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Free will

Index Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded. [1]

288 relations: A priori and a posteriori, A Treatise of Human Nature, Abstract and concrete, Action (philosophy), Advice (opinion), Agency (LDS Church), Agency (philosophy), Al-Ash`ari, Albert Einstein, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Alexander Rosenberg, Alien hand syndrome, Alvin Plantinga, Alvin Plantinga's free will defense, Ancient Greek philosophy, Andrzej Nowak (psychologist), Animal, Anomalous monism, Anthropocentrism, Argument from free will, Aristotle, Arminianism, Arthur Schopenhauer, Ashʿari, Augustine of Hippo, Āstika and nāstika, Baptists, Baron d'Holbach, Baruch Spinoza, Behavioural sciences, Benjamin Libet, Bereitschaftspotential, Big government, Biological determinism, Biology, Boethius, Buddhism, Buridan's ass, C. S. Lewis, Calvinism, Carl Ginet, Catholic Encyclopedia, Causa sui, Causal closure, Causality, Cerebral cortex, Chain of events, Chaos theory, Charvaka, Choice, ..., Christian, Chrysippus, Cognition, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive robotics, Cognitive science, Compatibilism, Consciousness, Corpus callosum, Counterfactual thinking, Court, Creator deity, Culpability, Cultural determinism, Daniel Dennett, Daniel Wegner, David Hume, David Lewis (philosopher), De libero arbitrio (Augustine), Decision theory, Deity, Deliberation, Democritus, Demon, Derk Pereboom, Destiny, Determinism, Deterministic system, Dick Swaab, Dictionnaire philosophique, Dopamine, Douglas Hofstadter, Elbow Room (book), Emergence, Empirical evidence, Epictetus, Epilepsy, Epiphenomenalism, Epistemological pluralism, Epistle to the Ephesians, Epistle to the Romans, Event (philosophy), Ex nihilo, Existence, Existence of God, Experimental psychology, False dilemma, Fatalism, Free will in antiquity, Free will in theology, Free will theorem, Freedom Evolves, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Galen Strawson, Gautama Buddha, George Berkeley, George Musser, God, Hackett Publishing Company, Hallucination, Hans Helmut Kornhuber, Hard determinism, Hard problem of consciousness, Hardware random number generator, Harry Austryn Wolfson, Harry Frankfurt, Harvard University Press, Hindu philosophy, History, Human brain, Immanuel Kant, Incompatibilism, Incompatible-properties argument, Indeterminism, Infallibility, Institute of Art and Ideas, Interactionism (philosophy of mind), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Interpretations of quantum mechanics, Introspection illusion, Intuition pump, Ishvara, Islam, Jacobus Arminius, Jainism, John Calvin, John Locke, John Martin Fischer, Joshua M. Epstein, Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, Karl Popper, Karma, Karma in Buddhism, Karma in Hinduism, Laplace's demon, Last Judgment, Lüder Deecke, Libertarianism (metaphysics), Limb (anatomy), Locus of control, Logical consequence, Logical determinism, Long-term depression, Luis de Molina, Maimonides, Martin Luther, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, Meliorism, Methodism, Mind, Mind–body dualism, Mind–body problem, Miracles (book), Molinism, Monism, Monotheism, Moral responsibility, Morality, Nagarjuna, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature versus nurture, Nervous system, Neural network, Neuron, Neuroscience, Neuroscience of free will, Newcomb's paradox, Nicomachean Ethics, Niels Bohr, Norman Kretzmann, Norman Swartz, Noumenon, Nyaya, Omnipotence, Omniscience, On the Bondage of the Will, On the Freedom of the Will, Oxford University Press, Panpsychism, Paradigm, Paul the Apostle, Personality disorder, Persuasion, Peter van Inwagen, Phenomenon, Philo, Philosophical theory, Philosophy, Philosophy of mind, Physical information, Physical law, Physical property, Physicalism, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Political freedom, Popper's three worlds, Pragmatism, Praise, Pratītyasamutpāda, Predestination, Predeterminism, Prevenient grace, Priming (psychology), Problem of evil, Problem of future contingents, Problem of mental causation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prohibitionism, Property dualism, Proposition, Proprioception, Prospection, Psychological determinism, Psychology, Psychophysical parallelism, Qualia, Quantum indeterminacy, Quantum mechanics, Responsibility assumption, Robert Kane (philosopher), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Roy Baumeister, Rudolf Carnap, Rudolf Steiner, Sam Harris, Samkhya, Sanskrit, Søren Kierkegaard, Schizophrenia, Scientific American, Self-efficacy, Sense of agency, Shia Islam, Sin, Soul, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University Press, Stevan Harnad, Steven Pinker, Stochastic, Stoicism, Stroke, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Summa Theologica, Supervenience, Susanne Bobzien, Swami Vivekananda, Synapse, Ted Honderich, Telos, The Philosophy of Freedom, Theological determinism, Theological noncognitivism, Theory of everything, Theory of mind, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Reid, Thomism, Thought experiment, Tic, Tic disorder, Torah, Tourette syndrome, Transcendental apperception, Uncertainty principle, Vaisheshika, Vedanta, Volition (psychology), Voltaire, Voluntarism (philosophy), W. Montgomery Watt, Will (philosophy), Willard Van Orman Quine, William James, William of Ockham, Yoga. Expand index (238 more) »

