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Free France

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Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France. [1]

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Taylor, Admiral, Afrika Korps, Algiers, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories, Allied-occupied Germany, Allies of World War II, Alphonse Juin, Alps, Alsace-Lorraine, Amphibious warfare, André Dewavrin, André Laguerre, Andrew Mollo, Anna Marly, Antoine Béthouart, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Antsiranana, Antwerp, Appeal of 18 June, Armand Annet, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Armistice of Cassibile, Armoured warfare, Army of Africa (France), Army of the Levant, Atlantic pockets, Atlantic Wall, Attack on Mers-el-Kébir, Avranches, Axis powers, Ève Curie, École nationale d'administration, Émile Muselier, Battalion, Battle for Caen, Battle of Bir Hakeim, Battle of Dakar, Battle of France, Battle of Gabon, Battle of Keren, Battle of Madagascar, Battle of Montcornet, Battle of Monte Cassino, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Sedan (1940), Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of Verdun, ..., BBC News, BBC Radio, Belfort, Belfort Gap, Belgian government in exile, Berlin, Bernard Montgomery, Black Forest, Bocage, Bordeaux, Brazzaville, Bridgehead, British Empire, British Expeditionary Force (World War II), Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cadre (military), Capture of Kufra, Casablanca Conference, Case Anton, Chad, Chant des Partisans, Charles de Gaulle, Chief of staff, Claude Auchinleck, Clearing the Channel Coast, Cockade, Cold War, Collaborationism, Colmar Pocket, Colonial troops, Company (military unit), Concession (territory), Consolidated PBY Catalina, Convoy, Corsica, Corvette, Coup d'état, Coup de main, Crémieux Decree, Cross of Lorraine, Cyrenaica, Dakar, Danube, Deception, Dieppe Raid, Dietrich von Choltitz, Dimitri Amilakhvari, Division (military), Duchy of Lorraine, Dunkirk evacuation, Dutch government-in-exile, Dwight D. 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A. J. P. Taylor

Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.

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Admiral

Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.

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Afrika Korps

The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.

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Algiers

Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine

The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II.

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Allied invasion of Sicily

The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).

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Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories

The Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (originally abbreviated AMGOT, later AMG) was the form of military rule administered by Allied forces during and after World War II within European territories they occupied.

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Allied-occupied Germany

Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alphonse Juin

Alphonse Pierre Juin (16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Alsace-Lorraine

The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.

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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.

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André Dewavrin

Andre Dewavrin DSO, MC (9 June 1911, Paris – 21 December 1998) was a French officer who served with Free French Forces intelligence services during World War II.

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André Laguerre

Marc André Laguerre (February 21, 1915 – January 18, 1979) was a journalist and magazine editor, best known as the managing editor of Sports Illustrated from 1960 to 1974, during which time he oversaw the growth in the magazine from a niche publication to become the industry leader in weekly sports magazines.

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Andrew Mollo

Andrew Mollo (born 15 May 1940 in Epsom, Surrey, England)Kevin Brownlow: How It Happened Here. UKA Press, London/Amsterdam/Shizuoka 2007,, p. 201.

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Anna Marly

Anna Marly (Анна Юрьевна Смирнова-Марли), (30 October 1917 – 15 February 2006), was a Russian-born French singer-songwriter.

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Antoine Béthouart

Marie Émile Antoine Béthouart (17 December 1889 – 17 October 1982) was a French Army general who served during World War I and World War II.

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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French writer, poet, aristocrat, journalist, and pioneering aviator.

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Antsiranana

Antsiranana (Antsiran̈ana), named Diego-Suarez prior to 1975, is a city in the far north of Madagascar.

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Appeal of 18 June

The Appeal of 18 June (L'Appel du 18 juin) was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940.

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Armand Annet

Armand Léon Annet (5 June 1888 – 25 April 1973) was a governor for various colonies in French colonial empire.

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Armistice of 22 June 1940

The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.

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Armistice of Cassibile

The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.

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Armoured warfare

Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.

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Army of Africa (France)

The Army of Africa (Armée d’Afrique) was an unofficial but commonly used term for those portions of the French Army recruited from or normally stationed in French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) from 1830 until the end of the Algerian War in 1962.

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Army of the Levant

The Army of the Levant (Armée du Levant) identifies the armed forces of France and then Vichy France which occupied, and were in part recruited from, a portion of the "Levant" during the interwar period and early World War II.

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Atlantic pockets

In World War II, the Atlantic pockets were important points along the coasts of the Netherlands, Belgium and France chosen as centres of resistance by the occupying German forces, to be defended as long as possible against land attack by the Allies.

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Atlantic Wall

The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.

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Attack on Mers-el-Kébir

The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir (3 July 1940) also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was part of Operation Catapult.

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Avranches

Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Ève Curie

Ève Denise Curie Labouisse (December 6, 1904 – October 22, 2007) was a French and American writer, journalist and pianist.

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École nationale d'administration

The École nationale d'administration (generally referred to as ÉNA;; National School of Administration) is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle, and principal author of the French Constitution, Michel Debré, to democratise access to the senior civil service.

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Émile Muselier

Émile Henry Muselier (Marseilles, 17 April 1882 – Toulon, 2 September 1965) was a French admiral who led the Free French Naval Forces (Forces navales françaises libres, or FNFL) during World War II.

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Battalion

A battalion is a military unit.

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Battle for Caen

The Battle for Caen (June to August 1944) is the name for the fighting between the British Second Army and German Panzergruppe West in the Second World War for control of the city of Caen and vicinity, during the Battle of Normandy.

