216 relations: Aachen, Acre, Israel, Adelaide of Susa, Adelaide of Vohburg, Agnes of Poitou, Agnes of Waiblingen, Akşehir, Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, Alessandria, Ali ibn al-Athir, Anatolia, Ancona, Angevin Empire, Antichrist, Antioch, Antipope, Antipope Paschal III, Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164), Archbishop of Cologne, Arles, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Arnold of Brescia, Augustine of Hippo, Avalon Project, Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, Bamberg, Barbarossa (film), Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, Battle of Iconium (1190), Battle of Legnano, Battle of Monte Porzio, Baudolino, Béla I of Hungary, Béla III of Hungary, Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy, Bertha of Savoy, Biblical Magi, Bologna, Brân the Blessed, Brescia, Bubonic plague, Canonization, Canossa, Cappenberg Castle, Catholic Church, Charlemagne, Charles Christopher Mierow, Christendom, Church of Saint Peter, Cologne Cathedral, ..., Concordat of Worms, Conrad II, Duke of Swabia, Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad III of Germany, Consanguinity, Constance, Queen of Sicily, Constantinople, Corpus Juris Civilis, County of Burgundy, Cyrus Townsend Brady, Deutsche Welle, Diet of Mainz, Diet of Roncaglia, Divine right of kings, Duchy of Austria, Duke of Swabia, Dukes of Swabia family tree, Eleanor of Normandy, Emeric, King of Hungary, Erfurt, Ernst Kantorowicz, Excommunication, Family tree of the German monarchs, Fief, First Council of the Lateran, Fletcher Pratt, Frankfurt, Frederick I, Duke of Swabia, Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, Frederick V, Duke of Swabia, Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia, Géza, son of Géza II of Hungary, Göksu, German Empire, Golden Legend, Grand Principality of Serbia, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Henry II of England, Henry II, Duke of Austria, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, Henry the Lion, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy See, House of Welf, Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Investiture Controversy, Iron Crown of Lombardy, Italian language, Jacobus da Varagine, Jerusalem, John Crowley, Judith of Bavaria, Duchess of Swabia, Judith of Flanders (died 1095), King Arthur, King in the mountain, King of Italy, King of the Romans, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kingdom of Sicily, Kunigunde of Altdorf, Kyffhäuser, Kyffhäuser Monument, L. Sprague de Camp, Land of Unreason, Landfrieden, Les Burgraves, List of counts of Burgundy, List of German monarchs, List of kings of Burgundy, List of rulers of Saxony, Little, Big, Lombard League, Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor, Magnus, Duke of Saxony, Mainz, Malaria, Manuel I Komnenos, Milan, Myocardial infarction, Norman Cantor, Normans, Operation Barbarossa, Ordulf, Duke of Saxony, Otto I, Count of Burgundy, Otto I, Count of Savoy, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Otto of Freising, Otto of Sankt Blasien, Ottone and Acerbo Morena, Palestine (region), Papal legate, Pavia, Peace of Constance, Pepin the Short, Peter Abelard, Philip II of France, Philip of Swabia, Piacenza, Pope, Pope Adrian IV, Pope Eugene III, Pope Gregory VII, Pope Urban III, Prince-elector, Privilegium Minus, Rahewin, Rainald of Dassel, Reginald III, Count of Burgundy, Relic, Richard I of England, Richeza of Poland, Queen of Hungary, Roger II of Sicily, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bamberg, Rome, Romuald Guarna, Rutger Hauer, Saladin, Second Bulgarian Empire, Second Crusade, Shrine of the Three Kings, Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem, Sicily, Sidonius Apollinaris, Siege of Crema, Siege of Tortona, Silifke Castle, Sophia of Hungary, Soviet Union, Spoleto, St. Peter's Basilica, Swabia, Sweyn III of Denmark, Tafelgüterverzeichnis, Tarsus, Mersin, Theodoric II, Third Crusade, Thuringia, Tivoli, Lazio, Tortona, Treaty of Ramla, Treaty of Venice, Tuscany, Tyre, Lebanon, Umberto Eco, University of Marburg, Untersberg, Valdemar I of Denmark, Venice, Verona, Victor Hugo, Visigoths, Waiblingen, Würzburg, Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, William I, German Emperor, Wulfhild of Norway, Wulfhilde of Saxony, Yale Law School. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Adelaide of Turin (also Adelheid, Adelais, or Adeline; – 19 December 1091) was the Countess of part of the March of Ivrea and the Marchioness of Turin in Northwestern Italy from 1034 to her death.
