157 relations: Abandonware, Anti-competitive practices, Apache HTTP Server, Apache License, Apple Inc., BASIC, BASIC Computer Games, Berkeley Software Distribution, Binary blob, Blender Game Engine, BSD licenses, Byte (magazine), Commercial software, Comparison of free and open-source software licenses, Compute!, Computer magazine, Computer program, Computer security, Computer Weekly, Copyleft, Copyright, Copyright notice, Creative Commons, Creative Computing (magazine), Crowdfunding, Debian, Debian Free Software Guidelines, Definition of Free Cultural Works, Device driver, Digital rights, Digital rights management, DistroWatch, Dot-com company, Eclipse Public License, Emacs, End-user license agreement, English language, Eric S. Raymond, European Union, Executable, Fork (software development), Free and open-source software, Free content, Free Software Directory, Free Software Foundation, Free Software Foundation Latin America, Free software movement, Free-culture movement, FreeBSD, Freedom of speech, ..., Freeware, GIMP, GitHub, GNewSense, GNU, GNU C Library, GNU Compiler Collection, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License, GNU Manifesto, GNU Project, Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides, Gratis versus libre, Hacker culture, Hacker ethic, IBM, InfoWorld, Innovation, International Space Station, IWork, KDE, Kerberos (protocol), Kernel (operating system), LaTeX, Liberty, LibreOffice, License compatibility, Linus Torvalds, Linux distribution, Linux kernel, Linux-libre, List of formerly proprietary software, List of free software project directories, List of free software web applications, LWN.net, Microsoft Office, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT License, Mozilla Public License, MySQL, NASA Open Source Agreement, National Security Agency, NetBSD, Non-disclosure agreement, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Open format, Open standard, Open-source hardware, Open-source license, Open-source model, Open-source software, OpenBSD, OpenCores, OpenSSL, Operating system, Outline of free software, Package manager, Patch (computing), Permissive software licence, Private good, Programmer, Proprietary software, Public domain, Public good, Public-domain software, Red Hat, Replicant (operating system), Reverse engineering, Richard Stallman, Security through obscurity, Security-Enhanced Linux, Sendmail, SHARE (computing), Share-alike, SoftSide, Software, Software bug, Software industry, Software license, Software patent, Software relicensing, Source code, Spyware, Standish Group, Steve Ballmer, Sun Microsystems, Supercomputer, TeX, The Free Software Definition, The Open Source Definition, Titan (supercomputer), Tivoization, TOP500, Total cost of ownership, Trisquel, Type-in program, UNICOS, United Space Alliance, UNIX System Laboratories, Inc. v. Berkeley Software Design, Inc., Unix-like, User (computing), Vendor lock-in, Viral license, Waiver, X Window System, Zero-based numbering, 386BSD. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
Abandonware is a product, typically software, ignored by its owner and manufacturer, and for which no support is available.
Anti-competitive practices are business, government or religious practices that prevent or reduce competition in a market (see restraint of trade).
The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server, released under the terms of Apache License 2.0.
The Apache License is a permissive free software license written by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF).
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
BASIC Computer Games is a compilation of type-in computer games in the BASIC programming language collected by David H. Ahl.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
In the context of free and open-source software, a binary blob is a closed-source binary-only piece of software.
The Blender Game Engine is a component of Blender, a free and open-source 3D production suite, used for making real-time interactive content.
BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses, imposing minimal restrictions on the use and redistribution of covered software.
Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.
Commercial software, or seldom payware, is computer software that is produced for sale or that serves commercial purposes.
This is a comparison of published free software licenses and open-source licenses.
Compute!, often stylized as COMPUTE!, was an American home computer magazine that was published from 1979 to 1994.
Computer magazines are about computers and related subjects, such as networking and the Internet.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Computer Weekly is a digital magazine and website for IT professionals in the United Kingdom.
Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
In United States copyright law, a copyright notice is a notice of statutorily prescribed form that informs users of the underlying claim to copyright ownership in a published work.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
Creative Computing was one of the earliest magazines covering the microcomputer revolution.
Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) is a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is a free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in Debian.
The Definition of Free Cultural Works is a definition of free content from 2006.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
DistroWatch is a website which provides news, popularity rankings, and other general information about various Linux distributions as well as other free software/open source Unix-like operating systems such as OpenSolaris, MINIX and BSD.
