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Index Freethought

Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma. [1]

239 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Agnosticism, Alchemy, American Atheists, American Humanist Association, American Secular Union, American Unitarian Association, Amsterdam Declaration, André Lorulot, Anthony Collins, Anti-authoritarianism, Anti-clericalism, Antitheism, Apologetics, Argument from authority, Astrology, Atheism, Atheist Bus Campaign, Austin County, Texas, Authority, Barcelona, Belleville, Illinois, Bertrand Russell, Bible, Biblical criticism, Boerne, Texas, Brights movement, Buffalo, New York, Burlington, Wisconsin, Camp Quest, Castell, Texas, Catholic Church, Charles Watts (secularist), Charles-Auguste Bontemps, Church of England, Cognition, Cognitive bias, Colorado County, Texas, Comfort, Texas, Confirmation, Confirmation bias, Conflict thesis, Conformist, Conventional wisdom, Creed, Critical rationalism, Critical thinking, Cuba, D. M. Bennett, Davenport, Iowa, ..., David Tribe, De Vrije Gedachte, Decapitation, Deism, Denis Diderot, DeWitt County, Texas, Dialectical materialism, Dictionnaire philosophique, Dodge County, Wisconsin, Dogma, Dominican Order, Edward Royle, Empiricism, Encyclopédie, English Canada, Equal Rights Party (United States), Ethical movement, Ethics, Evidentialism, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, Forty-Eighters, François Rabelais, François-Jean de la Barre, France, Frances Wright, Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia, Frankfurt, Fred Edwords, Freedom From Religion Foundation, Freedom of thought, Freethought Day, Frelsburg, Texas, French language, Gargantua and Pantagruel, Gasconade County, Missouri, German Freethinkers League, German revolutions of 1848–49, Germans, Giordano Bruno, Golden Age of Freethought, Heresy, Hermann, Missouri, Humanism, Humanist Canada, Illinois, Immigration, Indiana, Indianapolis, Individualism, Infidel, Iniciales, Inquisition, Internet Infidels, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Irreligion, J. B. Bury, Jean Calas, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Jefferson County, Wisconsin, Jefferson, Jefferson County, Wisconsin, Jo Gjende, Johannes Ronge, John Locke, Joseph Stalin, Jotunheimen, Jugendweihe, Karl Marx, Kendall County, Texas, Laity, Latium, Texas, Leadership, League of Militant Atheists, Libertine, Liberty (1881–1908), Liu Song dynasty, Llano County, Texas, Logic, London, Ludwig Büchner, Luigi Molinari, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, Max Sievers, Messiah, Metaphor, Meyersville, Texas, Milwaukee, Missouri, Modern School (United States), Montmartre, Moses Harman, Multatuli, National Liberal League, Naturalism (philosophy), Naturalistic pantheism, New Harmony, Indiana, New York City, Nontheism, Norway, Objectivity (philosophy), Occam's razor, Omar Khayyam, Ontario, Orthodoxy, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Owenism, Pansy, Pantheism, Paris, Persecution of Christians, Philosophical theism, Philosophy, Pierre-Paul Sirven, Point of view (philosophy), Pope, Popular culture, Popular education, Positivism, Prejudice, Progressive education, Pyre, Quebec, Racine County, Wisconsin, Rationalism, Reason, Reformation, Religion, Religious intolerance, Religious liberalism, Religious skepticism, Renaissance, Revelation, Rights of Man, Robert Blum, Robert Dale Owen, Robert G. Ingersoll, Robert Owen, Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Sacré-Cœur, Paris, Samuel Porter Putnam, Sauk City, Wisconsin, Sauk County, Wisconsin, Scientific method, Scientism, Scott County, Iowa, Sectarianism, Secular humanism, Secular Review, Secular Thought, Secularism, Shelby, Texas, Sisterdale, Texas, Skepticism, South America, Spiritual but not religious, St. Clair County, Illinois, St. Louis, Sufism, Supernatural, Susan Jacoby, Texas, The Freethinker (journal), Thomas Phillips Thompson, Torture, Tradition, Truth, Truth Seeker, Two Rivers (town), Wisconsin, Unitarian Universalism, Unitarian Universalist Association, Université libre de Bruxelles, Utopia, Völkisch movement, Vladimir Lenin, Voltaire, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Washington County, Texas, Watertown, Wisconsin, William Kingdon Clifford, William Molyneux, Winnebago County, Wisconsin, Wisconsin, Working Men's Party (New York), World War I, 18th arrondissement of Paris. Expand index (189 more) »

Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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American Atheists

American Atheists is a non-profit activist organization in the United States dedicated to defending the civil liberties of atheists and advocating complete separation of church and state.