A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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A Treatise of Human Nature

A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Abstract and concrete

Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.

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Action (philosophy)

In philosophy, an action is something which is done by an agent.

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Advice (opinion)

Advice (also called exhortation) is a form of relating personal or institutional opinions, belief systems, values, recommendations or guidance about certain situations relayed in some context to another person, group or party often offered as a guide to action and/or conduct.

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Agency (LDS Church)

Agency (also referred to as free agency or moral agency), in Latter-day Saint theology, is "the privilege of choice which was introduced by God the Eternal Father to all of his spirit children in the premortal state".

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Agency (philosophy)

Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.

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Al-Ashʿarī (الأشعري.; full name: Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Isḥāq al-Ashʿarī; c. 874–936 (AH 260–324), reverentially Imām al-Ashʿarī) was an Arab Sunni Muslim scholastic theologian and eponymous founder of Ashʿarism or Asharite theology, which would go on to become "the most important theological school in Sunni Islam".

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alexander of Aphrodisias

Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς; fl. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle.

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Alexander Rosenberg

Alexander Rosenberg (born 1946) is an American philosopher, and the R. Taylor Cole Professor of Philosophy at Duke University.

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Alien hand syndrome

Alien hand syndrome (AHS) or Dr.

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Alvin Plantinga

Alvin Carl Plantinga (born November 15, 1932) is a prominent American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of logic, justification, philosophy of religion, and epistemology.

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Alvin Plantinga's free will defense

Alvin Plantinga's free will defense is a logical argument developed by American analytic philosopher Alvin Plantinga, the John A. O'Brien Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of Notre Dame, and published in its final version in his 1977 book God, Freedom, and Evil.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Andrzej Nowak (psychologist)

Andrzej Nowak (born June 12, 1953 in Warsaw) – Polish psychologist, one of the founders of dynamical social psychology.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Anomalous monism

Anomalous monism is a philosophical thesis about the mind–body relationship.

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Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.

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Argument from free will

The argument from free will, also called the paradox of free will or theological fatalism, contends that omniscience and free will are incompatible and that any conception of God that incorporates both properties is therefore inherently contradictory.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Āstika and nāstika

Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".

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Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).

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Baron d'Holbach

Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Behavioural sciences

The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.

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Benjamin Libet

Benjamin Libet (April 12, 1916, Chicago, Illinois – July 23, 2007, Davis, California) was a pioneering scientist in the field of human consciousness.