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Battle of Bir Hakeim

The Battle of Bir Hakeim took place at Bir Hakeim, an oasis in the Libyan desert south and west of Tobruk, during the Battle of Gazala (26 May – 21 June 1942).

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Battle of Dakar

The Battle of Dakar, also known as Operation Menace, was an unsuccessful attempt in September 1940 by the Allies to capture the strategic port of Dakar in French West Africa (modern-day Senegal).

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Battle of Gabon

The Battle of Gabon (French: bataille du Gabon), also called the Gabon Campaign (campagne du Gabon) or the Battle of Libreville, occurred in November 1940 during World War II.

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Battle of Keren

The Battle of Keren (or Cheren, the old Italian spelling) was fought as part of the East African Campaign during the Second World War.

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Battle of Madagascar

The Battle of Madagascar was the British campaign to capture Vichy French-controlled Madagascar during World War II.

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Battle of Montcornet

The Battle of Montcornet, on 17 May 1940, was an engagement of the Battle of France.

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Battle of Monte Cassino

The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Battle of Moscow

The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.

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Battle of Sedan (1940)

The Battle of Sedan or Second Battle of Sedan (12–15 May 1940)Frieser 2005, p. 196.

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Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.

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Battle of Verdun

The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BBC Radio

BBC Radio is an operational business division and service of the British Broadcasting Corporation (which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927).

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Belfort

Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.

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Belfort Gap

The Belfort Gap (Trouée de Belfort) or Burgundian Gate (Burgundische Pforte) is a plateau located between the northern rim of the Jura Mountains and the southernmost part of the Vosges in France.

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Belgian government in exile

The Belgian government in London (Gouvernement belge à Londres, Belgische regering in Londen), also known as the Pierlot IV Government, was the government in exile of Belgium between October 1940 and September 1944 during World War II.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bernard Montgomery

Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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Black Forest

The Black Forest (Schwarzwald) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.

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Bocage

Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture.

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Bordeaux

Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.

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Brazzaville

Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is on the north side of the Congo River, opposite Kinshasa.

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Bridgehead

A bridgehead (or bridge-head) is the strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge or other place of possible crossing over a body of water which at time of conflict is sought to be defended/taken over by the belligerent forces.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.

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Cabinet of the United Kingdom

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

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Cadre (military)

A cadre is the complement of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of a military unit responsible for training the rest of the unit.

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Capture of Kufra

The Capture of Kufra/Prise de Koufra (Koufra, Cufra) was part of the Allied Western Desert Campaign during the Second World War.

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Casablanca Conference

The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.

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Case Anton

Operation Anton, or Fall Anton, in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.

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Chad

Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chant des Partisans

The Chant des Partisans was the most popular song of the Free French and French Resistance during World War II.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Chief of staff

The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.

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Claude Auchinleck

Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.

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Clearing the Channel Coast

Clearing the Channel Coast was a World War II task undertaken by the First Canadian Army in August 1944, following the Allied Operation Overlord and the victory, break-out and pursuit from Normandy.

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Cockade

A cockade is a knot of ribbons, or other circular- or oval-shaped symbol of distinctive colors which is usually worn on a hat.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Collaborationism

Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.

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Colmar Pocket

The Colmar Pocket (Poche de Colmar; Brückenkopf Elsass) was the area held in central Alsace, France, by the German Nineteenth Army from November 1944 to February 1945, against the U.S. 6th Army Group (6th AG) during World War II.

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Colonial troops

Colonial troops or colonial army refers to various military units recruited from, or used as garrison troops in, colonial territories.

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Company (military unit)

A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.

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Concession (territory)

In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it.This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.

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Consolidated PBY Catalina

The Consolidated PBY Catalina, also known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, and later an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft.

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Convoy

A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.

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Corsica

Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.

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Corvette

A corvette is a small warship.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Coup de main

A coup de main (plural: coups de main, French for blow with the hand) is a swift attack that relies on speed and surprise to accomplish its objectives in a single blow.

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Crémieux Decree

The Crémieux Decree was a law that granted French citizenship to the majority of the Jewish population in French Algeria (around 35,000), signed by the Government of National Defense on 24 October 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War.

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Cross of Lorraine

The Cross of Lorraine (Croix de Lorraine) is a heraldic two-barred cross, consisting of a vertical line crossed by two shorter horizontal bars.

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Cyrenaica

Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.

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Dakar

Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.

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Danube

The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Deception

Deception is the act of propagating a belief that is not true, or is not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).

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Dieppe Raid

The Dieppe Raid was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War.

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Dietrich von Choltitz

Dietrich Hugo Hermann von Choltitz (9 November 1894 – 4 November 1966) was a German General who served in the Royal Saxon Army during World War I and the German Army during World War II.

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Dimitri Amilakhvari

Prince Dimitri Zedginidze-Amilakhvari, more commonly known as Dimitri Amilakhvari (დიმიტრი ამილახვარი, Dimitri Amilakvari) (October 31, 1906 – October 24, 1942) was a French military officer and Lieutenant Colonel of the French Foreign Legion, of Georgian origin who played an influential role in the French Resistance against Nazi occupation in World War II, and became an iconic figure of the Free French Forces.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Duchy of Lorraine

The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.

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Dunkirk evacuation

The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.

