93 relations: Abolitionism in the United States, Acadia, Affranchi, Africa, Amanda America Dickson, American Revolutionary War, Anti-literacy laws in the United States, Barzillai Lew, Bobby Jindal, Cajuns, Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, Caribbean, Catholic Church, Charles Henry Langston, Charles W. Chesnutt, Charleston, South Carolina, Charlotte Forten Grimké, Chevalier de Saint-Georges, Cleveland, Colored, Continental Army, Creoles of color, Crispus Attucks, Dowry, Edmond Dédé, Edmonia Lewis, Europe, Frederick Douglass, Free Negro, French Quarter, French Revolution, Gens de couleur, German Coast, Guadeloupe, Haiti, History of Brazil, History of Cuba, History of Haiti, History of Jamaica, History of Puerto Rico, History of the Caribbean, Horace King (architect), Indigenous peoples of the Americas, James Forten, Jennie Carter, John Chavis, John Mercer Langston, John Rock (abolitionist), Julien Raimond, Louisiana (New France), ..., Louisiana Creole people, Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Voodoo, Manumission, Marie Laveau, Maroon (people), Marriage 'à la façon du pays', Martinique, Mary Boykin Chesnut, Massachusetts, Mulatto, Mulatto Haitians, Multiracial, New Jersey, New Orleans, New York City, Norbert Rillieux, North Carolina, Patriot (American Revolution), Peter Salem, Philadelphia, Plaçage, Plantations in the American South, Reconstruction era, Robert Purvis, Robert S. Duncanson, Rodolphe Desdunes, Saint-Domingue, Salem Poor, Slavery, Solomon Northup, Supreme Court of the United States, The Three Musketeers, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Day (North Carolina), Thomas Jefferson, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, Toussaint Louverture, Twelve Years a Slave, Underground Railroad, William C. C. Claiborne, William Costin, William Ellison. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
Affranchi is a former French legal term denoting a freedman or emancipated slave, but was a term used to refer pejoratively to mulattoes.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Amanda America Dickson (November 20, 1849 – June 11, 1893) was a mulatto socialite in Georgia.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
During the time of slavery in America there existed anti-literacy laws, its restrictions on educating slaves.
Barzillai Lew (November 5, 1743 January 18, 1822) was an African-American soldier who served with distinction during the American Revolutionary War.
Piyush "Bobby" Jindal (born June 10, 1971) is an American politician who was the 55th Governor of Louisiana between 2008 and 2016, and previously served as a U.S. Congressman and as the vice chairman of the Republican Governors Association.
The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.
The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (Capitanía General de Santo Domingo) was the first colony in the New World and was claimed for Spain.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles Henry Langston (1817–1892) was an American abolitionist and political activist who was active in Ohio and later in Kansas, during and after the American Civil War, where he worked for black suffrage and other civil rights.
Charles Waddell Chesnutt (June 20, 1858 – November 15, 1932) was an African-American author, essayist, political activist and lawyer, best known for his novels and short stories exploring complex issues of racial and social identity in the post-Civil War South.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Charlotte Louise Bridges Forten Grimké (August 17, 1837 – July 23, 1914) was an African-American anti-slavery activist, poet, and educator.
Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges (December 25, 1745 – June 10, 1799) was a champion fencer, classical composer, virtuoso violinist, and conductor of the leading symphony orchestra in Paris.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
Colored is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era) and the United Kingdom.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
The Creoles of color are a historic ethnic group of Creole people that developed in the former French and Spanish colonies of Louisiana (especially in the city of New Orleans), Southern Mississippi, Alabama, and Northwestern Florida in what is now the United States.
Crispus Attucks (1723 – March 5, 1770) was an American stevedore of African and Native American descent, widely regarded as the first person killed in the Boston massacre and thus the first American killed in the American Revolution.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Edmond Dédé (November 27, 1827 – January 5, 1901) was a free-born Creole musician and composer.
Mary Edmonia Lewis (c. July 4, 1844 – September 17, 1907) was an American sculptor who worked for most of her career in Rome, Italy.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.
In United States history, a free Negro or free black was the legal status, in the geographic area of the United States, of blacks who were not slaves.
The French Quarter, also known as the Vieux Carré ("Old Square") or Vieux Carré Historic District, is the oldest section of the City of New Orleans.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gens de couleur is a French term meaning "people of color".
The German Coast (French: Côte des Allemands) was a region of early Louisiana settlement located above New Orleans on the east side of the Mississippi River – specifically, from east (or south) to west (or north), in St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. James parishes of present-day Acadiana.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil.
The island of Cuba was inhabited by various Mesoamerican cultures prior to the arrival of the Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The recorded written history of Haiti began on 5 December 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean.
