81 relations: Acid rain, Aspazija, Atis Kronvalds, Autocracy, Baltic Germans, Baltic states, Balts, Bolsheviks, Bronze, Brothers' Cemetery, Confectionery, Constitution of Latvia, Copper, Courland, Defensive wall, Diplomatic mission, Equestrian statue, Ernests Štālbergs, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Folk hero, Gilding, Granite, Guard of honour, Hedge, Helsinki-86, Human rights, Joseph Stalin, Kārlis Skalbe, Kārlis Zāle, Killed in action, Krišjānis Barons, Laima (confectioner), Laima Clock, Latgale, Latvia, Latvian Legion, Latvian National Armed Forces, Latvian National Armed Forces Staff Battalion, Latvian Riflemen, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Latvian War of Independence, Lāčplēsis, Lead, Liberty (goddess), Lichen, Lime mortar, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, Ministry of Defence (Latvia), Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moss, ..., Nazism, Nitrogen dioxide, Paganism, Personifications of Russia, Peter the Great, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Prime Minister of Latvia, Rainis, Red Army, Reinforced concrete, Relief, Republics of the Soviet Union, Riga, Riga State Gymnasium No.1, Riot control, Russia, Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940, Soviet Union, Sulfur dioxide, Thuja, Ton, Travertine, Tsar, University of Latvia, Vera Mukhina, Vidzeme, Waffen-SS, West Russian Volunteer Army, Worker and Kolkhoz Woman, Zigfrīds Anna Meierovics, 1905 Russian Revolution. Expand index (31 more) » « Shrink index
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Aspazija was the pen name of Elza Johanna Emilija Lizete Pliekšāne (née Elza Rozenberga; 16 March 1865 – 5 November 1943), a Latvian poet and playwright.
Atis Kronvalds or Kronvaldu Atis (15 April 1837 – 17 February 1875) was a Latvian writer, linguist and pedagogue, as well as a prominent member of the Young Latvia movement.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Brothers' Cemetery or Cemetery of the Brethren (Brāļu Kapi), also sometimes referred to in English as the Common Graves or simply as the Military Cemetery, is a military cemetery and national monument in Riga, capital of Latvia.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
The Constitution of Latvia (Satversme) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Latvia.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse".
Ernests Štālbergs (1883–1958) was a Latvian architect whose works are in the Neoclassical and the functionalistic styles.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero – real, fictional or mythological – with the sole salient characteristic being the imprinting of his or her name, personality and deeds in the popular consciousness of a people.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
A guard of honour (en-GB), guard of honor (en-US), also honour guard (en-GB), honor guard (en-US), also ceremonial guard, is a guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals.
A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.
The CTAG (Cilvēktiesību aizstāvības grupa, Human Rights Defense Group) Helsinki-86 was founded in July, 1986 in the Latvian port town of Liepāja by three workers: Linards Grantiņš, Raimonds Bitenieks, and Mārtiņš Bariss.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kārlis Skalbe (— 1945 April 14) was a Latvian writer, poet, and activist.
Kārlis Zāle (28 October 1888 — 19 February 1942) was a Latvian sculptor.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
Krišjānis Barons (October 31, 1835 in Strutele, Jaunpils parish, Latvia – March 8, 1923 in Riga) is known as the "father of the dainas" ("Dainu tēvs") thanks largely to his systematization of the Latvian folk songs and his labour in preparing their texts for publication in Latvju dainas.
Laima is the largest producer of confectionery in Latvia.
The Laima Clock (Laimas pulkstenis) is a landmark in central Riga, Latvia.
Latgale (Latgola; Латгалия; Lettgallia) is one of the four historical and cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Latvian Legion (Latviešu leģions) was a formation of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.
The Latvian National Armed Forces (Nacionālie Bruņotie Spēki) are the armed forces of the Republic of Latvia.
NAF Staff Battalion (NBS Štāba Bataljons) was formed in 1992 in need to reestablish the national and military traditions and rituals of the Republic of Latvia.
Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki, Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
The Latvian War of Independence (Latvijas brīvības cīņas, literally, "Latvia's freedom struggles"), sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation (Latvijas atbrīvošanas karš, "War of Latvian Liberation"), was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the newly proclaimed Republic of Latvia was invaded by Soviet Russia, and the signing of the Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty on 11 August 1920.
Lāčplēsis is an epic poem by Andrejs Pumpurs, a Latvian poet, who wrote it between 1872–1887 based on local legends.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Liberty is a loose term in English for the goddess or personification of the concept of liberty, and is represented by the Roman Goddess Libertas, by Marianne, the national symbol of France, and by many others.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule.
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republikas Aizsardzības ministrija) is the Latvian government ministry in charge of the formation and implementation of national security and defence policy, and for the overall management and control of related subordinate agencies.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Since medieval times personifications of Russia are traditionally feminine, and most commonly are maternal.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
The Prime Minister of Latvia (Ministru prezidents) is the most powerful member of the Government of Latvia, and presides over the Latvian Cabinet of Ministers.
Rainis was the pseudonym of Jānis Pliekšāns (September 11, 1865 – September 12, 1929), a Latvian poet, playwright, translator, and politician.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Riga State Gymnasium No.1 (Rīgas Valsts 1.), the oldest school in the Baltic states, offers secondary education (grades 7 to 12) in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 refers, according to the European Court of Human Rights,European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States the Government of Latvia, at Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia the United States Department of State, at state.gov and the European Union, by EU to the military occupation of the Republic of Latvia by the Soviet Union ostensibly under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Thuja is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family).
The ton is a unit of measure.
Travertine is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The University of Latvia (LU) (Latvijas Universitāte) is a state-run university located in Riga, Latvia.
Vera Ignatyevna Mukhina (Ве́ра Игна́тьевна Му́хина; Vera Muhina; – 6 October 1953) was a prominent Soviet sculptor.
Vidzeme (Vidžemė, Vidūmō) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
The West Russian Volunteer Army or Bermontians was an army in the Baltic provinces of the former Russian Empire during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.
Worker and Kolkhoz Woman (Рабо́чий и колхо́зница Rabochiy i Kolkhoznitsa) is a sculpture of two figures with a sickle and a hammer raised over their heads.
Zigfrīds Anna Meierovics (Durbe – 22 August 1925, near Tukums) was a Latvian politician and diplomat who served as the first Foreign Minister of Latvia from its independence until 1924 and again from December of the same year until his death.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.