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Dutch government-in-exile

The Dutch government in exile (Nederlandse regering in ballingschap), also known as the London Cabinet (Londens cabinet) was the government in exile of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that evacuated to London after the German invasion of the country during World War II on 10 May 1940.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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East African Campaign (World War II)

The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Edgard de Larminat

Edgard de Larminat (29 November 1895 – 1 July 1962) was a French general, who fought in two World Wars.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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El Alamein

El Alamein (العلمين.,, literally "the two worlds") is a town in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egypt.

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End of World War II in Europe

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.

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European theatre of World War II

The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).

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Falaise Pocket

The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.

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Félix Éboué

Adolphe Sylvestre Félix Éboué (1 January 1884 – 17 March 1944) was a Black French Guianan-born colonial administrator and Free French leader.

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Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle

Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle (1922 – December 26, 1942) was a member of the French resistance during World War II.

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Fernand de Brinon

Fernand de Brinon, Marquis de Brinon (26 August 1885 – 15 April 1947) was a French lawyer and journalist who was one of the architects of French collaboration with the Nazis during World War II.

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Fezzan

Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.

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First United States Army Group

First United States Army Group (often abbreviated FUSAG) was a fictitious (paper command) Allied Army Group in World War II prior to D-Day, part of Operation Quicksilver, created to deceive the Germans about where the Allies would land in France.

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Firth of Clyde

The Firth of Clyde is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Scotland, named for the River Clyde which empties into it.

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Flower-class corvette

The Flower-class corvetteGardiner and Chesneau 1980, p. 62.

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François Darlan

Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.

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François Sevez

François Sevez (22 October 1891 – 29 February 1948) was a French general during World War II.

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France during World War II

The following are articles about the topic of France during World War II.

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Franco-British Union

A Franco-British Union is a concept for a union between the two independent sovereign states of the United Kingdom and France.

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Franco-Italian Armistice

The Franco-Italian Armistice, or Armistice of Villa Incisa, signed on 24 June 1940, in effect from 25 June, ended the brief Italian invasion of France during the Second World War.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.

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Free French Air Forces

The Free French Air Forces (Forces Aériennes Françaises Libres, FAFL) were the air arm of the Free French Forces during the Second World War from 1940.

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Free French Naval Air Service

The Free French Naval Air Service (Aéronavale française libre) was the naval aviation arm of Free French Naval Forces during the Second World War.

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Free French Naval Forces

Les Forces Navales Françaises Libres ("Free French Naval Forces") were the naval arm of the Free French Forces during the Second World War.

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French Air Force

The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).

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French aircraft carrier Béarn

Béarn was a French aircraft carrier.

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French Algeria

French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.

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French Armed Forces

The French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the National Guard and the Gendarmerie of the French Republic.

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French Army

The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

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French Cameroons

French Cameroons (Cameroun), or Cameroun, was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Central Africa.

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French Chad

Chad was a part of the French colonial empire from 1900 to 1960.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French Committee of National Liberation

The French Committee of National Liberation (Comité français de Libération nationale) was a provisional government of Free France formed by the French generals Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle to provide united leadership, organize and coordinate the campaign to liberate France from Nazi Germany during World War II.

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French Congo

The French Congo (Congo français) or Middle Congo (Moyen-Congo) was a French colony which at one time comprised the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and the Central African Republic.

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French Equatorial Africa

French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.

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French Expeditionary Corps (1943–44)

The French Expeditionary Corps (Corps Expéditionnaire Français, CEF), also known as the French Expeditionary Corps in Italy (Corps Expéditionaire Français en Italie, CEFI.), was an expeditionary force composed of Free French soldiers that fought in the Italian Campaign during World War II under the command of General Alphonse Juin.

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French Far East Expeditionary Corps

The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (Corps Expéditionnaire Français en Extrême-Orient, CEFEO) was a colonial expeditionary force of the French Union Army that was initially formed in French Indochina during 1945 during the Pacific War.

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French Forces of the Interior

The French Forces of the Interior (Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur) refers to French resistance fighters in the later stages of World War II.

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French Foreign Legion

The French Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) (FFL; Légion étrangère, L.É.) is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831.

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French Fourth Republic

The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.

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French Guiana

French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.

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French India

French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.

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French Indochina

French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.

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French Indochina in World War II

In 1940, France was swiftly defeated by Nazi Germany, and colonial administration of French Indochina (modern-day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) passed to the pro-German Vichy French government.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Madagascar

The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958.

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French Navy

The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.

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French North Africa

French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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French Polynesia

French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).

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French prisoners of war in World War II

During World War II, the French prisoners of war were primarily soldiers from France and its colonial empire captured by Nazi Germany.

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French protectorate of Tunisia

The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.

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French Resistance

The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French Somaliland in World War II

French Somaliland (officially the Côte française des Somalis, "French Somali Coast"), with its capital at Djibouti, was the scene of only minor skirmishing during World War II, principally between June and July 1940.

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French submarine Le Triomphant (S616)

Le Triomphant is a strategic nuclear submarine of the French Navy; the submarine is the lead boat of class.

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French submarine Rubis (1931)

The French submarine Rubis (H4, 202, P15) was a minelaying submarine which first served in the French submarine pavilion, then the Free French Naval Forces (FNFL) during the Second World War and back with the French Navy.

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French submarine Rubis (S601)

Le Rubis (S 601; ex Provence) is a first-generation nuclear attack submarine and head of the Rubis-class series of the French Navy assigned to the attack nuclear submarine squadron and named after French submarine ''Rubis'' which distinguished capability during World War II.

