investigates and prosecutes serious or complex fraud and corruption in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Shell corporation

A shell company is a company that exists only on paper and has no office and no employees, but may have a bank account or may hold passive investments or be the registered owner of assets, such as intellectual property, or ships.

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Specific performance

Specific performance is an equitable remedy in the law of contract, whereby a court issues an order requiring a party to perform a specific act, such to complete performance of the contract.

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Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99: Consideration of Fraud

Statement on Auditing Standards No.

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Stock market

A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.

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A stockbroker is a regulated professional individual, usually associated with a brokerage firm or broker-dealer, who buys and sells stocks and other securities for both retail and institutional clients through a stock exchange or over the counter in return for a fee or commission.

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Summary offence

A summary offence is a crime in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded against summarily, without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment (required for an indictable offence).

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Supreme Court of Canada

The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.

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Swampland in Florida

Swampland in Florida is a figure of speech referring to real estate scams in which a seller misrepresent unusable swampland as developable property.

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The Book of Swindles

The Book of Swindles (Pian jing 騙經), also known by its longer title, A New Book for Foiling Swindlers, Based on Worldly Experience (Jianghu lilan dupian xinshu 江湖歷覽杜騙新書), is said to be the first Chinese story collection about fraud.

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The Sting

The Sting is a 1973 American caper film set in September 1936, involving a complicated plot by two professional grifters (Paul Newman and Robert Redford) to con a mob boss (Robert Shaw).

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Theft Act 1978

The Theft Act 1978 (c 31) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Thomson Reuters

Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.

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Time series

A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order.

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Tino De Angelis

Anthony "Tino" De Angelis (November 3, 1915 – September 26, 2009) was a Bayonne, New Jersey-based commodities trader who bought and sold vegetable oil futures around the world.

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Tobashi scheme

A tobashi scheme is a financial fraud where a client's losses are hidden by an investment firm by shifting them between the portfolios of other (genuine or fake) clients.

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Tom Petters

Thomas Joseph Petters is an American businessman and the chairman and CEO of Petters Group Worldwide who was convicted of massive business fraud in 2009 and is now imprisoned at the United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth.

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A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Trade secret

A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.

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U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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United States Postal Inspection Service

The United States Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service.

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United States Secret Service

The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.

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Warren G. Harding

Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician who served as the 29th President of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923.

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Wetumka, Oklahoma

Wetumka is a city in northern Hughes County, Oklahoma, United States.

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White-collar crime

White-collar crime refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals.

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Anti-fraud movements, Constuctive fraud, Consumer fraud, Customer fraud, Data diddling, Defraud, Defraudation, Defrauder, Defrauding, Defraudment, Estafa, Finagler, Fraud Detection, Fraud detection, Fraud for profit, Fraud law, Fraud on the court, Fraud prevention, Fraud scam, Fraudster, Fraudsters, Fraudulent, Intellect (videophone), Intentional misrepresentation, Marketing scam, Organized fraud, Phoney, Phonies, Phoniness, Phony, Theft by deception, Unlawful age misrepresentation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraud

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