286 relations: Access control list, Addison-Wesley, Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, ALTQ, Apple Inc., AppleTalk, Application programming interface, APT (Debian), ARM architecture, ASCII art, AT&T, Automounter, Backporting, BAPP, Beerware, Bell Labs, Berkeley Software Design, Berkeley Software Distribution, Bhyve, Bill Joy, Binary blob, BIND, Bleeding edge technology, Bluetooth, Booting, BSD Daemon, BSD licenses, BSD/OS, C (programming language), C dynamic memory allocation, Canada, Capability-based security, CD-ROM, Chroot, Clang, Command-line interface, Common Address Redundancy Protocol, Common Criteria, Common Development and Distribution License, Comparison of BSD operating systems, Comparison of operating system kernels, Comparison of operating systems, Compatibility layer, Compiler, Computer Systems Research Group, Copyleft, Cron, Darwin (operating system), Datamation, DEC Alpha, ..., Dell EMC Isilon, Desktop environment, DesktopBSD, Device driver, Digital library, Direct Rendering Manager, Disk encryption, Dmesg, Documentation, DragonFly BSD, DTrace, Dwm, Elm (email client), Email client, Embedded system, Emulator, Europe, Executable, Executable and Linkable Format, File Transfer Protocol, Firewall (computing), FLASK, FlightAware, Fluxbox, FOSDEM, Free and open-source software, Free Software Foundation, FreeBSD, FreeBSD Documentation License, FreeBSD jail, FreeBSD Ports, FreeNAS, FreeSBIE, GBDE, Geli (software), GEOM, GhostBSD, Giant lock, GNOME, GNU Compiler Collection, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License, GNU Project, GUID Partition Table, Hardware abstraction, Hostname, How does one patch KDE2 under FreeBSD?, Hyper-threading, Hypervisor, IA-32, IA-64, IBM, IBM DeveloperWorks, IEEE 1394, Illumos, Instruction set architecture, Intel 80386, Intel High Definition Audio, Internet, Internet protocol suite, Internetwork Packet Exchange, IOS, IP address, IPFilter, Ipfirewall, IPsec, IPv6, ISC license, ISCSI, IXsystems, Jan Koum, Japan, John Lasseter, John Wiley & Sons, Jordan Hubbard, Journaling file system, Juniper Networks, Junos OS, KAME project, KDE, Keith Bostic, Kernel (operating system), Kernel debugger, Kernel-based Virtual Machine, Kernfs (BSD), Kqueue, Laptop, Library (computing), Line art, Linux, Linux distribution, Live CD, LLVM, Loadable kernel module, LXC, Lynne Jolitz, M0n0wall, MacOS, Make (software), Mandatory access control, Marshall Kirk McKusick, MATE (software), Message transfer agent, Microkernel, Microsoft Windows, MidnightBSD, MIPS architecture, Monolithic kernel, Name server, NAS4Free, National Security Agency, Native Command Queuing, NetApp, NetBSD, Netflix, Netgraph, Network Driver Interface Specification, Network News Transfer Protocol, Network-attached storage, NeXTSTEP, Nintendo Switch system software, No Starch Press, Nokia, O'Reilly Media, Offset printing, OneFS distributed file system, Open Source Initiative, Open-source model, Open-source software, Openbox, OpenBSD, OpenBSD Cryptographic Framework, OpenBSM, OpenPAM, OpenServer, OpenSSH, OpenZFS, Operating system, Operating-system-level virtualization, OPNsense, Oracle Corporation, OSNews, Package manager, PackageKit, Packt, Panasas, PC-9800 series, Pearson Education, Permissive software licence, PF (firewall), PfSense, Phoronix, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 4 system software, Pluggable authentication module, Poul-Henning Kamp, PowerPC, Productivity software, QEMU, Qualcomm Atheros, RAID, Raspberry Pi, Research Unix, RISC-V, Robert Watson (computer scientist), Router (computing), Sakura HyperMedia Desktop, Sams Publishing, Scheduling (computing), SCSI, Security-Enhanced Linux, Security-focused operating system, Serial ATA, Simultaneous multithreading, Single-board computer, Soft updates, Software developer, Software repository, Solaris Containers, Sony, Source code, SPARC, Standard RAID levels, Stream Control Transmission Protocol, Sun Microsystems, Symmetric multiprocessing, System call, Tcsh, TeX Live, Text-based user interface, Tmpfs, Trademark, TrueOS, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, TvOS, UDP-Lite, ULE scheduler, UltraSPARC, Unbound (DNS server), Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, University of California, Berkeley, Unix File System, UNIX System Laboratories, Inc. v. Berkeley Software Design, Inc., UNIX System V, Unix-like, USB, USB 3.0, USENIX, User space, Video Electronics Standards Association, Virtual file system, Virtual machine, Virtual memory, VirtualBox, Walnut Creek CDROM, WatchOS, Web browser, Web server, WhatsApp, Wi-Fi, William Jolitz, Windowing system, Workstation, X Window System, X.Org Server, X86-64, Xbox (console), Xen, Xfce, XFree86, XView, Xz, Yum (software), ZFS, 386BSD. Expand index (236 more) » « Shrink index