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French submarine Surcouf

Surcouf was the largest French submarine cruiser built.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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French West Africa

French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.

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French West Indies

The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.

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Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné

Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné (9 February 1913 – 1 March 1948) was a French Army officer of the French Foreign Legion.

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Gaston Palewski

Gaston Palewski (20 March 1901 – 3 September 1984), French politician, was a close associate of Charles de Gaulle during and after World War II.

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Gaullism

Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.

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General order

A general order, in military and paramilitary organizations, is a published directive, originated by a commander and binding upon all personnel under his or her command.

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General strike

A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.

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Geoffroy Chodron de Courcel

Geoffroy Chodron de Courcel (11 September 1912, Tours - 9 December 1992, Paris), was a French nobleman, soldier and diplomat.

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Georges Bergé

Georges Roger Pierre Bergé (3 January 1909 – 15 September 1997) was a French Army general who served during World War II.

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Georges Bidault

Georges-Augustin Bidault (5 October 189927 January 1983) was a French politician.

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Georges Catroux

Georges Albert Julien Catroux (29 January 1877 – 21 December 1969) was a French Army general and diplomat who served in both World War I and World War II, and served as Grand Chancellor of the Légion d'honneur from 1954 to 1969.

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Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu

Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu, in religion Father Louis of the Trinity, O.C.D. (7 August 1889 – 7 September 1964), was a Discalced Carmelite friar and priest, who was also a diplomat and French Navy officer and admiral; he became one of the major personalities of the Forces navales françaises libres.

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German Instrument of Surrender

The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.

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German military administration in occupied France during World War II

The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.

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Gestapo

The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

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Government in exile

A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.

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Government of France

The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.

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Governor-general

Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.

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Greenock

Greenock (Grianaig) is a town and administrative centre in the Inverclyde council area in Scotland and a former burgh within the historic county of Renfrewshire, located in the west central Lowlands of Scotland.

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Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.

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Guangzhouwan

Guangzhouwan (officially Kouang-Tchéou-Wan; also spelled Kwangchow Wan, Kwangchow-wan, Kwang-Chou-Wan or Quang-Tchéou-Wan) was a small enclave on the southern coast of China ceded by Qing China to France as a leased territory and administered as an outlier of French Indochina.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Hamish Hamilton

Hamish Hamilton Limited was a British book publishing house, founded in 1931 eponymously by the half-Scot half-American Jamie Hamilton (Hamish is the vocative form of the Gaelic 'Seumas', James the English form – which was also his given name, and Jamie the diminutive form).

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HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie

Henri d'Astier de La Vigerie (11 September 1897 – 10 October 1952) was a French soldier, ''Résistance'' member, and conservative politician.

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Henri Dentz

Henri Fernand Dentz (16 December 1881 – 13 December 1945) was a soldier and general in the French Army (Armée de Terre) and, after France surrendered during World War II, he served with the Vichy French Army.

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Henri Giraud

Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 11 March 1949) was a French general who was captured in both World Wars, but escaped both times.

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High commissioner

High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.

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HMS Indomitable (92)

HMS Indomitable (pennant number 92) was a modified of the Royal Navy.

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House of Hohenzollern

The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.

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Human Rights League (France)

The Human Rights League (Ligue des droits de l’homme or LDH) of France, is a Human Rights NGO association to observe, defend and promulgation of Rights Man within the French Republic in all spheres of public life.

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Imperial Japanese Army

The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

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Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.

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Indochina

Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.

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Infobase Publishing

Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.

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Invasion of Normandy

The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Italian East Africa

Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.

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Italian Libya

Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.

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Italian occupation of Corsica

Italian-occupied Corsica refers to the military (and administrative) occupation by the Kingdom of Italy of the island of Corsica during World War II.

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Italian occupation of France

Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France occupied by Fascist Italy in two stages during World War II.

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Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

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Jack (flag)

A jack is a national (originally naval) flag flown from a short jackstaff at the bow of a vessel, while the ensign is flown on the stern.

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Jacques Soustelle

Jacques Soustelle (3 February 1912 – 6 August 1990) was an important and early figure of the Free French Forces, an anthropologist specializing in Pre-Columbian civilizations, and vice-director of the Musée de l'Homme in Paris in 1939.

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James Somerville

Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Fownes Somerville (17 July 1882 – 19 March 1949) was a Royal Navy officer.

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Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina

The Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, known as Meigo Sakusen (Operation Bright Moon), was a Japanese operation that took place on 9 March 1945 towards the end of World War II.

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Japanese invasion of French Indochina

The was a short undeclared military confrontation between the Empire of Japan and Vichy France in northern Indochina.

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Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, GCB, MC (2 February 1889 – 11 January 1952) was a French military commander in World War II and the First Indochina War.

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Jean Gabin

Jean Gabin (17 May 190415 November 1976) was a French actor and sometime singer.

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Jean Monnet

Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat.

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Jean Moulin

Jean Moulin (20 June 1899 – 8 July 1943) was a high-profile member of the Resistance in France during World War II.

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Jean Touzet du Vigier

Lieutenant General Jean-Louis-Alain Touzet du Vigier (1888-1980 was a French army officer during World War II and an advocate of military mechanization,http://www.39-45.org Forum in the World War translated particularly the motorization of the cavalry.

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Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.

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Joseph Darnand

Joseph Darnand (19 March 1897 – 10 October 1945) was a French soldier, leader of the Vichy French collaborators with Nazi Germany and a Waffen-SS officer.

