173 relations: Alexandre de Rhodes, An Giang Province, Angkor Thom, Angkor Wat, Annam (French protectorate), Asia, Associated state, Định Tường Province, Banque de l'Indochine, Banteay Meanchey Province, Battambang, Battambang Province, Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Battle of France, Battle of Ko Chang, Battle of Route Coloniale 4, Bảo Đại, Beaux-Arts architecture, Biên Hòa Province, Black pepper, Buddhism, Cambodia, Cantonese, Caodaism, Catholic Church, Cần Vương movement, Champa, Champasak (town), Chams, Chanthaburi Province, Charles de Montigny, Charles Rigault de Genouilly, Chiang Kai-shek, China, Chinese language, Chulalongkorn, Coal, Coffee, Communism, Confucianism, Cordell Hull, Courtesan, Da Lat, Da Nang, Degar, East Indies, Federation, First Indochina War, Fontainebleau Agreements, Franc, ..., Franco-Siamese War, Franco-Thai War, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free France, French Algeria, French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh, French Cochinchina, French colonial empire, French Indochinese piastre, French language, French Protectorate of Cambodia, French Protectorate of Laos, French Third Republic, French Union, Gia Định Province, Gia Long, Google Books, Governor-general, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Guangzhouwan, Hanoi, Hanoi Opera House, Hà Tiên, History of Vietnam during World War I, Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh City, Hoa people, Indochina, Indochinese Communist Party, Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, Japanese invasion of French Indochina, Jarai people, Joseph Stilwell, Khmer language, Khmer people, Kingdom of Cambodia (1953–70), Kuomintang, La Marseillaise, Lao language, Lao people, Laos, List of French possessions and colonies, List of Governors-General of French Indochina, List of monarchs of Laos, List of monarchs of Vietnam, Long Biên Bridge, Lu Han (general), Luang Prabang, Lumber, Mahayana, Mao Zedong, Marseille, Mekong, Mekong Delta, Metropolitan France, Michelin, Monarchy of Cambodia, Muong people, Napoleon III, National Museum of Vietnamese History, Nationalism, Natural rubber, Nguyễn dynasty, Norodom of Cambodia, Norodom Sihanouk, North Vietnam, North–South railway (Vietnam), Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon, Notre-Dame de Paris, Pacific War, Paknam incident, Pakse, Palais Garnier, Paris Foreign Missions Society, Phan Đình Phùng, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, Political administration of French Indochina, Popular Front (France), Random House, Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932), Red River Delta, Rice, Rice wine, Second Sino-Japanese War, Shan State, Siam Nakhon Province, Siem Pang District, Siem Reap, Singapore in the Straits Settlements, Sino-French War, Society of Jesus, Southeast Asia, St. Joseph's Cathedral, Hanoi, State of Vietnam, Suzerainty, Taoism, Tay people, Tự Đức, Tây Bồi Pidgin French, Tây Sơn dynasty, Tea, Thailand, Theravada, Tin, Tonkin (French protectorate), Trat, Treaty ports, United States, Vĩnh Long Province, Việt Minh, Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng, Vichy France, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Vietnamese Famine of 1945, Vietnamese folk religion, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese people, World War II, Yên Bái, Yên Bái mutiny, Zinc, 1954 Geneva Conference. Expand index (123 more) » « Shrink index
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. (15 March 1591 – 5 November 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam.
An Giang is a province of Vietnam.
Angkor Thom (អង្គរធំ; literally: "Great City"), (alternate name: Nokor Thom, នគរធំ) located in present-day Cambodia, was the last and most enduring capital city of the Khmer empire.
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.
Định Tường was a province of Vietnam during the Nguyen dynasty and the Republic of Vietnam.
The Banque de l'Indochine was a bank established in Paris on 21 January 1875 to operate in French Indochina, the rest of Asia, and the Pacific.
Banteay Meanchey (ខេត្តបន្ទាយមានជ័យ,, "Fortress of Victory") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located in the far northwest.
Battambang (ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង; Batdâmbâng) or Krong Battambang (ក្រុងបាត់ដំបង, Battambang City) is the capital city of Battambang province in north western Cambodia.
Battambang (បាត់ដំបង,, "Loss of Stick") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located in the far northwest.
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Ko Chang took place on 17 January 1941 during the Franco-Thai War and resulted in a victory by the French Navy over the Royal Thai Navy.
The Battle of Route Coloniale 4 (called Chiến dịch Biên giới in Vietnam) was a battle of the First Indochina War.
Bảo Đại (lit. "keeper of greatness", 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997), born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy, was the 13th and final emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty, the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century.