A dot-com company, or simply a dot-com (alternatively rendered dot.com, dot com or.com), is a company that does most of its business on the Internet, usually through a website that uses the popular top-level domain ".com".
The Eclipse Public License (EPL) is an open source software license used by the Eclipse Foundation for its software.
Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.
In proprietary software, an end-user license agreement (EULA) or software license agreement is the contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the widely cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, and open-source software advocate.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
In software engineering, a project fork happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software.
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
Free content, libre content, or free information, is any kind of functional work, work of art, or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work.
The Free Software Directory (FSD) is a project of the Free Software Foundation (FSF).
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
Free Software Foundation Latin America (FSFLA) is the Latin American sister organisation of the Free Software Foundation.
The free software movement (FSM) or free / open source software movement (FOSSM) or free / libre open source software (FLOSS) is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes.
The free-culture movement is a social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute and modify creative works in the form of free content or open content by using the Internet and other forms of media.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freeware is software that is available for use at no monetary cost.
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.
GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
The GNU C Library, commonly known as glibc, is the GNU Project's implementation of the C standard library.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).
The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman and published in March 1985 in Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools as an explanation and definition of the goals of the GNU Project, and to call for participation and support developing GNU, a free software computer operating system.
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides are a word processor, a spreadsheet and a presentation program respectively, all part of a free, web-based software office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service.
The English adjective free is commonly used in one of two meanings: "for free" (gratis) and "with little or no restriction" (libre).
The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes.
Hacker ethic is a term for the moral values and philosophy that are common in hacker culture.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
InfoWorld (formerly The Intelligent Machines Journal) is an information technology media business.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
iWork is an office suite of applications created by Apple Inc. for its macOS and iOS operating systems, and also available cross-platform through the iCloud website.
KDE is an international free software community that develops Free and Open Source based software.
Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol that works on the basis of tickets to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.
License compatibility is a legal framework that allows for pieces of software with different software licenses to be distributed together.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
Linux-libre is an operating system kernel and a GNU package.
This is a list of notable software packages which were published under a proprietary software license but later released as free software or open source software, or into the public domain.
The following is a list of notable websites that list free software projects.
All web applications, both traditional and Web 2.0, are operated by software running somewhere.
LWN.net is a computing webzine with an emphasis on free software and software for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
The MIT License is a permissive free software license originating at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
The Mozilla Public License (MPL) is a free and open source software license developed and maintained by the Mozilla Foundation.
MySQL ("My S-Q-L") is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
The NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA) is an OSI-approved software license.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
An open format is a file format for storing digital data, defined by a published specification usually maintained by a standards organization, and which can be used and implemented by anyone.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).
Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement.
An open-source license is a type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint or design to be used, modified and/or shared under defined terms and conditions.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
OpenCores is an open source hardware community developing digital open source hardware through electronic design automation, with a similar ethos to the free software movement.
OpenSSL is a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at the other end.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to free software and the free software movement: Free software – software which can be run, studied, examined, modified, and redistributed freely (without any cost).
A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.
A patch is a set of changes to a computer program or its supporting data designed to update, fix, or improve it.
A permissive software license, sometimes also called BSD-like or BSD-style license, is a free software software license with minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed.
A private good is defined in economics as "an item that yields positive benefits to people" that is excludable, i.e. its owners can exercise private property rights, preventing those who have not paid for it from using the good or consuming its benefits; and rivalrous, i.e. consumption by one necessarily prevents that of another.
A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
Public-domain software is software that has been placed in the public domain: in other words, there is absolutely no ownership such as copyright, trademark, or patent.
Red Hat, Inc. is an American multinational software company providing open-source software products to the enterprise community.
Replicant 6.0 on the Galaxy Note II An example of phone information in Replicant, including a brief hardware description Replicant is a free and open-source operating system (OS) based on the Android mobile platform that aims to replace all proprietary Android components with free-software counterparts.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
In security engineering, security through obscurity (or security by obscurity) is the reliance on the secrecy of the design or implementation as the main method of providing security for a system or component of a system.
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux kernel security module that provides a mechanism for supporting access control security policies, including United States Department of Defense–style mandatory access controls (MAC).