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Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert

Joseph Jean de Goislard de Monsabert (Libourne 30 September 1887 – Dax, 13 June 1981), was a French general who served during the Second World War.

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Joseph Kessel

Joseph Kessel (10 February 1898 – 23 July 1979) was a French journalist and novelist.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Josephine Baker

Josephine Baker (born Freda Josephine McDonald; 3 June 1906 – 12 April 1975) was an American-born French entertainer, activist, and French Resistance agent.

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Julian T. Jackson

Julian Timothy Jackson (born 10 April 1954) is a prominent British historian.

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Kufra

Kufra is a basinBertarelli (1929), p. 514.

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La Marseillaise

"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.

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La Rochelle

La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Le Monde diplomatique

Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Lend-Lease

The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was an American program to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy by distributing food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Liberation of Paris

The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.

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Libreville

Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in western central Africa.

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List of French possessions and colonies

During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire; it extended over of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s.

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List of networks and movements of the French Resistance

It is customary to distinguish the various organisations of the French Resistance between movements and networks.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long Range Desert Group

The Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) was a reconnaissance and raiding unit of the British Army during the Second World War.

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Lorraine

Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.

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Louis-Ferdinand Céline

Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches (27 May 1894 – 1 July 1961), a French novelist, pamphleteer and physician.

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Low Countries

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.

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Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Lyle Hill

Lyle Hill is a viewpoint in Greenock, Inverclyde, Scotland.

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Madagascar

Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Maquis (World War II)

The Maquis were rural guerrilla bands of French Resistance fighters, called maquisards, during the Occupation of France in World War II.

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Maquis du Vercors

The Maquis du Vercors was a rural group of the French Forces of the Interior resistance (maquis) that fought the 1940–1944 German occupation of France in World War II.

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Maquis shrubland

Low Maquis in Corsica High ''macchia'' in Sardinia Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.

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Marcel Marceau

Marcel Marceau (born Marcel Mangel, 22 March 1923 – 22 September 2007) was a French actor and Mime artist most famous for his stage persona as "Bip the Clown".

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Marcel-Bruno Gensoul

Marcel-Bruno Gensoul (12 October 1880 – 30 December 1973) was a French admiral who commanded the Force de Raid, based at Brest until the French surrender in 1940.

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Marie-Pierre Kœnig

Marie-Pierre Kœnig (10 October 1898 – 2 September 1970) was a French army officer and politician.

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Marocchinate

Marocchinate (Italian for "Moroccans’ deeds") is a term applied to the mass rape and killings committed during World War II after the Battle of Monte Cassino in Italy.

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Martin Lopez

Martin Lopez (born 20 May 1978 in Stockholm) is a Swedish-Uruguayan drummer, currently a member and co-founder of progressive metal supergroup Soen, but is best known as the ex-drummer of Swedish progressive death metal band Opeth and melodic death metal band Amon Amarth.

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Martinique

Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.

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Maurice Schumann

Maurice Schumann (10 April 1911, Paris – 9 February 1998, Paris) was a French politician, journalist, writer, and hero of the Second World War who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Georges Pompidou from 22 June 1969 to 15 March 1973.

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Max Hastings

Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings (born 28 December 1945) is a British journalist, who has worked as a foreign correspondent for the BBC, editor-in-chief of The Daily Telegraph, and editor of the Evening Standard.

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Metropolitan France

Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.

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Milice

The Milice française (French Militia), generally called the Milice, was a political paramilitary organization created on 30 January 1943 by the Vichy regime (with German aid) to help fight against the French Resistance during World War II.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Military dummy

Dummies and decoys are fake military equipment that are intended to deceive the enemy.

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Military history of France during World War II

The military history of France during World War II covers three periods.

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Military logistics

Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.

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Military supply chain management

Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services for military applications.

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Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.

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Moroccan Goumier

The Moroccan Goumiers (Les Goumiers Marocains) were indigenous soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Army of Africa, between 1908 and 1956.

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Mulberry harbour

Mulberry harbours were temporary portable harbours developed by the United Kingdom during the Second World War to facilitate the rapid offloading of cargo onto beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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National Council of the Resistance

The National Council of the Resistance, in French Conseil National de la Résistance (CNR), was the body that directed and coordinated the different movements of the French Resistance - the press, trade unions, and members of political parties hostile to the Vichy regime, starting from mid-1943.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Neman

The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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New Hebrides

New Hebrides, officially the New Hebrides Condominium (Condominium des Nouvelles-Hébrides, "Condominium of the New Hebrides") and named for the Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island group in the South Pacific Ocean that is now Vanuatu.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.

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Normandie-Niemen

The Normandie-Niemen Fighter Regiment (Régiment de Chasse Normandie-Niémen - (Нормандия-Неман) is a Fighter unit of the French Air Force, which has adopted different formations and designations since 1942. Originally formed as Groupe de Chasse Normandie 3 in 1942, then redesignated as a Regiment (without and with "Niemen" designation the same year) in 1944, then given four different squadron numbers (1953, 1962, 1993, & 1995), and later two Regiments designations respectively (2008, 2011). The unit served on the Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II with the 1st Air Army. The regiment is notable for being one of only three units from Western Allied countries to see combat on the Eastern Front during World War II,and Normandie-Niemen was the only Western Allied unit to fight with the Soviet forces until the end of the war in Europe. Initially the Groupe de Chasse 3 (GC 3) (3rd Fighter Group) in the Free French Air Force comprised a group of French fighter pilots sent to aid Soviet forces on the Eastern Front at the suggestion of Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces, who felt it important that French servicemen serve on all fronts in the war. The groupe, first commanded by Jean Tulasne, fought in three campaigns on behalf of the Soviet Union between 22 March 1943, and 9 May 1945, during which time it destroyed 273 enemy aircraft and received numerous orders, citations and decorations from both the Free French and Soviet governments, including the French Légion d’Honneur and the Soviet Order of the Red Banner. Joseph Stalin awarded the unit the name Niemen for its participation in the Battle of the Niemen River. the unit, known as Escadron de chasse 1/30 Normandie-Niemen, flew Dassault Mirage F1CT aircraft. The squadron was briefly disbanded in June 2010 and re-activated in 2011 as a Dassault Rafale unit, with formal reactivation on 25 June 2012 as Escadron de Chasse 2/30 Normandie-Niemen.