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In neurology, the Bereitschaftspotential or BP (from German, "readiness potential"), also called the pre-motor potential or readiness potential (RP), is a measure of activity in the motor cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain leading up to voluntary muscle movement.

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Big government

Big government is a term used to describe a government or public sector that is excessively large and unconstitutionally involved in certain areas of public policy or the private sector.

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Biological determinism

Biological determinism, also known as genetic determinism or genetic reductionism, is the belief that human behaviour is controlled by an individual's genes or some component of their physiology, generally at the expense of the role of the environment, whether in embryonic development or in learning.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buridan's ass

Buridan's ass is an illustration of a paradox in philosophy in the conception of free will.

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C. S. Lewis

Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Carl Ginet

Carl Ginet (born 1932) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at Cornell University.

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Catholic Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.

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Causa sui

Causa sui (meaning "cause of itself" in Latin) denotes something which is generated within itself.

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Causal closure

Physical causal closure is a metaphysical theory about the nature of causation in the physical realm with significant ramifications in the study of metaphysics and the mind.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Chain of events

A chain of events is a number of actions and their effects that are contiguous and linked together that results in a particular outcome.

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.

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Choice involves decision making.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Chrysippus of Soli (Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Cognitive robotics

Cognitive robotics is concerned with endowing a robot with intelligent behavior by providing it with a processing architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Corpus callosum

The corpus callosum (Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals.

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Counterfactual thinking

Counterfactual thinking is a concept in psychology that involves the human tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that have already occurred; something that is contrary to what actually happened.

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A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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Creator deity

A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.

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Culpability, or being culpable, is a measure of the degree to which an agent, such as a person, can be held morally or legally responsible for action and inaction.

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Cultural determinism

Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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Daniel Wegner

Daniel Merton Wegner (June 28, 1948 – July 5, 2013) was an American social psychologist.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Lewis (philosopher)

David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) was an American philosopher.

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De libero arbitrio (Augustine)

De libero arbitrio (libri tres) (English: On Free Choice of the Will) is a book by Augustine of Hippo about the freedom of will.

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Decision theory

Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Deliberation is a process of thoughtfully weighing options, usually prior to voting.

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Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

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A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.

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Derk Pereboom

Derk Pereboom is the Susan Linn Sage Professor in Philosophy and Ethics at Cornell University, located in Ithaca, New York, USA.

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Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events.

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Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Deterministic system

In mathematics, computer science and physics, a deterministic system is a system in which no randomness is involved in the development of future states of the system.

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Dick Swaab

Dick Frans Swaab (born 17 December 1944) is a Dutch physician and neurobiologist (brain researcher).

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Dictionnaire philosophique

The Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary) is an encyclopedic dictionary published by Voltaire in 1764.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Douglas Hofstadter

Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.

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Elbow Room (book)

Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting is a 1984 book by the American philosopher Daniel Dennett, in which Dennett discusses the philosophical issues of free will and determinism.

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In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Epictetus (Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; 55 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epiphenomenalism is a mind–body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition).

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Epistemological pluralism

Epistemological pluralism is a term used in philosophy, economics, and virtually any field of study to refer to different ways of knowing things, different epistemological methodologies for attaining a fuller description of a particular field.

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Epistle to the Ephesians

The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament.

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Epistle to the Romans

The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.

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Event (philosophy)

In philosophy, events are objects in time or instantiations of properties in objects.

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Ex nihilo

Ex nihilo is a Latin phrase meaning "out of nothing".

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Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.

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Existence of God

The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.

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Experimental psychology

Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.

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False dilemma

A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option.

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Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to destiny.

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Free will in antiquity

Free will in antiquity was not discussed in the same terms as used in the modern free will debates, but historians of the problem have speculated who exactly was first to take positions as determinist, libertarian, and compatibilist in antiquity.

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Free will in theology

Free will in theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general.