Sendmail is a general purpose internetwork email routing facility that supports many kinds of mail-transfer and delivery methods, including the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) used for email transport over the Internet.
SHARE Inc. is a volunteer-run user group for IBM mainframe computers that was founded in 1955 by Los Angeles-area users of the IBM 701 computer system.
Share-alike is a copyright licensing term, originally used by the Creative Commons project, to describe works or licences that require copies or adaptations of the work to be released under the same or similar licence as the original.
SoftSide Magazine is a defunct computer magazine, begun in October 1978 by Roger Robitaille and published by SoftSide Publications of Milford, New Hampshire.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
The software industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, mainly either "license/maintenance based" (on-premises) or "Cloud based" (such as SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, MaaS, AaaS, etc.). The industry also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery.
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.
A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, libraries, user interface, or algorithm.
Software relicensing is applied in open-source software development when software licenses of software modules are incompatible and are required to be compatible for a greater combined work.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization sometimes without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge, or it may send such information to another entity with the consumer's consent, through cookies.
The Standish Group International, Inc. or Standish Group is an independent international IT research advisory firm founded in 1985, known from their reports about information systems implementation projects in the public and private sector.
Steven Anthony Ballmer (born March 24, 1956) is an American businessman, investor and philanthropist who was the chief executive officer of Microsoft from January 2000 to February 2014, and is the current owner of the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
The Free Software Definition written by Richard Stallman and published by Free Software Foundation (FSF), defines free software as being software that ensures that the end users have freedom in using, studying, sharing and modifying that software.
The Open Source Definition is a document published by the Open Source Initiative, to determine whether a software license can be labeled with the open-source certification mark.
Titan or OLCF-3 is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, that uses graphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs). Titan is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS. The upgrade began in October 2011, commenced stability testing in October 2012 and it became available to researchers in early 2013. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded primarily by the United States Department of Energy. Titan is due to be eclipsed at Oak Ridge by Summit in 2019, which is being built by IBM and features fewer nodes with much greater GPU capability per node as well as local per-node non-volatile caching of file data from the system's parallel file system. Titan employs AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar. It uses 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS; in the LINPACK benchmark used to rank supercomputers' speed, it performed at 17.59 petaFLOPS. This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan is available for any scientific purpose; access depends on the importance of the project and its potential to exploit the hybrid architecture. Any selected programs must also be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard programs were the first selected. They dealt mostly with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others were queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their programs. The modifications typically increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes often yield greater performance even on CPU-only machines.
Tivoization is the creation of a system that incorporates software under the terms of a copyleft software license (like the GPL), but uses hardware restrictions to prevent users from running modified versions of the software on that hardware.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
Total cost of ownership (TCO) is a financial estimate intended to help buyers and owners determine the direct and indirect costs of a product or system.
Trisquel (officially Trisquel GNU/Linux) is a computer operating system, a Linux distribution, derived from another distribution, Ubuntu.
A type-in program, type-in listing, or sometimes just type-in, is a listing of source code printed in a computer magazine or book, meant to be entered on the computer's keyboard by the reader and then saved to cassette or disk.
UNICOS is the name of a range of Unix-like operating system variants developed by Cray for its supercomputers.
United Space Alliance (USA) is a spaceflight operations company.
USL v. BSDi was a lawsuit brought in the United States in 1992 by Unix System Laboratories against Berkeley Software Design, Inc and the Regents of the University of California over intellectual property related to the Unix operating system.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.
Viral license is an alternative name for copyleft licenses, especially the GPL, that allows derivative works only when permissions are preserved in modified versions of the work.
A waiver is the voluntary relinquishment or surrender of some known right or privilege.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
Zero-based numbering or index origin.
386BSD, sometimes called "Jolix", is a discontinued free Unix-like operating system based on BSD, first released in 1992.
4 software freedoms, Allie-, FSF's "free software" ideal, Four Freedoms (Free software), Four Freedoms (free software), Four Freedoms (software), Free (software), Free Software, Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) for development, Free computer software, Free software development, Free sofware, Free source, Free-libre software, Free-software, Free-source, Free-source software, Freed Software, Freedom software, Freedom-ware, Freedomware, Libre Software, Libre software, Software Libre, Software libre.