An access control list (ACL), with respect to a computer file system, is a list of permissions attached to an object.
Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.
In a computer, the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) provides an open standard that operating systems can use to discover and configure computer hardware components, to perform power management by (for example) putting unused components to sleep, and to perform status monitoring.
ALTQ (ALTernate Queueing) is the network scheduler for Berkeley Software Distribution.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
AppleTalk was a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Advanced Package Tool, or APT, is a free software user interface that works with core libraries to handle the installation and removal of software on Debian, Ubuntu and other Linux distributions.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
ASCII art is a graphic design technique that uses computers for presentation and consists of pictures pieced together from the 95 printable (from a total of 128) characters defined by the ASCII Standard from 1963 and ASCII compliant character sets with proprietary extended characters (beyond the 128 characters of standard 7-bit ASCII).
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
An automounter is any program or software facility which automatically mounts filesystems in response to access operations by user programs.
Backporting is the action of taking parts from a newer version of a software system or software component and porting them to an older version of the same software.
The acronyms BAPP (or B.A.P.P.) and BAMP (or B.A.M.P.) refer to a set of open-source software programs commonly used together to run dynamic web sites or servers.
Beerware is a somewhat tongue-in-cheek term for software released under a very relaxed license (beerware licensed software).
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Berkeley Software Design Inc. (BSDI or, later, BSDi) was a corporation which developed, sold licenses for, and supported BSD/OS (originally known as BSD/386), a commercial and partially proprietary variant of the BSD Unix operating system for PC compatible (and later, other) computer systems.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
bhyve (pronounced "bee hive", formerly written as BHyVe) is a type-2 hypervisor that runs on FreeBSD.
William Nelson Joy (born November 8, 1954) is an American computer scientist.
In the context of free and open-source software, a binary blob is a closed-source binary-only piece of software.
BIND, or named, is the most widely used Domain Name System (DNS) software on the Internet.
Bleeding edge technology is a category of technologies so new that they could have a high risk of being unreliable and lead adopters to incur greater expense in order to make use of them.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).
In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.
The BSD Daemon, nicknamed Beastie, is the generic mascot of BSD operating systems.
BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses, imposing minimal restrictions on the use and redistribution of covered software.
BSD/OS (originally called BSD/386 and sometimes known as BSDi) is a discontinued proprietary version of the BSD operating system developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C dynamic memory allocation refers to performing manual memory management for dynamic memory allocation in the C programming language via a group of functions in the C standard library, namely,, and.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capability-based security is a concept in the design of secure computing systems, one of the existing security models.
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.
A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation that changes the apparent root directory for the current running process and its children.
