231 relations: Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin, Alliance 90/The Greens, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party, Allied-occupied Germany, Association of Free Democrats, Baden-Württemberg, Baden-Württemberg state election, 2011, Baden-Württemberg state election, 2016, Balance of power (parliament), Balanced budget, Bavaria, Bavarian state election, 2013, Bürgerschaft of Bremen, Berlin state election, 2011, Berlin state election, 2016, Bloc party (politics), Bloomberg News, Bourgeoisie, Brandenburg, Brandenburg state election, 2014, Bremen (state), Bremen state election, 2011, Bremen state election, 2015, Bundesrat of Germany, Bundestag, Cannabis, Capitalism, CDU/CSU, Centre-right politics, Centrism, Christian Lindner, Christian Social Union in Bavaria, Citizen's dividend, Civil liberties, Classical liberalism, Common Foreign and Security Policy, Competition law, Composition of the German state parliaments, Conservatism, Conservative liberalism, Democratic Party of Germany, Democratic People's Party (Germany), Denazification, Deregulation, Deutsche Welle, East Germany, Economic interventionism, Economic liberalism, Economic policy, ..., Egalitarianism, Equality before the law, Erich Mende, Eugen Schiffer, European debt crisis, European Parliament election, 1979 (West Germany), European Parliament election, 1984 (West Germany), European Parliament election, 1989 (West Germany), European Parliament election, 1994 (Germany), European Parliament election, 1999 (Germany), European Parliament election, 2004 (Germany), European Parliament election, 2009 (Germany), European Parliament election, 2014 (Germany), Euroscepticism, Federal Association of Liberal Students Groups, Federal Convention (Germany), Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, Flat tax, Franz Blücher, Franz Xaver Kappus, Free market, Freedom, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, German Democratic Party, German federal election, 1990, German federal election, 1994, German federal election, 1998, German federal election, 2002, German federal election, 2005, German federal election, 2009, German federal election, 2013, German federal election, 2017, German Party (1947), German People's Party, German Question, German revolutions of 1848–49, Germany, Globalization, Government debt, Grand coalition, Guido Westerwelle, Hamburg, Hamburg Parliament, Hamburg state election, 2015, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Health policy, Health system, Helmut Kohl, Helmut Schmidt, Heppenheim, Hermann Otto Solms, Hermann-Eberhard Wildermuth, Hesse, Hessian state election, 2013, Human body, Income tax, Internationalism (politics), Investment, Jamaica coalition (politics), Karlsruhe, Katja Suding, Kindergarten, Klaus Kinkel, Landtag of Baden-Württemberg, Landtag of Bavaria, Landtag of Brandenburg, Landtag of Hesse, Landtag of Lower Saxony, Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate, Landtag of Saarland, Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt, Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein, Landtag of the Free State of Saxony, Landtag of Thuringia, LGBT rights by country or territory, Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, Liberal International, Liberalism, Liberalism in Germany, List of political parties in Germany, Lower Saxony, Lower Saxony state election, 2013, Ludwig Erhard, Martin Bangemann, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2011, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2016, Member of the European Parliament, Microeconomic reform, Minimum wage, National Front (East Germany), National liberalism, Negative income tax, Nicola Beer, North Rhine-Westphalia, North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2010, North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2012, North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2017, Opposition (parliamentary), Otto Graf Lambsdorff, Pan-Germanism, Parochial school, Philipp Rösler, Political alliance, Political compass, Politics of Germany, President of Germany, Privatization, Pro-Europeanism, Rainer Brüderle, Reinhold Maier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2011, Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2016, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Saarland state election, 2012, Saarland state election, 2017, Same-sex marriage, Saxony state election, 2014, Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2011, Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2016, Schleswig-Holstein, Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2012, Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2017, Schutzstaffel, Self-determination, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social issue, Social liberalism, Social market economy, Social policy, Social security, Socialism, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, South Baden, Soviet occupation zone, Spiegel affair, Springer Publishing, State (polity), Stern (magazine), Subsidy, Tactical voting, Tax, Tax law, Theodor Heuss, Therapy, Third Way, Thomas Dehler, Thuringian state election, 2014, Traffic light coalition, Treaty of Lisbon, Uwe Ronneburger, Walter Scheel, War crime, Württemberg, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Wehrmacht, Weimar Republic, Werner Naumann, West Berlin, West German federal election, 1949, West German federal election, 1953, West German federal election, 1957, West German federal election, 1961, West German federal election, 1965, West German federal election, 1969, West German federal election, 1972, West German federal election, 1976, West German federal election, 1980, West German federal election, 1983, West German federal election, 1987, West German presidential election, 1954, Wiesbaden, Wilhelm Külz, Willy Brandt, Wolfgang Gerhardt, Wolfgang Kubicki, Young Liberals (Germany). 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The Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin (House of Representatives) is the state parliament (Landtag) of Berlin, Germany according to the city-state's constitution.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group (ALDE) is the liberal–centrist political group of the European Parliament.