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Free will theorem

The free will theorem of John H. Conway and Simon B. Kochen states that if we have a free will in the sense that our choices are not a function of the past, then, subject to certain assumptions, so must some elementary particles.

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Freedom Evolves

Freedom Evolves is a 2003 popular science and philosophy book by Daniel C. Dennett.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Galen Strawson

Galen John Strawson (born 1952) is a British analytic philosopher and literary critic who works primarily on philosophy of mind, metaphysics (including free will, panpsychism, the mind-body problem, and the self), John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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George Berkeley

George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

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George Musser

George Musser (born 1965) is a contributing editor for Scientific American magazine in New York and the author of The Complete Idiot’s Guide to String Theory and of Spooky Action at a Distance.

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In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Hackett Publishing Company

Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. is an academic publishing house based in Indianapolis, Indiana.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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Hans Helmut Kornhuber

Hans Helmut Kornhuber (24 February 1928 in Königsberg - 30 October 2009) was a German Neurologist and Neurophysiologist.

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Hard determinism

Hard determinism (or metaphysical determinism) is a view on free will which holds that determinism is true, and that it is incompatible with free will, and, therefore, that free will does not exist.

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Hard problem of consciousness

The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why we have qualia or phenomenal experiences—how sensations acquire characteristics, such as colors and tastes.

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Hardware random number generator

In computing, a hardware random number generator (true random number generator, TRNG) is a device that generates random numbers from a physical process, rather than a computer program.

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Harry Austryn Wolfson

Harry Austryn Wolfson (November 2, 1887 – September 19, 1974) was a scholar, philosopher, and historian at Harvard University, and the first chairman of a Judaic Studies Center in the United States.

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Harry Frankfurt

Harry Gordon Frankfurt (born May 29, 1929) is an American philosopher.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Incompatibilism is the view that a deterministic universe is completely at odds with the notion that persons have a free will; that there is a dichotomy between determinism and free will where philosophers must choose one or the other.

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Incompatible-properties argument

The incompatible-properties argument is the idea that no description of God is consistent with reality.

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Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.

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Infallibility is the inability to be wrong.

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Institute of Art and Ideas

The Institute of Art and Ideas is an arts organisation founded in 2008 in London.

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Interactionism (philosophy of mind)

Interactionism or interactionist dualism is the theory in the philosophy of mind which holds that matter and mind are two distinct and independent substances that exert causal effects on one another.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Interpretations of quantum mechanics

An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how concepts in quantum mechanics correspond to reality.

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Introspection illusion

The introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable.

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Intuition pump

An intuition pump is a thought experiment structured to allow the thinker to use their intuition to develop an answer to a problem.

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Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jacobus Arminius

Jacobus Arminius, (October 10, 1560 – October 19, 1609), the Latinized name of Jakob Hermanszoon, was a Dutch theologian from the Protestant Reformation period whose views became the basis of Arminianism and the Dutch Remonstrant movement.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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John Calvin

John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Martin Fischer

John Martin Fischer (born December 26, 1952) is an American philosopher.

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Joshua M. Epstein

Joshua M. Epstein is Professor of Epidemiology at the New York University College of Global Public Health.

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Journal of Integrative Neuroscience

The Journal of Integrative Neuroscience is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2002 by Prof Roman R. Poznanski.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Karma in Buddhism

Karma (Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: kamma) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing".

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Karma in Hinduism

Karma is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul's (Atman's) reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth.

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Laplace's demon

In the history of science, Laplace's demon was the first published articulation of causal or scientific determinism by Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1814.

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Last Judgment

The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

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Lüder Deecke

Lüder Deecke (born 22 June 1938) in Lohe-Rickelshof, Germany is a German Austrian neurologist, neuroscientist, teacher and physician whose scientific discoveries have influenced brain research and the treatment and rehabilitation of neurological disorders.