Biên Hòa) is a former province of South Vietnam originally formed in 1832 containing areas of Đồng Nai Province, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province and Bình Phước Province with total area of over 17.000 km². In 1876 it was split to Bien Hoa, Thủ Dầu Một and Bà Rịa. On October 22, 1956 it was split to Bien Hoa, Long Khánh, Phước Long, Bình Long. On May 2, 1957 it contained four districts, Châu Thành Biên Hòa, Long Thành, Dĩ An and Tân Uyên. On January 23, 1959 Tân Uyên was separated and the rest became Phước Thành Province. Category:Former provinces of Vietnam Category:States and territories established in 1832 Category:Southeast (Vietnam).
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cần Vương (Hán tự:, lit. Aid the King) movement was a large-scale Vietnamese insurgency between 1885 and 1889 against French colonial rule.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
Champasak (ຈຳປາສັກ) is a small town in southern Laos, on the west bank of the Mekong River about 40 km south of Pakse, the capital of Champasak Province.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
Chanthaburi (จันทบุรี,; Chong: จันกะบูย, chankabui,องค์ บรรจุน. สยามหลากเผ่าหลายพันธุ์. กรุงเทพฯ: มติชน, 2553, หน้า 128 lit: "Lady Chan, Who wear a pan on her head") is a province (changwat) of Thailand.
Louis Charles de Montigny (1805–1868) was a French diplomat who was active in Asia during the 19th century.
Admiral Pierre-Louis-Charles Rigault de Genouilly (12 April 1807 – 4 May 1873) was a French naval officer.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama V (20 September 1853 – 23 October 1910), was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee.
A courtesan was originally a courtier, which means a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person.
Đà Lạt, or Dalat (pop. 406,105, of which 350,509 are urban inhabitants), is the capital of Lâm Đồng Province in Vietnam.
Da Nang (Đà Nẵng) is the fourth largest city in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Hanoi and Haiphong in terms of urbanization and economy.
The Degar, also known as Montagnard, are the indigenous peoples of the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
The Fontainebleau Agreements was a proposed arrangement between the France and the Vietminh, made in 1946 before the outbreak of the First Indochina War.
The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.
The Franco-Siamese War of 1893 was a conflict between the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Siam.
The Franco-Thai War (กรณีพิพาทอินโดจีน Guerre franco-thaïlandaise) (1940–1941) was fought between Thailand (Siam) and France over certain areas of French Indochina.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
French assistance to Nguyễn Phúc Ánh, the future Emperor of Vietnam and the founder of the Nguyễn Dynasty whose name was later changed to Gia Long), covered a period from 1777 to 1820. From 1777, Mgr Pigneau de Behaine, of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, had taken to protecting the young Vietnamese prince who was fleeing from the offensive of the Tây Sơn. Pigneau de Behaine went to France to obtain military aid, and secured a France-Vietnam alliance that was signed through the 1787 Treaty of Versailles between the king of France, Louis XVI, and Prince Nguyễn Phúc Ánh. As the French regime was under considerable strain at the eve of the French Revolution, France was unable to follow through with the application of the treaty. However, Mgr Pigneau de Behaine persisted in his efforts and, with the support of French individuals and traders, mounted a force of French soldiers and officers that would contribute to the modernization of the armies of Nguyễn Ánh, making possible his victory and his reconquest of all of Vietnam by 1802. A few French officers would remain in Vietnam after the victory, becoming prominent mandarins. The last of them left in 1824 following the enthronement of Minh Mạng, Gia Long's successor. The terms of the 1787 Treaty of Alliance would still remain one of the justifications of French forces when they demanded the remittance of Đà Nẵng in 1847.
French Cochinchina, sometimes spelled Cochin-China (Cochinchine Française, Nam Kỳ, Hán tự: 南圻), was a colony of French Indochina, encompassing the Cochinchina region of southern Vietnam.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The piastre de commerce was the currency of French Indochina between 1885 and 1952.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Protectorate of Cambodia (ប្រទេសកម្ពុជាក្រោមអាណាព្យាបាលបារាំង; Protectorat français du Cambodge) refers to the Kingdom of Cambodia when it was a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Colonial Empire.
The French protectorate of Laos was a French protectorate forming part of the French Colonial Empire in Southeast Asia.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The French Union was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system, colloquially known as the "French Empire" (Empire Français).
Gia Định Province (嘉定省) is former province of South Vietnam surrounding Saigon.