Adelaide of Vohburg (Adela or Adelheid; – 25 May after 1187) was Duchess of Swabia from 1147 and German queen from 1152 until 1153, as the first wife of the Hohenstaufen king Frederick Barbarossa, the later Holy Roman Emperor.
Agnes of Poitou, also called Agnes of Aquitaine or Empress Agnes (– 14 December 1077), a member of the House of Poitiers, was German queen from 1043 and Holy Roman Empress from 1046 until 1056.
Agnes of Waiblingen (1072/73 – 24 September 1143), also known as Agnes of Germany, Agnes of Poitou and Agnes of Saarbrücken, was a member of the Salian imperial family.
Akşehir is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey.
Alberto Azzo II (997 or July 10, 1009, Modena – August 20, 1097, Modena), Margrave of Milan, and Liguria, Count of Gavello and Padua, Rovigo, Lunigiana, Monselice, and Montagnana, aka, Albertezzo II, was a powerful nobleman in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alessandria (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.
Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani, better known as Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (Arabic: علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري) (1233–1160) was an Arab or Kurdish historian and biographer who wrote in Arabic and was from the Ibn Athir family.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
In Christianity, antichrist is a term found solely in the First Epistle of John and Second Epistle of John, and often lowercased in Bible translations, in accordance with its introductory appearance: "Children, it is the last hour! As you heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come".
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
An antipope (antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church.
Antipope Paschal III (or Paschal III) was Antipope from 1164 to 20 September 1168.
Victor IV (born Octavian or Octavianus: Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di Monticelli) (1095 – 20 April, 1164) was elected as a Ghibelline antipope in 1159, following the death of Pope Adrian IV and the election of Alexander III.
The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop representing the Archdiocese of Cologne of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany and was ex officio one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, the Elector of Cologne, from 1356 to 1801.
Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
Arnold of Brescia (1090 – June 1155), also known as Arnaldus (Arnaldo da Brescia), was an Italian canon regular from Lombardy.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
Baldwin IV (980 – 30 May 1035), called the Bearded, was Count of Flanders from 987.
Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
Barbarossa is a 2009 Italian English-language film set primarily in northern Italy during the late 12th century.
The Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio is a church in Milan in northern Italy, which is in the Basilicas Park city park.
The Battle of Iconium (sometimes referred as the Battle of Konya) took place on May 18, 1190 during the Third Crusade, in the expedition of Frederick Barbarossa to the Holy Land.
The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League.
The Battle of Monte Porzio (also called the Battle of Tusculum) was fought on 29 May 1167 between the Holy Roman Empire and the Commune of Rome.
Baudolino is a 2000 novel by Umberto Eco about the adventures of a man named Baudolino in the known and mythical Christian world of the 12th century.
Béla I the Champion or the Wisent (I., Belo I.; before 1020 – 11 September 1063) was King of Hungary from 1060 until his death.
Béla III (III., Bela III, Belo III; 114823 April 1196) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196.
Beatrice of Burgundy (1143 – 15 November 1184) was a Sovereign Countess of Burgundy from 1148 until her death, and a Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Bertha of Savoy (21 September 1051 – 27 December 1087), also called Bertha of Turin, a member of the Burgundian House of Savoy, was Queen consort of Germany from 1066 and Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire from 1084 until 1087 as the first wife of the Salian emperor Henry IV.
The biblical Magi (or; singular: magus), also referred to as the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Brân the Blessed (Bendigeidfran or Brân Fendigaidd, literally "Blessed Crow") is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology.
Brescia (Lombard: Brèsa,, or; Brixia; Bressa) is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Canossa (Reggiano: Canòsa) is a comune and castle town in the Province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
Cappenberg Castle (Schloss Cappenberg) is a former Premonstratensian monastery, Cappenberg Abbey (Kloster Cappenberg) in Cappenberg, a part of Selm, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Christopher Mierow (1883–1961) was an American academic and classical scholar.