The Caribbean island of Jamaica was colonized by the Taino tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1503.
The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3,000 and 2,000 BC.
The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century.
Horace King (sometimes Horace Godwin) (September 8, 1807 – May 28, 1885) was an American architect, engineer, and bridge builder.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
James Forten (September 2, 1766March 4, 1842) was an African American abolitionist and wealthy businessman in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Jennie Carter (c. 1830 – August 1881) was an American journalist and essayist who wrote for the California African-American newspaper The Elevator from her home in Nevada County, California during the Reconstruction Era.
John Chavis (c. 1763–June 15, 1838) was a free black educator and Presbyterian minister in the American South during the early 19th century.
John Mercer Langston (December 14, 1829 – November 15, 1897) was an abolitionist, attorney, educator, activist, diplomat, and politician in the United States.
John Swett Rock (October 13, 1825 – December 3, 1866) was an American teacher, doctor, dentist, lawyer and abolitionist, historically associated with the coining of the term "black is beautiful" (thought to have originated from a speech he made in 1858, however historical records now indicate he never actually used the specific phrase on that day).
Julien Raimond (1744–1801) was an indigo planter in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, now the Republic of Haiti, who became a leader in its revolution and the formation of Haiti.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Louisiana Creole people (Créoles de Louisiane, Gente de Louisiana Creole), are persons descended from the inhabitants of colonial Louisiana during the period of both French and Spanish rule.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
Louisiana Voodoo, also known as New Orleans Voodoo, describes a set of spiritual folkways developed from the traditions of the African diaspora.
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves.
Marie Catherine Laveau (September 10, 1801– June 16, 1881) was a Louisiana Creole practitioner of Voodoo, who was renowned in New Orleans.
Maroons were Africans who had escaped from slavery in the Americas and mixed with the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and formed independent settlements.
Marriage à la façon du pays ("according to the custom of the country") refers to the practice of common-law marriage between European fur traders and aboriginal or Métis women in the North American fur trade.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Mary Boykin Chesnut (née Miller) (March 31, 1823 – November 22, 1886), was a South Carolina author noted for a book published as her Civil War diary, a "vivid picture of a society in the throes of its life-and-death struggle."Woodward, C. Vann.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Mulatto (mulâtre, milat) is a term in Haiti that is historically linked to Haitians who are born to one white parent and one black parent, or to two mulatto parents.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Norbert Rillieux (March 17, 1806 – October 8, 1894) was an American inventor who was widely considered one of the earliest chemical engineers and noted for his pioneering invention of the multiple-effect evaporator.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.
Peter Salem (October 1, 1750–August 16, 1816) was an African American from Massachusetts who served as a soldier in the American Revolutionary War.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Plaçage was a recognized extralegal system in French and Spanish slave colonies of North America (including the Caribbean) by which ethnic European men entered into civil unions with non-Europeans of African, Native American and mixed-race descent.
Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
Robert Purvis (August 4, 1810 – April 15, 1898) was an American abolitionist in the United States.
Robert Seldon Duncanson (1821 – December 21, 1872) was a nineteenth century American artist of European and African ancestry known for his contributions to landscape painting.
Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes (November 15, 1849 – August 14, 1928) was a civil rights activist, poet, historian, journalist, and customs officer primarily active in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Salem Poor (1747–1802) was an African-American slave who purchased his freedom, became a soldier, and rose to fame as a war hero during the American Revolutionary War.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Solomon Northup (July 10, 1807 or 1808 –) was an American abolitionist and the primary author of the memoir Twelve Years a Slave.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Three Musketeers (Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a historical adventure novel written in 1844 by French author Alexandre Dumas.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Day (1801-1861) was a free black furniture craftsman and cabinetmaker in Milton, Caswell County, North Carolina.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (also known as Alexandre Dumas; 25 March 1762 – 26 February 1806) was a general in Revolutionary France and the highest-ranking man of mixed African descent ever in a European army.
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (9 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution.
Twelve Years a Slave is an 1853 memoir and slave narrative by American Solomon Northup as told to and edited by David Wilson.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
William Charles Cole Claiborne (c.1773-75 – 23 November 1817) was an American politician, best known as the first non-colonial Governor of Louisiana.
William "Billy" Costin (c. 1780 - May 31, 1842) was a free African-American activist and scholar who successfully challenged District of Columbia slave codes in the Circuit Court of the District of Columbia.
William Ellison Jr., born April Ellison, (April 1790 – December 5, 1861) was a cotton gin maker and blacksmith in South Carolina, and former black slave who achieved considerable success in business before the American Civil War.