Gia Long (8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh), was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn Dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties. A nephew of the last Nguyễn lord who ruled over southern Vietnam, Nguyễn Ánh was forced into hiding in 1777 as a fifteen-year-old when his family was slain in the Tây Sơn revolt. After several changes of fortune in which his loyalists regained and again lost Saigon, he befriended the French Catholic priest Pigneau de Behaine. Pigneau championed his cause to the French government—and managed to recruit volunteers when this fell through—to help Nguyễn Ánh regain the throne. From 1789, Nguyễn Ánh was once again in the ascendancy and began his northward march to defeat the Tây Sơn, reaching the border with China by 1802, which had previously been under the control of the Trịnh lords. Following their defeat, he succeeded in reuniting Vietnam after centuries of internecine feudal warfare, with a greater land mass than ever before, stretching from China down to the Gulf of Siam. Gia Long's rule was noted for its Confucian orthodoxy. He overcame the Tây Sơn rebellion and reinstated the classical Confucian education and civil service system. He moved the capital from Hanoi south to Huế as the country's populace had also shifted south over the preceding centuries, and built up fortresses and a palace in his new capital. Using French expertise, he modernized Vietnam's defensive capabilities. In deference to the assistance of his French friends, he tolerated the activities of Roman Catholic missionaries, something that became increasingly restricted under his successors. Under his rule, Vietnam strengthened its military dominance in Indochina, expelling Siamese forces from Cambodia and turning it into a vassal state.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The was an imperial concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during 1930–1945 by the Empire of Japan.
Guangzhouwan (officially Kouang-Tchéou-Wan; also spelled Kwangchow Wan, Kwangchow-wan, Kwang-Chou-Wan or Quang-Tchéou-Wan) was a small enclave on the southern coast of China ceded by Qing China to France as a leased territory and administered as an outlier of French Indochina.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
The Hanoi Opera House, or the Grand Opera House (Nhà hát lớn Hà Nội, Opéra de Hanoï) is an opera house in central Hanoi, Vietnam.
Hà Tiên is a district-level town pf Kiên Giang Province, Mekong Delta in Vietnam.
At the outbreak of the World War I (also known as The Great War), Vietnam was part of French Indochina.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
The Hoa (Hua 華 in Mandarin Chinese, literally "Chinese") are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic Chinese ("Overseas Chinese").
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The Indochinese Communist Party (ICP; Vietnamese: Đảng Cộng sản Đông Dương, French: Parti Communiste Indochinois, Cantonese: 印度支那共產黨, Lao: ອິນດູຈີນພັກກອມມູນິດ, Khmer: គណបក្សកុម្មុយនីស្តឥណ្ឌូចិន) was a political party which was transformed from the old Vietnamese Communist Party (Việt Nam Cộng sản Đảng) in October 1930.
The Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, known as Meigo Sakusen (Operation Bright Moon), was a Japanese operation that took place on 9 March 1945 towards the end of World War II.
The was a short undeclared military confrontation between the Empire of Japan and Vichy France in northern Indochina.
Jarai people or Jarais (in Vietnamese Người Gia Rai, Gia Rai, or Gia-rai; in Khmer ចារ៉ាយ - Chareay) are an ethnic group in Vietnam's Central Highlands (Gia Lai and Kon Tum Provinces with some others in Đắk Lắk Province), as well as in the Cambodian northeast Province of Ratanakiri.
Joseph Warren Stilwell (March 19, 1883 – October 12, 1946) was a United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
The Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Royaume du Cambodge), informally known as the first Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជាទី ១) and the Sangkum Reastr Niyum era (សម័យសង្គមរាស្ត្រនិយម "People's Socialist Community"; Communauté socialiste populaire), referred to Norodom Sihanouk's first administration of Cambodia from 1953 to 1970, an especially significant time in the country's history.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
The Lao are a Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, who speak the eponymous language of the Tai–Kadai group.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire; it extended over of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s.
This is a list of European (as well as Japanese and Chinese) colonial administrators responsible for the territory of French Indochina, an area equivalent to modern-day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
The Lao People's Democratic Republic is the modern state derived from the former kingdoms of Laos.
This article lists the monarchs of Vietnam.
Long Biên Bridge (Cầu Long Biên) is a historic cantilever bridge across the Red River that connects two districts, Hoan Kiem and Long Bien of the city of Hanoi, Vietnam.
Lu Han (1895–1974) was a KMT general of Yi ethnicity.
Louangphabang, (Lao: ຫລວງພະບາງ) or Luang Phabang (pronounced), commonly transliterated into Western languages from the pre-1975 Lao spelling ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ (ຣ.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Michelin (full name: SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France.
The King of Cambodia (ព្រះមហាក្សត្រនៃព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Roi du Royaume du Cambodge) is the head of state of the Kingdom of Cambodia.
The Mường is an ethnic group native to Vietnam; it is the country's third largest of 53 minority groups, with an estimated population of 1.26 million (based on the 2009 census and five years of population growth).
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The National Museum of Vietnamese History (Viện Bảo tàng Lịch sử Việt Nam; 院寶藏歷史越南) is located in the Hoan Kiem district of Hanoi, Vietnam.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Norodom (នរោត្តម), known previously as Ang Voddey (អង្គវតី) (February 1834 – 24 April 1904), ruled as king of Cambodia from 1860 to 1904.