Christendom has several meanings.
The Church of Saint Peter (Aramaic: Knisset Mar Semaan Kefa, Turkish: Senpiyer Kilisesi, St. Peter's Cave Church, Cave-Church of St. Peter) near Antakya (Antioch), Turkey, is composed of a cave carved into the mountainside on Mount Starius with a depth of 13 m (42 ft.), a width of 9.5 m (31 ft.) and a height of 7 m (23 ft).
Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom, officially Hohe Domkirche Sankt Petrus, English: Cathedral Church of Saint Peter) is a Catholic cathedral in Cologne, Northrhine-Westfalia, Germany.
The Concordat of Worms (Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor on September 23, 1122, near the city of Worms.
Conrad II (February/March 1173 – August 15, 1196) was duke of Swabia from 1191 to his death and Duke of Rothenburg (1188–1191).
Conrad II (4 June 1039), also known as and, was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 until his death in 1039.
Conrad III (1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.
Constance (2 November 1154 – 27 November 1198) was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
The Free County of Burgundy (Franche Comté de Bourgogne; Freigrafschaft Burgund) was a medieval county (from 982 to 1678) of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose very name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf ('free count', denoting imperial immediacy, or franc comte in French, hence the term franc(he) comté for his feudal principality).
Cyrus Townsend Brady (December 20, 1861 – January 24, 1920) was a journalist, historian and adventure writer.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
The Diet of Mainz (Reichstag zu Mainz) (older: Diet of Mayence) was a meeting of the Estates General of the Holy Roman Empire held in Mainz in 1188.
The Diet of Roncaglia, held in 1158 near Piacenza, was an Imperial Diet, a general assembly of the nobles and ecclesiasts of the Holy Roman Empire and representatives of each of the fourteen Lombard League cities.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages.
This is a Family tree of the Dukes of Swabia, from 1012 to the end of the Hohenstaufen dominion over the duchy in 1268.
Eleanor of Normandy (1010 - 1071) was a Countess consort of Flanders.
Emeric, also known as Henry or Imre (Imre, Emerik, Imrich; 117430 November 1204), was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1196 and 1204.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz (May 3, 1895 – September 9, 1963) was a German-American historian of medieval political and intellectual history and art, known for his 1927 book Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite on Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, and The King's Two Bodies (1957) on medieval and early modern ideologies of monarchy and the state.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils by the Catholic Church.
Murray Fletcher Pratt (25 April 1897 – 10 June 1956) was an American writer of science fiction, fantasy and history.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frederick I (c. 1050 – before 21 July 1105) was Duke of Swabia from 1079 to his death, the first ruler from the House of Hohenstaufen (Staufer).
Frederick II (1090 – 6 April 1147), called the One-Eyed, was Duke of Swabia from 1105 until his death, the second from the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Frederick IV of Hohenstaufen (1145–1167) was duke of Swabia, succeeding his cousin, Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1152.
Frederick V of Hohenstaufen (Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170) was duke of Swabia from 1167 to his death.
Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen (February 1167 – 20 January 1191) was duke of Swabia from 1170 to his death at the siege of Acre.
Géza (1150s–1210) was a Hungarian royal prince and the youngest son of the King Géza II of Hungary.
The Göksu (Turkish for "blue water" also called Geuk Su, Goksu Nehri; medieval Latin: Saleph, Ancient Greek: Καλύκαδνος Calycadnus) is a river on the Taşeli plateau (Turkey).
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Golden Legend (Latin: Legenda aurea or Legenda sanctorum) is a collection of hagiographies by Blessed Jacobus de Varagine that was widely read in late medieval Europe.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija), also known as Raška (Serbian Cyrillic: Рашка, Rascia) was a Serb medieval state that comprised parts of what is today Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and southern Dalmatia, being centred in the region of Raška (hence its exonym).
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry II (Heinrich; 1112 – 13 January 1177), called Jasomirgott, a member of the House of Babenberg,Lingelbach 1913, pp.
Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry IX (1075 – 13 December 1126), called the Black, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria from 1120 to 1126.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea; Corona Ferrea Langobardiae) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jacopo De Fazio, best known as the blessed Jacobus da Varagine (Giacomo da Varazze, Jacopo da Varazze; c. 1230July 13 or July 16, 1298) was an Italian chronicler and archbishop of Genoa.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
John Crowley (born December 1, 1942) is an American author of fantasy, science fiction and mainstream fiction.
Judith of Bavaria, Duchess of Swabia (19 May 1100 – 27 Aug 1130) was a Duchess of Swabia by marriage to Frederick II, Duke of Swabia.
Judith of Flanders (1030-35 to 5 March 1095) was, by her successive marriages to Tostig Godwinson and Welf I, Countess of Northumbria and Duchess of Bavaria.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The King asleep in mountain (D 1960.2 in Stith Thompson's motif index system) is a prominent folklore motif found in many folktales and legends.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
Kunigunde of Altdorf (also known as Cunegonde or Chuniza; – 31 August 1054) was a member of the Swabian line of the Elder House of Welf.
The Kyffhäuser, sometimes also referred to as Kyffhäusergebirge, is a hill range in Central Germany, located on the border of the state of Thuringia with Saxony-Anhalt, southeast of the Harz mountains.
The Kyffhäuser Monument (Kyffhäuserdenkmal), also known as Barbarossa Monument (Barbarossadenkmal), is an Emperor William monument within the Kyffhäuser mountain range in the German state of Thuringia.
Lyon Sprague de Camp (27 November 1907 – 6 November 2000), better known as L. Sprague de Camp, was an American writer of science fiction, fantasy and non-fiction.
Land of Unreason is a fantasy novel by American writers Fletcher Pratt and L. Sprague de Camp.
A Landfrieden or Landfriede (Latin: constitutio pacis, pax instituta or pax jurata) was, under medieval law of the Holy Roman Empire, a contractual waiver by rulers of specified territories of the use of (actually legitimate) force to assert their own legal claims.
Les Burgraves is a historical play by Victor Hugo, first performed by the Comédie-Française on 7 March 1843.
This is a list of the counts of Burgundy, i.e., of the region known as Franche-Comté not to be confused with the Duchy of Burgundy, from 982 to 1678.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
The following is a list of the kings of the two Kingdoms of Burgundy, and a number of related political entities devolving from Carolingian machinations over family relations.
This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918.
Little, Big: or, The Fairies' Parliament is a modern fantasy novel by John Crowley, published in 1981.
The Lombard League (Italian and Lombard: Lega Lombarda) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the Pope, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death.
Magnus (– 23 August 1106) was the duke of Saxony from 1072 to 1106.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Norman Frank Cantor (November 19, 1929 – September 18, 2004) was a Canadian-American historian who specialized in the medieval period.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Ordulf (sometimes Otto) (– 28 March 1072) was the duke of Saxony from 1059, when he succeeded his father Bernard II, until his death.
Otto I (between 1167 and 1171 – 13 January 1200) was Count of Burgundy from 1190 to his death and briefly Count of Luxembourg from 1196 to 1197.
Otto (Odon, Oddon, Othon; Oddone; /1060) was count of Savoy from around 1051 until his death.
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
Otto of Freising (Otto Frisingensis; c. 1114 – 22 September 1158) was a German churchman and chronicler.
Otto of Sankt Blasien was a German Benedictine chronicler.
Ottone and his son Acerbo Morena (died 1167) of Lodi were Italian chroniclers who wrote in Latin of twelfth-century events from a Lombard point of view in a history of Lodi, De rebus Laudensibus, ("Concerning Lodi") which was begun by Ottone.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.
The Peace of Constance of 1183 was signed in the city of Konstanz by the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and representatives of the Italian Lombard League.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
Pope Eugene III (Eugenius III; c. 1080 – 8 July 1153), born Bernardo Pignatelli, called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153.
Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
Pope Urban III (Urbanus III; died 20 October 1187), born Uberto Crivelli, reigned from 25 November 1185 to his death in 1187.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Privilegium Minus is the denotation of a deed issued by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa on 17 September 1156.
Rahewin was an important German chronicler at the abbey of Freising in Bavaria.
Rainald of Dassel (c. 1120 – 14 August 1167) was Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor of Italy from 1159 until his death.