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Libertarianism (metaphysics)

Libertarianism is one of the main philosophical positions related to the problems of free will and determinism, which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics.

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Limb (anatomy)

A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.

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Locus of control

In personality psychology, locus of control is the degree to which people believe that they have control over the outcome of events in their lives, as opposed to external forces beyond their control.

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Logical consequence

Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.

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Logical determinism

Logical determinism is the view that a proposition about the future is either necessarily true, or its negation is necessarily true.

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Long-term depression

Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.

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Luis de Molina

Luis de Molina (September 1535, Cuenca, Spain – 12 October 1600, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish Jesuit priest and scholastic, a staunch defender of free will in the controversy over human liberty and God's grace.

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Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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The Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (Sanskrit) or Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way, is a key text of the Madhyamaka-school, written by Nagarjuna.

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Meliorism is an idea in metaphysical thinking holding that progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world.

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Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.

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The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.

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Mind–body dualism

Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.

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Mind–body problem

The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.

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Miracles (book)

Miracles is a book written by C. S. Lewis, originally published in 1947 and revised in 1960.

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Molinism, named after 16th-century Spanish Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina, is a philosophical doctrine which attempts to reconcile the providence of God with human free will.

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Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Moral responsibility

In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Nature versus nurture

The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neural network

The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of neurons.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience of free will

Neuroscience of free will, a part of neurophilosophy, is the study of the interconnections between free will and neuroscience.

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Newcomb's paradox

In philosophy and mathematics, Newcomb's paradox, also referred to as Newcomb's problem, is a thought experiment involving a game between two players, one of whom purports to be able to predict the future.

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Nicomachean Ethics

The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Norman Kretzmann

Norman J. Kretzmann (4 November 1928 – 1 August 1998) was a Professor of Philosophy at Cornell University who specialised in the history of medieval philosophy and the philosophy of religion.

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Norman Swartz

Norman Swartz (born 1939) is a professor emeritus (retired 1998) of philosophy, Simon Fraser University.

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In metaphysics, the noumenon (from Greek: νούμενον) is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception.

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(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".

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Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.

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Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.

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On the Bondage of the Will

On the Bondage of the Will (De Servo Arbitrio, literally, "On Un-free Will", or "Concerning Bound Choice"), by Martin Luther, was published in December 1525.

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On the Freedom of the Will

On the Freedom of the Will (Ueber die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens) is an essay presented to the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences in 1839 by Arthur Schopenhauer as a response to the academic question that they had posed: "Is it possible to demonstrate human free will from self-consciousness?" It is one of the constituent essays of his work Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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In philosophy, panpsychism is the view that consciousness, mind, or soul (psyche) is a universal and primordial feature of all things.

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In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Personality disorder

Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.

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Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.

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Peter van Inwagen

Peter van Inwagen (born September 21, 1942) is an American analytic philosopher and the John Cardinal O'Hara Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.

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A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.

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Philosophical theory

A philosophical theory or philosophical positionDictionary of Theories, Jennifer Bothamley is a set of beliefs that explains or accounts for a general philosophy or specific branch of philosophy.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.

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Physical information

In physics, physical information refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical system.

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Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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Physical property

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.

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In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.

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Popper's three worlds

Popper's three worlds is a way of looking at reality, described by the British philosopher Karl Popper in a lecture in 1978.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Praise is a form of social interaction expressing recognition, reassurance or admiration.

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Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".

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Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.

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Predeterminism is the idea that all events are determined in advance.

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Prevenient grace

Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Arminian theology, though it appeared earlier in Catholic theology.

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Priming (psychology)

Priming is a technique whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.

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Problem of evil

The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).

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Problem of future contingents

Future contingent propositions (or simply, future contingents) are statements about states of affairs in the future that are contingent: neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.