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American Humanist Association

The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.

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American Secular Union

The American Secular Union (ASU, also sometimes called the "American Secular Union and Freethought Federation") espoused secularism and freethought at the end of the 19th century in the United States of America.

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American Unitarian Association

The American Unitarian Association (AUA) was a religious denomination in the United States and Canada, formed by associated Unitarian congregations in 1825.

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Amsterdam Declaration

The Amsterdam Declaration 2002 is a statement of the fundamental principles of modern Humanism passed unanimously by the General Assembly of the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) at the 50th anniversary World Humanist Congress in 2002.

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André Lorulot

André Lorulot (born Georges André Roulot; 23 October 1885 – 1963) was a French individualist anarchist and freethinker, born in Paris, in the district of Gros-Caillou.

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Anthony Collins

Anthony Collins (21 June 1676 O.S.13 December 1729 O.S.) was an English philosopher, and a proponent of deism.

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Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.

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Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.

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Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is the opposition to theism.

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Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.

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Argument from authority

An argument from authority, also called an appeal to authority, or argumentum ad verecundiam is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority's support is used as evidence for an argument's conclusion.

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Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Atheist Bus Campaign

The Atheist Bus Campaign aimed to place "peaceful and upbeat" messages about atheism on transport media in Britain, in response to evangelical Christian advertising.

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Austin County, Texas

Austin County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Belleville, Illinois

Belleville (French: Belle ville, meaning "Beautiful city") is a city in St. Clair County, Illinois, coterminous with the now defunct Belleville Township.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Biblical criticism

Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).

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Boerne, Texas

Boerne is a city in and the county seat of Kendall County, Texas, United States, within the Texas Hill Country.

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Brights movement

The Brights Movement is an international intellectual movement.

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Buffalo, New York

Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.

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Burlington, Wisconsin

Burlington is a city in Racine and Walworth counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, with the majority of the city located in Racine County.

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Camp Quest

Camp Quest is an organisation providing humanist residential summer camps for children in the United States, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway.

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Castell, Texas

Castell is a small unincorporated riverside town in Llano County, Texas, United States.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Charles Watts (secularist)

Charles Watts (27 February 1836–16 February 1906) was an English writer, lecturer and publisher, who was prominent in the secularist and freethought movements in both Britain and Canada.

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Charles-Auguste Bontemps

Charles-Auguste Bontemps (1893–1981) was a French individualist anarchist, pacifist, freethinker and naturist activist and writer.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive bias

A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.

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Colorado County, Texas

Colorado County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Comfort, Texas

Comfort is a census-designated place (CDP) in Kendall County, Texas, United States.

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In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Conflict thesis

The "conflict thesis" is a historiographical approach in the history of science which maintains that there is an intrinsic intellectual conflict between religion and science and that the relationship between religion and science inevitably leads to hostility; examples to support this thesis have commonly been drawn from the relations between science and religion in Western Europe.

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In English history, Conformists were those whose religious practices conformed with the requirements of the Act of Uniformity and so were in concert with the Established Church, the Church of England, as opposed to those of Nonconformists whose practices were not acceptable to the Church of England.

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Conventional wisdom

Conventional wisdom is the body of ideas or explanations generally accepted as true by the public and/or by experts in a field.

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A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.

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Critical rationalism

Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper.

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Critical thinking

Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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D. M. Bennett

DeRobigne Mortimer Bennett (December 23, 1818 – December 6, 1882), best known as D. M. Bennett was the founder and publisher of Truth Seeker, a radical freethought and reform American periodical.

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Davenport, Iowa

Davenport is the county seat of Scott County in Iowa and is located along the Mississippi River on the eastern border of the state.

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David Tribe

David Harold Tribe (1931 – 2017) was a leading secularist and humanist, and wrote many books, articles and pamphlets.

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De Vrije Gedachte

Vrijdenkersvereniging De Vrije Gedachte (DVG) (English: Freethinkers association The Free Thought), is a Dutch atheist–humanist association of freethinkers.

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Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.

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Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

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DeWitt County, Texas

DeWitt County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Dialectical materialism

Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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Dictionnaire philosophique

The Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary) is an encyclopedic dictionary published by Voltaire in 1764.