Reginald III or Renaud III (c. 1087 – 1148), son of Stephen I (Tête-hardi) and Beatrix of Lorraine, was the count of Burgundy between 1127 and 1148.
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Adelaide/Richeza of Poland (11th century) was Queen Consort of Hungary by marriage to Béla I of Hungary.
Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
The Archdiocese of Bamberg (lat. Archidioecesis Bambergensis) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Bavaria and is one of 27 Roman Catholic dioceses in Germany.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Romuald Guarna (between 1110 and 1120 – 1 April 1181/2) was the Archbishop of Salerno (as Romuald II) from 1153 to his death.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.
The Shrine of the Three Kings (German Dreikönigsschrein or Der Dreikönigenschrein), Tomb of the Three Kings, or Tomb of the Three Magi is a reliquary traditionally believed to contain the bones of the Biblical Magi, also known as the Three Kings or the Three Wise Men.
Sibylla (French: "Sibylle", c. 1160–1190) was the Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon from 1176 and Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.
The Siege of Crema was a siege of the town of Crema, Lombardy by the Holy Roman Empire in 1159.
The Siege of Tortona in 1155 was the first major military engagement resulting from Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa's ambition to enforce Imperial hegemony in Italy.
Silifke Castle (Silifke kalesi) is a medieval castle in Turkey.
Sophia of Hungary (– 18 June 1095), a member of the royal Árpád dynasty, was a Margravine of Istria and Carniola from about 1062 until 1070, by her first marriage with Margrave Ulric I, as well as Duchess of Saxony from 1072 until her death, by her second marriage with Duke Magnus Billung.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spoleto (Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines.
The Papal Basilica of St.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Sweyn III Grathe (Svend III Grathe) (– 23 October 1157) was the King of Denmark between 1146 and 1157, in shifting alliances with Canute V and his own cousin Valdemar I. In 1157, the three agreed a tripartition of Denmark.
The Tafelgüterverzeichnis is a list of the "courts which belong to the table of the king of the Romans" (curie que pertinent ad mensam regis Romanorum), that is, a register of the lands belonging to the royal demesne (or fisc) and of the payments in cash or in kind which each estate owed annually.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
Theodoric II, Teodorico in Spanish and Portuguese, (426 – early 466) was the eighth King of Visigoths from 453 to 466.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Tivoli (Tibur) is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills.
Tortona is a comune of Piemonte, in the Province of Alessandria, Italy.
The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf of September 1191.
The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.
The Philipps University of Marburg (Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest Protestant university in the world.
The Untersberg is the northernmost massif of the Berchtesgaden Alps, a prominent spur straddling the border between Berchtesgaden, Germany and Salzburg, Austria.
Valdemar I of Denmark (14 January 1131 – 12 May 1182), also known as Valdemar the Great (Valdemar den Store), was King of Denmark from 1146 until his death in 1182.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Waiblingen is a town in the southwest of Germany, located in the center of the densely populated Stuttgart Region, directly neighboring Stuttgart.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
Welf I (died 6 November 1101, Paphos, Cyprus) was Duke of Bavaria from 1070 to 1077 and from 1096 to his death.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
Wulfhild of Norway (1020 – 24 May 1071), Old West Norse: Úlfhildr Ólafsdóttir, Swedish: Ulfhild Olofsdotter, was a Norwegian princess, and a duchess of Saxony by marriage to Ordulf, Duke of Saxony.
Wulfhilde Billung of Saxony (1072 – 29 December 1126 in Weingarten Abbey) was the eldest daughter of Magnus, Duke of Saxony and his wife, Sophia of Hungary.
Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States.
Emperor Barbarossa, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor Frederick I, Emperor Friedrich I, Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, Federico Barbarossa, Federigo Barbarossa, Frederic Barbarossa, Frederick Barbarossa, Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I (Barbarossa), Frederick I (HRR), Frederick I Barbarosa, Frederick I Barbarossa, Frederick III, Duke of Swabia, Frederick Redbeard, Frederick barbosa, Friedrich Barbarossa, Friedrich I Barbarossa, Friedrich I Barbarossa of Germany, Friedrich I, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman emperor and German king Frederick I, Kaiser Rotbart.