The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE Party) is a European political party mainly active in the European Union, composed of 60 national-level liberal parties from across Europe.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Association of Free Democrats (Bund Freier Demokraten) was a liberal coalition formed in East Germany on 12 February 1990.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
The Baden-Württemberg state election 2011 was held on 27 March 2011 to elect members to Baden-Württemberg's State diet, the Landtag of Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart.
The Baden-Württemberg state election 2016 was held on 13 March 2016 to elect members to Baden-Württemberg's State diet, the Landtag of Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart.
In parliamentary politics, the term balance of power may describe a parliamentary situation in which a member or a number of members of chamber are in a position by their uncommitted vote to enable a party to attain and remain in minority government, and the term may also be applied to the members who hold that position.
A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The 2013 Bavarian state election was held on 15 September 2013 to elect the 180 members of the 17th Landtag of Bavaria.
The Bremische Bürgerschaft (Parliament of Bremen) is the legislative branch of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen in Germany.
The last Berlin state election was held on 18 September 2011, to elect members to the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) of Berlin.
The 18th Berlin state election was held on 18 September 2016 to elect 149 members to the Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin (Berlin state parliament).
A bloc party (German: Blockpartei) in politics may refer to a political party that is a constituent member of an electoral bloc.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
State elections were held in Brandenburg on 14 September 2014.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
A Bremen state election was held on 22 May 2011, to elect the Bürgerschaft (city and state legislature).
A Bremen state election were held on 10 May 2015, to elect the Bürgerschaft (state legislature) as well as the Bremische Stadtbürgerschaft and the Stadtverordnetenversammlung Bremerhaven (city legislatures).
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
CDU/CSU, unofficially the Union parties (Unionsparteien) or Union, is the Christian democratic political alliance of two political parties in Germany, the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) and Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU).
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
Christian Wolfgang Lindner (born 7 January 1979) is a German politician, member of the Bundestag and leader of the liberal Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP).
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany.
Citizen's dividend is a proposed policy based upon the principle that the natural world is the common property of all persons (see Georgism).
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
Germany's federal system comprises 16 state parliaments (the German terms are: Landtag in large states, Bürgerschaft in Bremen and Hamburg, Abgeordnetenhaus in Berlin), each including directly elected representatives.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or simply representing the right-wing of the liberal movement.
The Democratic Party of Germany (Demokratische Partei Deutschlands, DPD) was founded in 1947 as a German liberal party and is the forerunner of the Free Democratic Party (FDP) in the current Federal Republic of Germany.
Democratic People's Party (Demokratische Volkspartei, DVP) was the name of two liberal parties in southern Germany.
Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).
Eugen Schiffer (14 February 1860 – 5 September 1954) was a German lawyer and liberal politician.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European Parliament election of 1979 in West Germany was the election of the delegation from West Germany to the European Parliament in 1979.
The European Parliament election of 1984 in West Germany was the election of the delegation from West Germany to the European Parliament in 1984.
The European Parliament election of 1989 in West Germany was the election of the delegation from West Germany to the European Parliament in 1989.
The European Parliament election of 1994 in Germany was the election of the delegation from Germany to the European Parliament in 1994.