Clang is a compiler front end for the programming languages C, C++, Objective-C, Objective-C++, OpenMP, OpenCL, and CUDA.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
The Common Address Redundancy Protocol or CARP is a computer networking protocol which allows multiple hosts on the same local area network to share a set of IP addresses.
The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (abbreviated as Common Criteria or CC) is an international standard (ISO/IEC 15408) for computer security certification.
Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) is a free and open-source software license, produced by Sun Microsystems, based on the Mozilla Public License (MPL).
There are a number of Unix-like operating systems based on or descended from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) series of Unix variants options.
A kernel is the most fundamental component of a computer operating system.
These tables provide a comparison of operating systems, of computer devices, as listing general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available PC or handheld (including smartphone and tablet computer) operating systems.
In software engineering, a compatibility layer is an interface that allows binaries for a legacy or foreign system to run on a host system.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
The Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) was a research group at the University of California, Berkeley that was dedicated to enhancing AT&T Unix operating system and funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.
The software utility cron is a time-based job scheduler in Unix-like computer operating systems.
Darwin is an open-source Unix operating system first released by Apple Inc. in 2000.
Datamation is a computer magazine that was published in print form in the United States between 1957 and 1998,, Sharon Machlis // ComputerWorld, page 15, 19 January 1998 and has since continued publication on the web.
Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.
Isilon is a scale out network-attached storage platform offered by Dell EMC for high-volume storage, backup and archiving of unstructured data.
In computing, a desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes described as a graphical shell.
DesktopBSD is a Unix-derivative, desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
A digital library, digital repository, or digital collection, is an online database of digital objects that can include text, still images, audio, video, or other digital media formats.
In computing, the Direct Rendering Manager (DRM), a subsystem of the Linux kernel, interfaces with the GPUs of modern video cards.
Disk encryption is a technology which protects information by converting it into unreadable code that cannot be deciphered easily by unauthorized people.
dmesg (display message or driver message) is a command on most Unix-like operating systems that prints the message buffer of the kernel.
Documentation is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs.
DragonFly BSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system created as a fork of FreeBSD 4.8.
DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework created by Sun Microsystems for troubleshooting kernel and application problems on production systems in real time.
dwm is a dynamic, minimalist tiling window manager for the X Window System that has influenced the development of several other X window managers, including xmonad and awesome.
Elm is a text-based email client commonly found on Unix systems.
In Internet, an email client, email reader or more formally mail user agent (MUA) is a computer program in the category of groupware environments used to access and manage a user's email.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
In computing, the Executable and Linkable Format (ELF, formerly named Extensible Linking Format), is a common standard file format for executable files, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
The Flux Advanced Security Kernel (FLASK) is an operating system security architecture that provides flexible support for security policies.
FlightAware is a global aviation software and data services company based in Houston, Texas.
Fluxbox is a stacking window manager for the X Window System, which started as a fork of Blackbox 0.61.1 in 2001, with the same aim to be lightweight.
Free and Open source Software Developers' European Meeting (FOSDEM) is a non-commercial, volunteer-organized European event centered on free and open-source software development.
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
The FreeBSD Documentation License is the license that covers most of the documentation for the FreeBSD operating system.
The FreeBSD jail mechanism is an implementation of operating system-level virtualization that allows system administrators to partition a FreeBSD-based computer system into several independent mini-systems called jails.
The FreeBSD Ports collection is a package management system for the FreeBSD operating system, providing an easy and consistent way of installing software packages.
FreeNAS is a free and open-source network-attached storage (NAS) software based on FreeBSD and the OpenZFS file system.
FreeSBIE is a live CD, an operating system that is able to load directly from a bootable CD with no installation process or hard disk.
GBDE, standing for GEOM Based Disk Encryption, is a block device-layer disk encryption system written for FreeBSD, initially introduced in version 5.0.
geli is a block device-layer disk encryption system written for FreeBSD, introduced in version 6.0.