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Dodge County, Wisconsin

Dodge County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Edward Royle

Edward Royle (born March 29, 1944) is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of York and author of several books on the history of religious ideas, particularly in York and Yorkshire.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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English Canada

English Canada is a term referring to one of the following.

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Equal Rights Party (United States)

The Equal Rights Party was the name for several different nineteenth-century political parties in the United States.

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Ethical movement

The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement, Ethical Humanism or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical, educational, and religious movement that is usually traced back to Felix Adler (1851–1933).

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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For philosophers Richard Feldman and Earl Conee, evidentialism is the strongest argument for justification because it identifies the primary notion of epistemic justification.

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Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis

Ferdinand Jacobus Domela Nieuwenhuis (31 December 1846 – 18 November 1919) was the Netherlands' first prominent socialist.

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Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin

Fond du Lac County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

Fond du Lac is a city in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, United States.

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The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe.

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François Rabelais

François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.

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François-Jean de la Barre

François-Jean Lefebvre de la Barre (12 September 17451 July 1766) was a young French nobleman.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frances Wright

Frances Wright (September 6, 1795 – December 13, 1852) also widely known as Fanny Wright, was a Scottish-born lecturer, writer, freethinker, feminist, abolitionist, and social reformer, who became a US citizen in 1825.

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Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia

Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia (Francisco Ferrer Guardia; 10 January 1859 – 13 October 1909) commonly known as Francisco Ferrer, was a Spanish educator and advocate of free thinking from Catalonia.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Fred Edwords

Fred Edwords, born July 19, 1948, in San Diego, California, is a longtime agnostic or ignostic humanist leader in Washington DC.

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Freedom From Religion Foundation

The Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF) is an American non-profit organization based in Madison, Wisconsin with members from all 50 states.

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Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.

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Freethought Day

Freethought Day is October 12, the annual observance by freethinkers and secularists of the anniversary of the effective end of the Salem Witch Trials.

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Frelsburg, Texas

Frelsburg is an unincorporated community in Colorado County, Texas, United States.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Gargantua and Pantagruel

The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel (La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel) is a pentalogy of novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais, which tells of the adventures of two giants, Gargantua and his son Pantagruel. The text is written in an amusing, extravagant, and satirical vein, and features much crudity, scatological humor, and violence (lists of explicit or vulgar insults fill several chapters).

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Gasconade County, Missouri

Gasconade County is a county located in the east-central portion of the U.S. state of Missouri.

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German Freethinkers League

The German Freethinkers League ('Deutscher Freidenkerbund') was an organisation founded in 1881 by the materialist philosopher and physician Ludwig Büchner to oppose the power of the state churches in Germany.

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German revolutions of 1848–49

The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.

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Golden Age of Freethought

The Golden Age of Freethought describes the socio-political movement promoting freethought that developed in the mid 19th-century United States.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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Hermann, Missouri

Hermann is a city designated in 1842 as the county seat of Gasconade County, Missouri, United States.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humanist Canada

Humanist Canada (also known as the Humanist Association of Canada, or HAC) is a national not-for-profit charitable organization promoting the separation of religion from public policy and fostering the development of reason, compassion and critical thinking for all Canadians through secular education and community support.

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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.

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Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.

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Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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Infidel (literally "unfaithful") is a term used in certain religions for those accused of unbelief in the central tenets of their own religion, for members of another religion, or for the irreligious.

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Iniciales was a Spanish individualist anarchist and naturist eclectic magazine which ran between 1929 and 1937.

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The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.

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Internet Infidels

Internet Infidels, Inc.

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Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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J. B. Bury

John Bagnell Bury, (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist.

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Jean Calas

Jean Calas (1698 – March 10, 1762) was a merchant living in Toulouse, France, who was tried, tortured and executed for the murder of his son, despite his protestations of innocence.

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Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

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Jefferson County, Wisconsin

Jefferson County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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Jefferson, Jefferson County, Wisconsin

Jefferson is a town in Jefferson County, Wisconsin, United States.

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Jo Gjende

Jo Gjende (1794 – 27 February 1884) was a Norwegian outdoorsman and freethinker.

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Johannes Ronge

Johannes Ronge (16 October 1813 – 26 October 1887) was the principal founder of the New Catholics.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Jotunheimen (the home of the Jotnar) is a mountainous area of roughly 3,500 km² in southern Norway and is part of the long range known as the Scandinavian Mountains.