The European Parliament election of 1999 in Germany was the election of MEP representing Germany constituency for the 1999-2004 term of the European Parliament.
The European Parliament election of 2004 in Germany was the election of MEP representing Germany constituency for the 2004-2009 term of the European Parliament.
The European Parliament election of 2009 in Germany was the German part of the European Parliament election, 2009.
The European Parliament election, 2014 was held on 25 May 2014 in Germany.
Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism) means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration.
The Federal Association of Liberal Students Groups (German: Bundesverband Liberaler Hochschulgruppen; short: LHG) is a student association in the Federal Republic of Germany supporting liberal political issues.
The Federal Convention, also known as the Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung), is a special constitutional body in the political and federal institutional system of Germany, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident), either every five years or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
Franz Blücher (24 March 1896 – 26 March 1959) was a German politician and member of the German Parliament (Bundestag).
Franz Xaver Kappus (17 May 1883 – 9 October 1966) was an Austrian military officer, journalist, editor and writer who wrote poetry, short-stories, novels and screenplays.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
The Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom (Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung für die Freiheit) (FNF), is a German foundation for liberal politics, related to the Free Democratic Party.
The German Democratic Party (Deutsche Demokratische Partei, DDP) was founded in November, 1918, by leaders of the former Progressive People's Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei), left members of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei), and a new group calling themselves the Democrats.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 2 December 1990 to elect the members of the 12th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 16 October 1994 to elect the members of the 13th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 27 September 1998 to elect the members of the 14th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 22 September 2002 to elect the members of the 15th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 18 September 2005 to elect the members of the 16th Bundestag.
Federal elections took place on 27 September 2009 to elect the members of the 17th Bundestag (parliament) of Germany.
Federal elections were held on 22 September to elect the members of the 18th Bundestag of Germany.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 24 September 2017 to elect the members of the 19th Bundestag.
The German Party (Deutsche Partei, DP) was a national-conservative political party in West Germany during the post-war years.
The German People's Party (Deutsche Volkspartei, or DVP) was a national liberal party in Weimar Germany and a successor to the National Liberal Party of the German Empire.
The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the unification of Germany.
The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.
Guido Westerwelle (27 December 1961 – 18 March 2016) was a German politician who served as Foreign Minister in the second cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel and as Vice Chancellor of Germany from 2009 to 2011, being the first openly gay person to hold any of these positions.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hamburg Parliament (Hamburgische Bürgerschaft; literally the Hamburg citizenry) is the unicameral legislature of the German state of Hamburg according to the constitution of Hamburg.
On 15 February 2015, a state election was held in Hamburg, Germany, for the 21st legislative period of the Hamburg Parliament after World War II.
Hans-Dietrich Genscher (21 March 1927 – 31 March 2016) was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as the Minister of the Interior of West Germany from 1969 to 1974, and as the Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of West Germany and then the reunified Germany from 1974 to 1992 (except for a two-week break in 1982), making him the longest-serving occupant of either post.
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1974 to 1982.
Heppenheim (Bergstraße) is the seat of Bergstraße district in Hesse, Germany, lying on the Bergstraße on the edge of the Odenwald.
Hermann Otto Solms (born November 24, 1940 in Lich, Hesse, Germany; full legal name Hermann Otto Prinz zu Solms-Hohensolms-Lich) is a German politician of the Free Democratic Party (FDP).
Hermann-Eberhard Wildermuth (23 October 1890 – 9 March 1952) was a German politician and a member of the FDP/DVP.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
A state election was held in Hesse on 22 September 2013, coinciding with the 2013 federal election.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Jamaica coalition (Jamaika-Koalition; also known as the Jamaica alliance, Jamaica traffic light, black traffic light or Schwampel) is a term in German politics describing a coalition among the parties of the Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union (CDU/CSU), Free Democratic Party (FDP), and the Green Party.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Katja Suding (born 30 December 1975 in Vechta) is a German politician of the Free Democratic Party (FDP).
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
Klaus Kinkel (born 17 December 1936) is a German civil servant, lawyer, and politician of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP).