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Normandy

Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

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Normandy landings

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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North African Campaign

The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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Oasis

In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.

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Office of Strategic Services

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Operation Bodyguard

Operation Bodyguard was the code name for a World War II deception plan employed by the Allied states before the 1944 invasion of north-west Europe.

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Operation Cobra

Operation Cobra was the codename for an offensive launched by the First United States Army (Lieutenant General Omar Bradley) seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II.

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Operation Diadem

Operation Diadem, also referred to as the Fourth Battle of Monte Cassino or, in Canada, the Battle of the Liri Valley, was an offensive operation undertaken by the Allies of World War II (U.S. Fifth Army and British Eighth Army in May 1944, as part of the Italian Campaign of World War II. Diadem was supported by air attacks called Operation Strangle. The opposing force was the German 10th Army. The object of Diadem was to break the German defenses on the Gustav Line (the western half of the Winter Line) and open up the Liri Valley, the main route to Rome. General Sir Harold Alexander, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the Allied Armies in Italy (AAI), planned Diadem to coordinate roughly with the invasion of Normandy, so that German forces would be tied down in Italy, and could not be redeployed to France. Four corps were employed in the attack. From right to left these were Polish II Corps and British XIII Corps, of Eighth Army, and the Free French Corps (including Moroccan Goumiers) and U.S. II Corps, of Fifth Army. Fifth Army also controlled U.S. VI Corps in the Anzio beachhead, some 60 miles northwest. Diadem was launched at 23:00pm on 11 May 1944 by elements, composed of the British 4th Infantry Division and 8th Indian Infantry Division with supporting fire from the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade. They made a successful strongly opposed night crossing of the Garigliano and Rapido rivers. This broke into the heart of the German defenses in the Liri valley against strong opposition and drew German theater reserves reducing pressure on the Anzio beachhead. The Free French Corps pushed through the mountains to the left on 14 May, supported by U.S. II Corps along the coast. On 17 May, Polish II Corps on the right attacked Monte Cassino. The German position collapsed, and the Germans fell back from the Gustav Line to the Hitler Line some 10 miles to their rear. On 23 May, the four corps attacked the Hitler Line. On the same day, the U.S. VI Corps attacked out of the Anzio beachhead. The Hitler Line was breached by 1st Canadian Infantry Division's 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards at Pontecorvo on 23 May. German Tenth Army was forced to retire northwestward. U.S. VI Corps, moving northeast from Anzio, was on the point of cutting the German line of retreat, when Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, commander of the U.S. Fifth Army, inexplicably ordered them to turn northwest and advance on Rome instead. There is much speculation that he did this so that his Fifth Army would capture Rome ahead of the Eighth Army advancing up the Liri Valley. The German 10th Army thus avoided being surrounded. The Germans fought a series of delaying actions, retired to the Trasimene Line, and then to the Gothic Line (identified on German maps as the "Green" Line), north of the Arno River.

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Operation Dragoon

Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.

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Operation Nordwind

Operation North Wind (Unternehmen Nordwind) was the last major German offensive of World War II on the Western Front.

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Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.

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Operation Pluto

Operation Pluto (Pipe-Lines Under The Ocean) was a Second World War operation by British engineers, oil companies, and the British Armed Forces; to construct undersea oil pipelines under the English Channel between England and France in support of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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Operation Torch

Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.

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Oran

Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.

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Order of the Red Banner

The Order of the Red Banner (transl) was the first Soviet military decoration.

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Ostlegionen

Ostlegionen ("eastern legions"), Ost-Bataillone ("eastern battalions"), Osttruppen ("eastern troops"), Osteinheiten ("eastern units") were military units in the Heer (army) of Nazi Germany, during World War II that were made up of personnel from countries comprising the Soviet Union.

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Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.

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Paratrooper

Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.

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Paul Legentilhomme

Paul Legentilhomme (Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme) (March 26, 1884 – May 23, 1975) was an officer in the French Army during World War I and World War II.

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Paul Reynaud

Paul Reynaud (15 October 1878 – 21 September 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany.

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Perfidious Albion

Perfidious Albion is an anglophobic pejorative phrase used within the context of international relations and diplomacy to refer to alleged acts of diplomatic sleights, duplicity, treachery and hence infidelity (with respect to perceived promises made to or alliances formed with other nation states) by monarchs or governments of the UK (or England) in their pursuit of self-interest.

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.

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Philippe Auboyneau

Philippe Auboyneau (9 November 1899, Constantinople – 22 February 1961) was an officer in the French Navy.

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Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque

Philippe François Marie Leclerc de Hauteclocque (22 November 1902 – 28 November 1947) was a French general during the Second World War.

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Philippe Pétain

Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.