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Jugendweihe (Youth consecration) or Jugendfeier (Youth ceremony) is a secular coming of age ceremony practised by German 14-year-olds.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kendall County, Texas

Kendall County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas.

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A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.

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Latium, Texas

Latium (pronounced "Latcham" or "Lotzyum"), is an unincorporated community in Washington County, Texas, United States.

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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

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League of Militant Atheists

The League of Militant AtheistsBurleigh, Michael.

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A libertine is one devoid of most moral or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society.

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Liberty (1881–1908)

Liberty was a nineteenth-century anarchist periodical published in the United States by Benjamin Tucker, from August 1881 to April 1908.

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Liu Song dynasty

The Song dynasty, better known as the Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE;; Wade-Giles: Liu Sung), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi.

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Llano County, Texas

Llano County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Ludwig Büchner

Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner (29 March 1824 – 1 May 1899) was a German philosopher, physiologist and physician who became one of the exponents of 19th-century scientific materialism.

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Luigi Molinari

Luigi Molinari (1866–1918) was an Italian anarchist, journalist, and lawyer best known as the publisher of the libertarian periodical L’Università popolare and his support for Ferrer Modern Schools in Italy.

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Manitowoc County, Wisconsin

Manitowoc County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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Manitowoc, Wisconsin

Manitowoc is a city in and the county seat of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, United States.

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Max Sievers

Max Sievers (11 June 1887 in Berlin – 17 January 1944 in Brandenburg an der Havel) was chairman of the German Freethinkers League, writer and active communist.

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In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.

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A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Meyersville, Texas

Meyersville is an unincorporated community in DeWitt County, Texas, United States.

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Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.

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Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Modern School (United States)

The Modern Schools, also called Ferrer Schools, were schools in the United States, established in the early twentieth century, that were modeled after the Escuela Moderna of Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia, the Spanish educator and anarchist.

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Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement.

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Moses Harman

Moses Harman (October 12, 1830January 30, 1910) was an American schoolteacher and publisher notable for his staunch support for women's rights.

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Eduard Douwes Dekker (2 March 1820 – 19 February 1887), better known by his pen name Multatuli (from Latin multa tulī, "I have suffered much"), was a Dutch writer famous for his satirical novel Max Havelaar (1860), which denounced the abuses of colonialism in the Dutch East Indies (today's Indonesia).

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National Liberal League

The National Liberal League (1876 – c.1885) of the United States advocated separation of church and state and the freedom of religion.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Naturalistic pantheism

Naturalistic pantheism is a kind of pantheism.

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New Harmony, Indiana

New Harmony is a historic town on the Wabash River in Harmony Township, Posey County, Indiana.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God or gods.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam (عمر خیّام; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.

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Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.

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Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Oshkosh, Wisconsin

Oshkosh is a city in Winnebago County, Wisconsin, United States, located where the Fox River enters Lake Winnebago from the west.

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Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th-century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as Owenites.

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The garden pansy is a type of large-flowered hybrid plant cultivated as a garden flower.

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Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Persecution of Christians

The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.

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Philosophical theism

Philosophical theism is the belief that a deity exists (or must exist) independent of the teaching or revelation of any particular religion.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Pierre-Paul Sirven

Pierre-Paul Sirven (1709–1777) is one of Voltaire's causes célèbres in his campaign to écraser l'infame (crush infamy).

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Point of view (philosophy)

In philosophy, a point of view is a specified or stated manner of consideration, an attitude how one sees or thinks of something, as in "from my personal point of view".

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Popular education

Popular education is a concept grounded in notions of class, political struggle, and social transformation.

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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.

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Progressive education

Progressive education is a pedagogical movement that began in the late nineteenth century; it has persisted in various forms to the present.

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A pyre (πυρά; pyrá, from πῦρ, pyr, "fire"), also known as a funeral pyre, is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Racine County, Wisconsin

Racine County is a county located in southeastern Wisconsin.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religious intolerance

Religious intolerance is intolerance against another's religious beliefs or practices or lack thereof.

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Religious liberalism

Religious liberalism is a conception of religion (or of a particular religion) which emphasizes personal and group liberty and rationality.

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Religious skepticism

Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Rights of Man

Rights of Man (1791), a book by Thomas Paine, including 31 articles, posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people.

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Robert Blum

Robert Blum (10 November 1807 – 9 November 1848) was a German democratic politician, publicist, poet, publisher, revolutionist and member of the National Assembly of 1848.