GEOM is the main storage framework for the FreeBSD operating system.
GhostBSD is a Unix-like operating system based on FreeBSD, with Xfce and MATE as its default desktop environments (GNOME was the previous desktop environment).
In operating systems, a giant lock, also known as a big-lock or kernel-lock, is a lock that may be used in the kernel to provide concurrency control required by symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems.
GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
GUID Partition Table (GPT) is a standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical storage device used in a desktop or server PC, such as a hard disk drive or solid-state drive, using globally unique identifiers (GUID).
Hardware abstractions are sets of routines in software that emulate some platform-specific details, giving programs direct access to the hardware resources.
In computer networking, a hostname (archaically nodename) is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication, such as the World Wide Web.
"How does one patch KDE2 under FreeBSD?" (r) is an internet meme in Russian Internet culture.
Hyper-threading (officially called Hyper-Threading Technology or HT Technology, and abbreviated as HTT or HT) is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations (doing multiple tasks at once) performed on x86 microprocessors.
A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.
IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.
IA-64 (also called Intel Itanium architecture) is the instruction set architecture (ISA) of the Itanium family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
developerWorks is a free web-based professional network and technical resource center from IBM for software developers, IT professionals, and students worldwide.
IEEE 1394 is an interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer.
illumos is a free and open-source Unix operating system.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
Intel High Definition Audio (also called HD Audio or development codename Azalia) is a specification for the audio sub-system of personal computers.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol suite.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is an open-source software package that provides firewall services and network address translation (NAT) for many Unix-like operating systems.
ipfirewall or ipfw is a FreeBSD IP, stateful firewall, packet filter and traffic accounting facility.
In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite of IPv4 that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an IPv4 network.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.
The ISC license is a permissive free software license published by the Internet Systems Consortium (ISC).
In computing, iSCSI is an acronym for Internet Small Computer Systems Interface, an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities.
iXsystems, Inc. is a privately owned American computer technology company based in San Jose, California that develops, sells and supports computing and storage products and services.
Jan Koum (Ян Кум, Ян Кум; born February 24, 1976) is a Ukrainian American entrepreneur and computer programmer.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John Alan Lasseter (born January 12, 1957) is an American animator and filmmaker, and former chief creative officer of Pixar Animation Studios, Walt Disney Animation Studios, and DisneyToon Studios.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jordan K. Hubbard (born April 8, 1963) is a long-time open source developer, authoring software such as the Ardent Window Manager and various other open source tools and libraries before co-founding the FreeBSD project with Nate Williams and Rodney W. Grimes in 1993, for which he contributed the initial FreeBSD Ports collection, package management system and sysinstall.
A journaling file system is a file system that keeps track of changes not yet committed to the file system's main part by recording the intentions of such changes in a data structure known as a "journal", which is usually a circular log.
Juniper Networks, Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Sunnyvale, California that develops and markets networking products.
Junos OS (more formally Juniper Network Operating System) is the FreeBSD-based operating system used in Juniper Networks hardware routers.
The KAME project, a sub-project of the WIDE Project, was joint effort of six organizations in Japan which aimed to provide a free IPv6 and IPsec (for both IPv4 and IPv6) protocol stack implementation for variants of the BSD Unix computer operating-system.
KDE is an international free software community that develops Free and Open Source based software.
Keith Bostic is an American Software Engineer and one of the key people in the history of Berkeley Software Distribution UNIX and Open Source software.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
A kernel debugger is a debugger present in some operating system kernels to ease debugging and kernel development by the kernel developers.
Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) is a virtualization infrastructure for the Linux kernel that turns it into a hypervisor.
In the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) and its descendants, kernfs is a pseudo file system that provides access to information on the currently running kernel.