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Pierre Bertaux

Pierre Bertaux (8 October 1907 in Lyon – 14 August 1986 in Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine) was a noted French resistance fighter and scholar of German literature.

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Pierre Billotte

Pierre Armand Gaston Billotte (8 March 1906 – 29 June 1992) was a French Army officer and politician.

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Pierre Clostermann

Pierre Henri Clostermann (28 February 1921 – 22 March 2006) was a French flying ace.

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Pierre Laval

Pierre Jean-Marie Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician.

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Pierre Mendès France

Pierre Isaac Isidore Mendès-France (11 January 1907 – 18 October 1982), known as PMF, was a French politician who served as President of the Council of MinistersEquivalent in the French Fourth Republic to Prime Minister for eight months from 1954 to 1955.

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Pierre Messmer

Pierre Joseph Auguste Messmer (20 March 191629 August 2007) was a French Gaullist politician.

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Pierre Milza

Pierre Milza (b. 16 April 1932 in Paris; d. 28 February 2018 in Saint-Malo) was a French historian.

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Pierre-Olivier Lapie

Pierre-Olivier Lapie (2 April 1901, Rennes – 10 March 1994) was a French essayist and novelist.

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Pincer movement

The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.

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Planned destruction of Warsaw

The planned destruction of Warsaw refers to the largely-realized plans by Nazi Germany to raze the city that were put into motion after the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Provence

Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

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Provisional government

A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.

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Provisional Government of the French Republic

The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.

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Purge

In history, religion and political science, a purge is a removal of people who are considered undesirable by those in power from a government, another organization, their team owners, or society as a whole.

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Racism against African Americans in the U.S. military

African-American discrimination in the U.S. Military refers to discrimination against black people who have served in the U.S. military from its creation during the Revolutionary War to the end of segregation by President Harry S. Truman's Executive Order 9981 in 1948 that officially ended segregation in the U.S. military.

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Ranks in the French Navy

The rank insignia of the French Navy (Marine Nationale) are worn on shoulder straps of shirts and white jackets, and on sleeves for navy jackets and mantels.

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Raoul Magrin-Vernerey

Raoul Charles Magrin-Vernerey, other known as Ralph Monclar born 7 February 1892, was a French officer and 2nd Inspector of the Foreign Legion who fought in World War I, World War II, and particularly within the ranks of the Free French Forces and the French Battalion in the Korean War.

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Raphaël Onana

Raphaël Onana, born on 14 July 1919, was a Free French soldier of Cameroonian origin, naturalised French.

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Raymond Dronne

Capitaine Raymond Dronne (8 March 1908, Mayet (France) - 5 September 1991, Paris), French civil servant and, following World War II, a politician.

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Révolution nationale

The Révolution nationale (National Revolution) was the official ideological program promoted by the Vichy regime (the “French State”) which had been established in July 1940 and led by Marshal Philippe Pétain.

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Rear admiral

Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.

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Red Ball Express

The Red Ball Express was a famed truck convoy system that supplied Allied forces moving quickly through Europe after breaking out from the D-Day beaches in Normandy in 1944.

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Reims

Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.

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René Cassin

René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist, law professor and judge.

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René Iché

René Iché (21 January 1897 – 23 December 1954) was a 20th-century French sculptor.

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René Joyeuse

René Joyeuse (17 January 192012 June 2012) was a Swiss, French and American soldier, physician and researcher, who distinguished himself as an agent of Allied intelligence in German-occupied France during World War II.

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René Pleven

René Pleven (15 April 1901 – 13 January 1993) was a notable French politician of the Fourth Republic.

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René-Émile Godfroy

René-Émile Godfroy (January 10, 1885 – January 16, 1981) was a French admiral, who was interned with his command at Alexandria during World War II.

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Republicanism

Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.

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Rhône

The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.

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Rhine

--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Robert Daniel Murphy

Robert Daniel Murphy (October 28, 1894 – January 9, 1978) was an American diplomat.

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Route Napoléon

The Route Napoléon is the route taken by Napoléon in 1815 on his return from Elba.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN; French: Marine royale canadienne) is the naval force of Canada.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Run for Tunis

The Run for Tunis was part of the Tunisia Campaign which took place during November and December 1942 during the Second World War.

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Sabotage

Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.

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Sahara

The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.

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Saint-Nazaire

Saint-Nazaire (Gallo: Saint-Nazère/Saint-Nazaer) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, in traditional Brittany.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

The French fleet in Toulon was scuttled on 27 November 1942 to avoid capture by Nazi German forces.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Senegalese Tirailleurs

The Senegalese Tirailleurs (Tirailleurs Sénégalais) were a corps of colonial infantry in the French Army.

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Seventh United States Army

The Seventh Army was a United States army created during World War II that evolved into the United States Army Europe (USAREUR) during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Siegfried Line

The term Siegfried Line refers to two different German defensive lines, one during the First World War and the other during the Second World War.

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Sigmaringen

Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Simone Weil

Simone Weil (3 February 1909 – 24 August 1943) was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. The mathematician Andre Weil was her brother. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher. She taught intermittently throughout the 1930s, taking several breaks due to poor health and to devote herself to political activism, work that would see her assisting in the trade union movement, taking the side of the Anarchists known as the Durruti Column in the Spanish Civil War, and spending more than a year working as a labourer, mostly in auto factories, so she could better understand the working class. Taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous in continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her. Albert Camus described her as "the only great spirit of our times".