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Robert Dale Owen

Robert Dale Owen (November 7, 1801 – June 24, 1877) was a Scottish-born social reformer who immigrated to the United States in 1825, became a U.S. citizen, and was active in Indiana politics as member of the Democratic Party in the Indiana House of Representatives (1835–39 and 1851–53) and represented Indiana in the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–47).

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Robert G. Ingersoll

Robert Green "Bob" Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 – July 21, 1899) was an American lawyer, father of the feminist Eva Ingersoll Brown, a Civil War veteran, politician, and orator of the United States during the Golden Age of Free Thought, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism.

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Robert Owen

Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.

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Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his 1859 translation of a selection of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt) attributed to Omar Khayyam (1048–1131), dubbed "the Astronomer-Poet of Persia".

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Sacré-Cœur, Paris

The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris, commonly known as Sacré-Cœur Basilica and often simply Sacré-Cœur (Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, pronounced), is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in Paris, France.

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Samuel Porter Putnam

Samuel Porter Putnam (July 23, 1838 - December 11, 1896) was an American freethinker, critic and publicist.

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Sauk City, Wisconsin

Sauk City is a village in Sauk County, Wisconsin, United States.

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Sauk County, Wisconsin

Sauk County is a county in Wisconsin.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Scientism is the ideology of science.

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Scott County, Iowa

Scott County is a county located in the U.S. state of Iowa.

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Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.

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Secular humanism

Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.

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Secular Review

Secular Review (1876-1907) was a freethought/secularist weekly publication in nineteenth and early twentieth-century Britain that appeared under a variety of names.

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Secular Thought

Secular Thought (1887-1911) was a Canadian periodical, published in Toronto, dedicated to promoting the principles of freethought and secularism.

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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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Shelby, Texas

Shelby is an unincorporated community in Austin County, Texas, United States.

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Sisterdale, Texas

Sisterdale, Texas, is an unincorporated farming and ranching community, established in 1847 and located north of Boerne in Kendall County, in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spiritual but not religious

"Spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) also known as "Spiritual but not affiliated" (SBNA) is a popular phrase and initialism used to self-identify a life stance of spirituality that takes issue with organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth.

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St. Clair County, Illinois


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St. Louis


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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Susan Jacoby

Susan Jacoby (born June 4, 1945) is an American author.

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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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The Freethinker (journal)

The Freethinker was a British secular humanist magazine, founded by G.W. Foote in 1881.

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Thomas Phillips Thompson

Thomas Phillips Thompson (25 November 1843 – 20 May 1933) was an English-born journalist and humorist who was active in the early socialist movement in Canada.

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Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.

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A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.

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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Truth Seeker

Truth Seeker is an American periodical published beginning during the 19th century.

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Two Rivers (town), Wisconsin

Two Rivers is a town in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, United States.

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Unitarian Universalism

Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".

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Unitarian Universalist Association

Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations.

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Université libre de Bruxelles

The Université libre de Bruxelles (in English: Free University of Brussels), abbreviated ULB, is a French-speaking private research university in Brussels, Belgium.

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A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.

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Völkisch movement

The völkisch movement (völkische Bewegung, "folkish movement") was the German interpretation of a populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the "organic", i.e.: a "naturally grown community in unity", characterised by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper) for the entire population during a period from the late 19th century up until the Nazi era.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Vrije Universiteit Brussel

The Vrije Universiteit Brussel is a Dutch-speaking university located in Brussels, Belgium.

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Washington County, Texas

Washington County is a county in Texas.

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Watertown, Wisconsin

Watertown is a city in Dodge and Jefferson counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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William Kingdon Clifford

William Kingdon Clifford FRS (4 May 1845 – 3 March 1879) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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William Molyneux

William Molyneux FRS (17 April 1656 – 11 October 1698) was an Irish writer on science, politics and natural philosophy.

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Winnebago County, Wisconsin

Winnebago County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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Working Men's Party (New York)

The Working Men's Party in New York was a political party founded in April 1829 in New York City.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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18th arrondissement of Paris

The 18th arrondissement of Paris (XVIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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Free thinkers, Free thinking, Free thought, Free-Thinkers, Free-thinker, Free-thinkers, Free-thinking, Free-thought, Freethink, Freethinker, Freethinkers, Freethinkers And Freethought, Freethinking.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freethought

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