Kqueue is a scalable event notification interface introduced in FreeBSD 4.1 on July 2000, also supported in NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonflyBSD, and macOS.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
Line art or line drawing is any image that consists of distinct straight or curved lines placed against a (usually plain) background, without gradations in shade (darkness) or hue (color) to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
A live CD (also live DVD, live disc, or live operating system) is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive.
The LLVM compiler infrastructure project is a "collection of modular and reusable compiler and toolchain technologies" used to develop compiler front ends and back ends.
In computing, a loadable kernel module (LKM) is an object file that contains code to extend the running kernel, or so-called base kernel, of an operating system.
LXC (Linux Containers) is an operating-system-level virtualization method for running multiple isolated Linux systems (containers) on a control host using a single Linux kernel.
Lynne Greer Jolitz (born June 30, 1961) is a figure in free software and founded many startups in Silicon Valley with her husband William.
m0n0wall is an embedded firewall distribution of FreeBSD, one of the BSD operating system descendants.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
In software development, Make is a build automation tool that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called Makefiles which specify how to derive the target program.
In computer security, mandatory access control (MAC) refers to a type of access control by which the operating system constrains the ability of a subject or initiator to access or generally perform some sort of operation on an object or target.
Marshall Kirk McKusick (born January 19, 1954) is a computer scientist, known for his extensive work on BSD UNIX, from the 1980s to FreeBSD in the present day.
MATE is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
Within Internet message handling services (MHS), a message transfer agent or mail transfer agent (MTA) or mail relay is software that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another using a client–server application architecture.
In computer science, a microkernel (also known as μ-kernel) is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS).
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
MidnightBSD is a free Unix-like, desktop-oriented operating system originally forked from FreeBSD 6.1, and periodically updated with code and drivers from later FreeBSD releases.
MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).
A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.
A name server is a computer application that implements a network service for providing responses to queries against a directory service.
NAS4Free is a network-attached storage (NAS) server software with a dedicated management web interface (written in PHP).
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
In computing, Native Command Queuing (NCQ) is an extension of the Serial ATA protocol allowing hard disk drives to internally optimize the order in which received read and write commands are executed.
NetApp, Inc. is a hybrid cloud data services company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California.
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top media services provider, headquartered in Los Gatos, California.
netgraph is the graph based kernel networking subsystem of FreeBSD.
The Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NICs).
The Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is an application protocol used for transporting Usenet news articles (netnews) between news servers and for reading and posting articles by end user client applications.
Network-attached storage (NAS) is a file-level computer data storage server connected to a computer network providing data access to a heterogeneous group of clients.
NeXTSTEP is a discontinued object-oriented, multitasking operating system based on UNIX.
The Nintendo Switch system software is an updatable firmware and operating system used by the Nintendo Switch gaming console.
No Starch Press is an American publishing company, specializing in technical literature often geared towards the geek, hacker, and DIY subcultures.
Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.
The OneFS file system is a parallel distributed networked file system designed by Isilon Systems for use in its Isilon IQ storage appliances.
The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting open-source software.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
Openbox is a free, stacking window manager for the X Window System, licensed under the GNU General Public License.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
The OpenBSD Cryptographic Framework (OCF) is a service virtualization layer for the uniform management of cryptographic hardware by an operating system.
OpenBSM is an open source implementation of Sun's Basic Security Module (BSM) Audit API and file format.
OpenPAM is a BSD-licensed implementation of PAM used by FreeBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly BSD and macOS (starting with Snow Leopard), and offered as an alternative to Linux PAM in certain Linux distributions.
Xinuos OpenServer, previously SCO UNIX and SCO Open Desktop (SCO ODT), is a closed source computer operating system developed by Santa Cruz Operation (SCO), later acquired by SCO Group, and now owned by Xinuos.
OpenSSH (also known as OpenBSD Secure Shell) is a suite of security-related network-level utilities based on the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol, which help to secure network communications via the encryption of network traffic over multiple authentication methods and by providing secure tunneling capabilities.