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Sixth United States Army Group

The Sixth United States Army Group was an Allied Army Group that fought in the European Theater of Operations during World War II.

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Social security in France

Social security in France is divided into four branches: illness; old age/retirement; family; work accident and occupational disease.

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Soviet Air Forces

The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Special Air Service

The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.

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Special Operations Executive

The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a British World War II organisation.

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Squadron (aviation)

A squadron in air force, army aviation, or naval aviation is a unit comprising a number of military aircraft and their aircrews, usually of the same type, typically with 12 to 24 aircraft, sometimes divided into three or four flights, depending on aircraft type and air force.

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Sturmbannführer

Sturmbannführer ("assault unit leader") was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank equivalent to major that was used in several Nazi organizations, such as the SA, SS, and the NSFK.

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Stuttgart

Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.

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Surrender of Japan

The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

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Suzanne David Hall

Suzanne David Hall (January 23, 1927 – July 7, 2011) was a spy for the French resistance during World War II while still a teenager.

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Sword Beach

Sword, commonly known as Sword Beach, was the code name given to one of the five main landing areas along the Normandy coast during the initial assault phase, Operation Neptune, of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of German-occupied France that commenced on 6 June 1944.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syria–Lebanon Campaign

The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.

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Tail of the Bank

The Tail of the Bank is the name given to the anchorage in the upper Firth of Clyde immediately North of Greenock and Gourock.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Tereska Torrès

Tereska Torrès (3 September 1920 – 20 September 2012) was a French writer.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Transport Plan

The Transportation Plan was a plan for strategic bombing during World War II against bridges, rail centres, including marshalling yards and repair shops in France with the goal of limiting the German military response to the invasion of France in June 1944.

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Treason

In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.

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Trial in absentia

Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.

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Tripolitania

Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.

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Tunisian Campaign

The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.

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Twelfth United States Army Group

The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful United States Army formation ever to take to the field, commanding four field armies at its peak in 1945: First United States Army, Third United States Army, Ninth United States Army and Fifteenth United States Army.

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United States Army Air Forces

The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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Utah Beach

Utah, commonly known as Utah Beach, was the code name for one of the five sectors of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June 6, 1944 (D-Day), during World War II.

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Valéry Giscard d'Estaing

Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council.

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Vice admiral

Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.

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Vichy

Vichy (Vichèi in Occitan) is a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Victory in Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.

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Vilnius Offensive

The Vilnius Offensive (Вильнюсская наступательная операция) occurred as part of the third phase of Operation Bagration, the great summer offensive by the Red Army against the Wehrmacht in June and July, 1944.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Warsaw Uprising

The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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West Berlin

West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.

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West Indies

The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

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Western Allied invasion of Germany

The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.

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Western betrayal

The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Winter Line

The Winter Line was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt and commanded by Albert Kesselring.

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Women's suffrage

Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xavier de La Chevalerie

Marie-Emile Xavier Daufresne de La Chevalerie (28 January 1920 – 21 August 2004) was a French diplomat.

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Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.

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Zone libre

The zone libre (free zone) was a partition of the French metropolitan territory during World War II, established at the Second Armistice at Compiègne on 22 June 1940.

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11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 11th Panzer Division (11th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1940.

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13th Demi-Brigade of Foreign Legion

The 13th Demi-Brigade of Foreign Legion (13e Demi-Brigade de Légion Étrangère, 13e DBLE), was created in 1940 and was the main unit of the 1st Free French Division, Free French Forces (FFL).

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1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State

The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (French) was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1905.

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19th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 19th Army (German: 19. Armee) was a World War II field army of the German Army.

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19th Army Corps (France)

The French 19th Army Corps (19e Corps d'Armée) was formed in 1873.

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1st Air Army

The 1st Air Army (1-я воздушная армия) was an Air Army in the Soviet Air Force which served during World War II.

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1st Armored Division (France)

The 1st Armored Division (1re Division Blindée, 1re DB) is a unit of the French Army formed during World War II.

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1st Army (France)

The First Army (1re Armée) was a field army of France that fought during World War I and World War II.

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1st Free French Division

The 1st Free French Division (1re Division Française Libre, 1re DFL) was one of the principal units of the Free French Forces (FFL) during World War II, renowned for having fought the Battle of Bir Hakeim.

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20 July plot

On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.

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21st Army Group

The 21st Army Group was a World War II British headquarters formation, in command of two field armies and other supporting units, consisting primarily of the British Second Army and the First Canadian Army.

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2nd Armored Division (France)

The French 2nd Armored Division (2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Philippe Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II in the Western Front.

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3rd Algerian Infantry Division

The 3rd Algerian Infantry Division (3e Division d'Infanterie Algérienne, 3e DIA) was an infantry division of the Army of Africa (Armée d'Afrique) which participated in World War II.

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4th Armored Division (France, 1940)

The 4th Armored Division was a short-lived armoured unit of the French Army.

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4th Infantry Division (United States)

The 4th Infantry Division is a division of the United States Army based at Fort Carson, Colorado.

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6th Foreign Infantry Regiment

The 6th Foreign Infantry Regiment (6e Régiment Étranger d'Infanterie, 6e REI) was an infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1955.

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Redirects here:

Comité National Français, Comité national français, Fighting France, Forces Francaises Libres, Forces Françaises Libres, France Libre, France combattante, Free French, Free French Army, Free French Forces, Free French forces, Free french, Free-France, Les Français Libres, Liberation of France, Liberation of continental France, National Committee of the Free French, The Free French.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_France

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