Norodom Sihanouk (នរោត្តម សីហនុ; 31 October 192215 October 2012) was a Cambodian royal politician and the King of Cambodia.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
The North–South railway (Đường sắt Bắc–Nam, Chemin de fer Nord-Sud) is the principal railway line serving the country of Vietnam.
Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon (Vương cung thánh đường Chính tòa Đức Bà Sài Gòn or Nhà thờ Đức Bà Sài Gòn; Basilique-Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Saigon), officially Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of The Immaculate Conception (Vương cung thánh đường Chính tòa Đức Mẹ Vô nhiễm Nguyên tội; Basilique-Cathédrale Notre-Dame de l'Immaculée Conception) is a cathedral located in the downtown of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
The Paknam Incident was a military engagement fought during the Franco-Siamese War in July 1893.
Pakse, or Pakxe (French: Paksé; Laotian: ປາກເຊ "mouth of the river"; ปากเซ), is the capital and most populous city of the southern Laotian province of Champasak, making it the second most populous city in Laos.
The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.
The Society of Foreign Missions of Paris (Société des Missions étrangères de Paris, short M.E.P.) is a Roman Catholic missionary organization.
Phan Đình Phùng (1847January 21, 1896) was a Vietnamese revolutionary who led rebel armies against French colonial forces in Vietnam.
Pierre Joseph Georges Pigneau (2 November 1741 in Origny-en-Thiérache – 9 October 1799, in Qui Nhơn), commonly known as Pigneau de Béhaine, also Pierre Pigneaux and Bá Đa Lộc ("Pedro" 百多祿 or 伯多祿), was a French Catholic priest best known for his role in assisting Nguyễn Ánh (later Emperor Gia Long) to establish the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam after the Tây Sơn rebellion.
French administration in Indochina began June 5, 1862, when the Treaty of Saigon ceded three provinces.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
The Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) is the fourth and present traditional centre of power in the history of Thailand (or Siam).
The Red River Delta (Đồng Bằng Sông Hồng, or Châu Thổ Sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Binh River in northern Vietnam.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Shan State (Burmese: ရှမ်းပြည်နယ်,; Shan: မိူင်းတႆး) is a state of Myanmar.
Siam Nakhon (Thai: สยามนคร) is the name of a former Thai province.
Siem Pang District is a district located in Stung Treng Province, in north-east Cambodia.
Siem Reap (ក្រុងសៀមរាប) is the capital city of Siem Reap Province in northwestern Cambodia.
Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the history of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca.
The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Tày people speak a language of the Central Tai language group, and live in northern Vietnam.
Tự Đức (22 September 1829 – 17 July 1883) (full name: Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm, also Nguyễn Phúc Thì) was the fourth emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam; he ruled from 1847 to 1883.
Tây Bồi (Vietnamese: tiếng Tây bồi), or Vietnamese Pidgin French, was a pidgin spoken by non-French-educated Vietnamese, typically those who worked as servants in French households or milieux during the colonial era.
The name Tây Sơn (Hán Việt: 西山朝) is used in Vietnamese history in various ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Lê dynasty in 1770 and the beginning of the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tonkin, or Bac Kỳ (北圻), was a French protectorate encompassing modern Northern Vietnam.
Trat (ตราด) is a town in Thailand, capital of Trat Province and the Mueang Trat district.
The treaty ports was the name given to the port cities in China and Japan that were opened to foreign trade by the unequal treaties with the Western powers.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vĩnh Long is a province located in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (越南國民黨; Vietnamese Nationalist Party), abbreviated VNQDĐ or Việt Quốc, was a nationalist and moderate socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the Yiyou Year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam in French Indochina during World War II from October 1944 to late 1945, which at the time was under Japanese occupation.
Vietnamese folk religion or Vietnamese indigenous religion (tín ngưỡng dân gian Việt Nam, tôn giáo bản địa Việt Nam) is the ethnic religion of the Vietnamese people.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yên Bái is a city in Vietnam.
The Yên Bái mutiny (安沛總起義, Tổng khởi-nghĩa Yên-báy) was an uprising of Vietnamese soldiers in the French colonial army on 10 February 1930 in collaboration with civilian supporters who were members of the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (VNQDĐ, the Vietnamese Nationalist Party).
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
Colonial Vietnam, French Indo China, French Indo-China, French Indo-china, French Indochinese Union, French Vietnam, French colonial Vietnam, French experience in Vietnam, French indo china, Indo-Chinese Federation, Indo-Chinese Union, Indochina Union, Indochinese Federation, Indochinese Union, Union of French Indochina, Union of Indochina.