The Landtag of Baden-Württemberg is the state diet of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Landtag of Bavaria (State Diet of Bavaria) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany.
The Landtag of Brandenburg (Brandenburg State Parliament) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Brandenburg in Germany.
The Landtag of Hesse (Hessischer Landtag) is the Parliament of the State of Hesse in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Lower Saxon Landtag (Niedersächsischer Landtag) or the Parliament of Lower Saxony is the state diet of the German state of Lower Saxony.
The Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania) is the state diet of the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania).
The Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia is the state parliament (Landtag) of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia that convenes in the state capital of Düsseldorf, in the eastern part of the district of Hafen.
The Rhineland-Palatinate Landtag is the state diet of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Landtag of Saarland is the state diet of the German federal state of Saarland.
The Saxony-Anhalt Landtag is the state diet of the German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Schleswig-Holstein Landtag is the state parliament of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Landtag of the Free State of Saxony, also referred to as the Saxon Landtag, the Parliament of Saxony or the Saxon Parliament, is the legislative body of the German State of Saxony.
The Landtag of Thuringia is the parliament of the German federal state of Thuringia.
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory; everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.
The Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands, LDPD) was a political party in East Germany.
Liberal International (LI) is a political international federation for liberal political parties.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
This article aims to give an historical outline of liberalism in Germany.
This is a list of political parties in Germany.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
A state election was held in Lower Saxony on 20 January 2013 to elect the 137 members of the Landtag.
Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966.
Martin Bangemann (born 15 November 1934 in Wanzleben) is a German politician and a former leader of the FDP (1985–1988).
The Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election was conducted on 4 September 2011, to elect members to the Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania).
The Mecklenburg-Vorpommern State Elections, 2016 were held on 4 September 2016, to elect members to the 7th Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Microeconomic reform (or often just economic reform) comprises policies directed to achieve improvements in economic efficiency, either by eliminating or reducing distortions in individual sectors of the economy or by reforming economy-wide policies such as tax policy and competition policy with an emphasis on economic efficiency, rather than other goals such as equity or employment growth.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
The National Front of the German Democratic Republic (Nationale Front der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, NF), until 1973 the National Front of Democratic Germany Nationale Front des Demokratischen Deutschlands), was an alliance (Popular Front) of political parties and mass organisations in East Germany (also known as a Blockpartei). The NF was controlled by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and was formed to stand in elections to the East German parliament, the Volkskammer ("People's Chamber").
National liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal policies and issues with elements of nationalism and/or a term used to describe a series of European political parties that have been especially active in the 19th century in several national contexts from Central Europe to the Nordic countries and Southeast Europe.
In economics, a negative income tax (NIT) is a progressive income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive supplemental pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the government.
Nicola Beer (born 23 January 1970 in Wiesbaden) is a German politician of the Free Democratic Party (FDP).
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
The North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2010, was an election held on 9 May 2010, to elect members to the Landtag (state legislature) of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
The North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2012 was a snap election held on 13 May 2012, to elect members to the Landtag of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, after the former Landtag was dissolved on 14 March 2012.
An election was held on 14 May 2017 to elect members to the Landtag (state legislature) of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system.
Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von der Wenge Graf Lambsdorff, known as Otto Graf Lambsdorff, (20 December 1926 – 5 December 2009) was a German politician of the Free Democratic Party.
Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.
A parochial school is a private primary or secondary school affiliated with a religious organization, and whose curriculum includes general religious education in addition to secular subjects, such as science, mathematics and language arts.
Philipp Rösler, (born Nguyễn Tân Đinh; 24 February 1973) is a former German politician who was the Federal Minister of Economics and Technology and Vice Chancellor of Germany from 2011 to 2013.
A political alliance, also referred to as a political coalition, political bloc, is an agreement for cooperation between different political parties on common political agenda, often for purposes of contesting an election to mutually benefit by collectively clearing election thresholds, or otherwise benefiting from characteristics of the voting system or for government formation after elections.
The political compass is a multi-axis political model used by the website of the same name to label or organise political thought on two dimensions.
Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder, Germany's regional states).