OpenZFS is an umbrella project aimed at bringing together individuals and companies that use the ZFS file system and work on its improvements, aiming as well at making ZFS more widely used and developed in a true open-source manner.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Operating-system-level virtualization, also known as containerization, refers to an operating system feature in which the kernel allows the existence of multiple isolated user-space instances.
OPNsense is open source, FreeBSD-based firewall and routing software developed by Deciso, a company in the Netherlands that makes hardware and sells support packages for OPNsense.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
OSNews is a computing news website that originally focused on operating systems and their related technologies that launched in 1997, but is now aggregating consumer electronics news.
A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.
PackageKit is a free and open-source suite of software applications designed to provide a consistent and high-level front end for a number of different package management systems.
Packt, pronounced Packed, is a print on demand publishing company based in Birmingham, UK and Mumbai, India.
Panasas, Inc. is a privately held data storage company that specializes in high-performance network-attached storage for technical computing environments.
The, commonly shortened to PC-98, is a lineup of Japanese 16-bit and 32-bit personal computers manufactured by NEC from 1982 through 2000.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
A permissive software license, sometimes also called BSD-like or BSD-style license, is a free software software license with minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed.
PF (Packet Filter, also written pf) is a BSD licensed stateful packet filter, a central piece of software for firewalling.
pfSense is an open source firewall/router computer software distribution based on FreeBSD.
Phoronix is a technology website that offers insights regarding the development of the Linux kernel, product reviews, interviews, and news regarding free and open-source software by monitoring the Linux kernel mailing list or interviews.
The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment.
The PlayStation 4 system software is the updatable firmware and operating system of the PlayStation 4.
A pluggable authentication module (PAM) is a mechanism to integrate multiple low-level authentication schemes into a high-level application programming interface (API).
Poul-Henning Kamp (born 1966) is a Danish computer software developer known for work on various projects.
PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
Productivity software (sometimes called personal productivity software or office productivity software) is application software dedicated to producing information, such as documents, presentations, worksheets, databases, charts, graphs, digital paintings, electronic music and digital video.
QEMU (short for Quick Emulator) is a free and open-source emulator that performs hardware virtualization.
Qualcomm Atheros is a developer of semiconductors for network communications, particularly wireless chipsets.
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks, originally Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.
The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
Research Unix is a term used to refer to versions of the Unix operating system for DEC PDP-7, PDP-11, VAX and Interdata 7/32 and 8/32 computers, developed in the Bell Labs Computing Science Research Center (frequently referred to as Department 1127).
RISC-V (pronounced "risk-five") is an open instruction set architecture (ISA) based on established reduced instruction set computing (RISC) principles.
Robert Nicholas Maxwell Watson (born 3 May 1977) is a FreeBSD developer, and founder of the TrustedBSD Project.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Sakura HyperMedia Desktop is an open source desktop environment and knowledge navigator for Unix.
Sams Publishing is dedicated to the publishing of technical training manuals and is an imprint of Pearson plc, the global publishing and education company.
In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices.
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux kernel security module that provides a mechanism for supporting access control security policies, including United States Department of Defense–style mandatory access controls (MAC).
This is a list of operating systems with a sharp security focus.
Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives.
Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) is a technique for improving the overall efficiency of superscalar CPUs with hardware multithreading.
A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer.
Soft updates is an approach to maintaining file system meta-data integrity in the event of a crash or power outage.
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software.
A software repository, colloquially known as a "repo" for short, is a storage location from which software packages may be retrieved and installed on a computer.
Solaris Containers (including Solaris Zones) is an implementation of operating system-level virtualization technology for x86 and SPARC systems, first released publicly in February 2004 in build 51 beta of Solaris 10, and subsequently in the first full release of Solaris 10, 2005.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
In computer storage, the standard RAID levels comprise a basic set of RAID (redundant array of independent disks) configurations that employ the techniques of striping, mirroring, or parity to create large reliable data stores from multiple general-purpose computer hard disk drives (HDDs).