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Problem of mental causation

The problem of mental causation is a conceptual issue in the philosophy of mind.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Prohibitionism is a legal philosophy and political theory often used in lobbying which holds that citizens will abstain from actions if the actions are typed as unlawful (i.e. prohibited) and the prohibitions are enforced by law enforcement.

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Property dualism

Property dualism describes a category of positions in the philosophy of mind which hold that, although the world is composed of just one kind of substance—the physical kind—there exist two distinct kinds of properties: physical properties and mental properties.

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The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.

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Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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In psychology, prospection is the generation and evaluation of mental representations of possible futures.

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Psychological determinism

Daniel Bader discusses two forms of psychological determinism.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychophysical parallelism

Psychophysical parallelism (or parallelism) is the philosophical theory that mental and bodily events occur together, without any causal interaction between them.

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In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

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Quantum indeterminacy

Quantum indeterminacy is the apparent necessary incompleteness in the description of a physical system, that has become one of the characteristics of the standard description of quantum physics.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Responsibility assumption

Responsibility assumption is the doctrine that an individual has substantial or total responsibility for the events and circumstances that befall them in their personal life, to a considerably greater degree than is normally thought.

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Robert Kane (philosopher)

Robert Hilary Kane (born 1938, Boston) is an American philosopher.

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Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.

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Roy Baumeister

Roy F. Baumeister (born May 16, 1953) is a social psychologist who is known for his work on the self, social rejection, belongingness, sexuality and sex differences, self-control, self-esteem, self-defeating behaviors, motivation, aggression, consciousness, and free will.

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Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.

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Rudolf Steiner

Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist.

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Sam Harris

Sam Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, philosopher, neuroscientist, critic of religion, blogger, and podcast host.

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Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in his or her innate ability to achieve goals.

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Sense of agency

The sense of agency (SA), or sense of control, is the subjective awareness of initiating, executing, and controlling one's own volitional actions in the world.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.

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In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Stevan Harnad

Stevan Robert Harnad (Hernád István Róbert, Hesslein István, born June 2, 1945, Budapest) is a cognitive scientist.

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Steven Pinker

Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.

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The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Summa Theologica

The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).

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In philosophy, supervenience is a relation used to describe cases where (roughly speaking) a system's upper-level properties are determined by its lower-level properties.

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Susanne Bobzien

Susanne Bobzien, FBA is a German-born philosopher,Who'sWho in America 2012, 64th Edition whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy.

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Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Ted Honderich

Ted Honderich (born 30 January 1933) is a Canadian-born British philosopher, Grote Professor Emeritus of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic, University College London.

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A telos (from the Greek τέλος for "end", "purpose", or "goal") is an end or purpose, in a fairly constrained sense used by philosophers such as Aristotle.

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The Philosophy of Freedom

The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925).

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Theological determinism

Theological determinism is a form of predeterminism which states that all events that happen are pre-ordained, or predestined to happen, by a God, or that they are destined to occur given its omniscience.

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Theological noncognitivism

Theological noncognitivism is the position that religious language – specifically, words such as "God" – are not cognitively meaningful.

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Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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Theory of mind

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas Reid

Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".

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Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.

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Tic disorder

Tic disorders is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements).

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.

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Transcendental apperception

In philosophy, Kantian transcendental apperception is that which Immanuel Kant thought makes experience possible.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.

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Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.

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Volition (psychology)

Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a particular course of action.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Voluntarism (philosophy)

Voluntarism is "any metaphysical or psychological system that assigns to the will (Latin: voluntas) a more predominant role than that attributed to the intellect", or, equivalently, "the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct".

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W. Montgomery Watt

William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.

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Will (philosophy)

Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.

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Willard Van Orman Quine

Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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William of Ockham

William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.

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Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

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Existence of free will, Free Nature, Free Will, Free will and determinism, Free will problem, Free won't, FreeWillAndDeterminism, Freedom (philosophy), Freedom of the will, Freedom of will, Freewill, Liberum arbitrium, Metaphysical freedom, Problem of free will.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_will

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