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Pro-Europeanism is a political position that favours European integration and membership of the European Union (EU).
Rainer Brüderle (born 22 June 1945) is a German politician and member of the FDP.
Reinhold Maier (16 October 1889 – 19 August 1971) was a German politician and the leader of the FDP from 1957–1960.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The 2011 Rhineland-Palatinate state election was conducted on 27 March 2011 to elect all 101 members to the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The 2016 Rhineland-Palatinate state election was held on 13 March 2016 to elect all 101 members to the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Rothenburg ob der Tauber is a town in the district of Ansbach of Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia), the Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany.
The Saarland state elections, 2012 were held in Saarland on 25 March 2012.
State elections were held in Saarland on 26 March 2017.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
A state election was held on 31 August 2014 in the state of Saxony in Germany, as required by the state constitution.
The Saxony-Anhalt state election was held on 20 March 2011 in Saxony-Anhalt for the 20th legislative period of the Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Saxony-Anhalt state election was held on 13 March 2016 in Saxony-Anhalt for the 7th legislative period of the Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
A state election occurred in Schleswig-Holstein on 6 May 2012.
State elections were held in Schleswig-Holstein on 7 May 2017.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.
Social policy is a term which is applied to various areas of policy, usually within a governmental or political setting (such as the welfare state and study of social services).
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
South Baden (Südbaden), formed in December 1945 from the southern half of the former Republic of Baden, was a subdivision of the French occupation zone of post-World War II Germany.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Spiegel affair of 1962 (Spiegel-Affäre) was a political scandal in West Germany.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Stern (German for "Star") is a weekly news magazine published in Hamburg, Germany, by Gruner + Jahr, a subsidiary of Bertelsmann.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
In voting methods, tactical voting (or strategic voting or sophisticated voting or insincere voting) occurs, in elections with more than two candidates, when a voter supports another candidate more strongly than their sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
Theodor Heuss (31 January 1884 – 12 December 1963) was a liberal German politician who served as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany (then West Germany) from 1949 to 1959.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic and centre-left social policies.
Thomas Dehler (14 December 1897 – 21 July 1967) was a German politician.
An election to the Landtag of Thuringia was held on 14 September 2014.
Traffic light coalition (direct translation of Ampelkoalition) is a term originating in German politics where it describes a coalition government of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Free Democratic Party (FDP), and The Greens.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
Uwe Ronneburger (23 November 1920 – 1 October 2007) was a German politician from the Free Democratic Party.
Walter Scheel (8 July 1919 – 24 August 2016) was a German politician.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Württemberg-Baden was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Württemberg-Hohenzollern (Wurtemberg-Hohenzollern) was a West German state created in 1945 as part of the French post-World War II occupation zone.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Werner Naumann (16 June 1909 – 25 October 1982) was State Secretary in Joseph Goebbels' Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the Third Reich.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 14 August 1949 to elect the first Bundestag, with a further eight seats elected in West Berlin between 1949 and January 1952 and another eleven between February 1952 and 1953.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 6 September 1953 to elect the second Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 15 September 1957 to elect the third Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 17 September 1961 to elect the members of the fourth Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 19 September 1965 to elect the members of the 5th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 28 September 1969 to elect the members of the 6th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 19 November 1972 to elect the members of the 7th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 3 October 1976 to elect the members of the eighth Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 5 October 1980 to elect the members of the ninth Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 6 March 1983 to elect the members of the 10th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 25 January 1987 to elect the members of the 11th Bundestag.
An indirect presidential election (officially the 2nd Federal Convention) was held in West Germany on 17 July 1954.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
Wilhelm Külz (18 February 1875 – 10 April 1948) was a German liberal politician of the National Liberal Party, the German Democratic Party (DDP) and later the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (LDPD).
Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.
Wolfgang Gerhardt (born 31 December 1943 in Ulrichstein) is a German politician and was the leader of the FDP from 1995 until he was succeeded by Guido Westerwelle in 2001.
Wolfgang Kubicki (born 3 March 1952 in Braunschweig) is a German politician of the Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP).
The Young Liberals (Junge Liberale, JuLis), is a political youth organisation in Germany.