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.
tcsh (“tee-see-shell”, “tee-shell”, or as “tee see ess aitch”) is a Unix shell based on and compatible with the C shell (csh).
TeX Live is a free software distribution for the TeX typesetting system that includes major TeX-related programs, macro packages, and fonts.
Text-based user interface (TUI), also called textual user interface or terminal user interface, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces.
tmpfs is a common name for a temporary file storage facility on many Unix-like operating systems.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
TrueOS (formerly PC-BSD or PCBSD) is a Unix-like, desktop-oriented operating system built upon the most recent releases of FreeBSD-CURRENT.
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) is a United States Government Department of Defense (DoD) standard that sets basic requirements for assessing the effectiveness of computer security controls built into a computer system.
tvOS is an operating system developed by Apple Inc. for the fourth-generation and later Apple TV digital media player.
UDP-Lite (Lightweight User Datagram Protocol, sometimes UDP Lite) is a connectionless protocol that allows a potentially damaged data payload to be delivered to an application rather than being discarded by the receiving station.
ULE is the default scheduler for the FreeBSD operating system (versions 7.1 and forward) for the i386 and AMD64 architectures.
The UltraSPARC is a microprocessor developed by Sun Microsystems and fabricated by Texas Instruments, introduced in mid-1995.
Unbound is a validating, recursive, and caching DNS resolver product from NLnet Labs.
The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The Unix file system (UFS; also called the Berkeley Fast File System, the BSD Fast File System or FFS) is a file system supported by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems.
USL v. BSDi was a lawsuit brought in the United States in 1992 by Unix System Laboratories against Berkeley Software Design, Inc and the Regents of the University of California over intellectual property related to the Unix operating system.
UNIX System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
USB 3.0 is the third major version of the Universal Serial Bus (USB) standard for interfacing computers and electronic devices.
The USENIX Association is the Advanced Computing Systems Association.
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.
VESA (/ˈviːsə/), formally known as Video Electronics Standards Association, is a technical standards organization for computer display standards.
A Virtual File System (VFS) or virtual filesystem switch is an abstraction layer on top of a more concrete file system.
In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
Oracle VM VirtualBox (formerly Sun VirtualBox, Sun xVM VirtualBox and Innotek VirtualBox) is a free and open-source hypervisor for x86 computers currently being developed by Oracle Corporation.
Walnut Creek CDROM (of Walnut Creek, California) was an early provider of freeware, shareware, and free software on CD-ROMs.
watchOS is the mobile operating system of the Apple Watch, developed by Apple Inc. It is based on the iOS operating system and has many similar features.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
WhatsApp Messenger is a freeware and cross-platform messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP) service owned by Facebook.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
William Frederick Jolitz (born February 22, 1957), commonly known as Bill Jolitz, is an American software programmer best known for developing the 386BSD operating system from 1989 to 1994 along with his wife Lynne Jolitz.
In computing, a windowing system (or window system) is software that manages separately different parts of display screens.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
X.Org Server is the free and open source implementation of the display server for the X Window System stewarded by the X.Org Foundation.
x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.
The Xbox is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft.
Xen Project (pronounced) is a hypervisor using a microkernel design, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.
Xfce (pronounced as four individual letters) is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris, and BSD.
XFree86 was an implementation of the X Window System.
XView is a widget toolkit from Sun Microsystems introduced in 1988.
xz is a lossless compression program and file format which incorporates the LZMA/LZMA2 compression algorithms.
The Yellowdog Updater, Modified (YUM) is a libre and open-source command-line package-management utility for computers running the GNU/Linux operating system using the RPM Package Manager.
ZFS is a combined file system and logical volume manager designed by Sun Microsystems and now owned by Oracle Corporation.
386BSD, sometimes called "Jolix", is a discontinued free Unix-like operating system based on BSD, first released in 1992.