383 relations: A Discourse on the Love of Our Country, A Vindication of the Rights of Men, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Abbé, Abolition of feudalism in France, Abolitionism, Absolute monarchy, Adrien Duport, Age of Enlightenment, Aimé Césaire, Albert Soboul, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Alexis de Tocqueville, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Ancien Régime, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Anti-clericalism, Antoine Barnave, Antwerp, Armoire de fer, Arras, Assembly of Notables, Assignat, Atheism, August Decrees, Austria, Austrian Netherlands, Autocracy, Bastille, Batavian Republic, Battle of Fleurus (1794), Battle of Jemappes, Battle of Le Mans (1793), Battle of Neerwinden (1793), Battle of the Nile, Battle of Tiffauges, Battle of Valmy, Battles of Saratoga, Belgium, Bernard-René Jourdan de Launay, Bicameralism, Bishop in the Catholic Church, Bourgeoisie, Brabant Revolution, Brittany (administrative region), Brunswick Manifesto, Caen, Camille Desmoulins, Caribbean Sea, ..., Carlton J. H. Hayes, Catholic Church, Causes of the French Revolution, Champ de Mars, Charles Alexandre de Calonne, Charles François Dumouriez, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Charles X of France, Charlotte Corday, Château, Cholet, Chouannerie, Christianity, Christopher Wyvill, Cisalpine Republic, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution, Civil Constitution of the Clergy, Class conflict, Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, Clergy, Cockade, Codification (law), Committee of Public Safety, Communism, Comptroller, Concordat of 1801, Conscription, Constituent assembly, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitution of the Year III, Constitutional crisis, Constitutional monarchy, Cordeliers, Council of Ancients, Council of Five Hundred, Counter-revolutionary, Coup d'état, Coup of 18 Brumaire, Coup of 18 Fructidor, Cult of Reason, Cult of the Supreme Being, Daron Acemoglu, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Declaration of Pillnitz, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Deism, Democratic-Republican Party, Departments of France, Deregulation, Dragoon, Drownings at Nantes, Due process, Dutch Republic, Early modern period, Edmund Burke, Elysée Loustallot, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Enragés, Estates General (France), Estates General of 1789, Europe, European Economic Review, European History Online, Execution of Louis XVI, Fédéré, Fête de la Fédération, Federalist Party, Feuillant (political group), Financial crisis, First French Empire, First Party System, First White Terror, Flag of France, François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé, François Furet, François Victor Alphonse Aulard, François-Noël Babeuf, France, Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, Frederick William II of Prussia, Freedom of religion, Freemasonry, French Air Force, French Constitution of 1791, French Constitution of 1793, French Consulate, French Directory, French First Republic, French Guiana, French livre, French period, French Republican Calendar, French Revolutionary Wars, French Third Republic, Gardes Françaises, Gérard de Lally-Tollendal, General maximum, George Washington, Georges Couthon, Georges Danton, Georges Lefebvre, German nationalism, Germinal (French Republican Calendar), Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Gironde, Girondins, Glossary of the French Revolution, Grain, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Great Fear, Gregorian calendar, Guillotine, Habsburg Monarchy, Haitian Revolution, Hôtel de Ville, Paris, Helvetic Republic, History of France, History of Portugal (1777–1834), History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867), History of the world, Holy Roman Empire, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, House of Bourbon, Huguenots, Human rights, Hungary, Industrial Revolution, Insurrection of 10 August 1792, Italian Peninsula, Jacobin, Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazalès, Jacques de Flesselles, Jacques Hébert, Jacques Necker, Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jacques Roux, Jacques-Alexis Thuriot de la Rosière, James A. 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A Discourse on the Love of Our Country is a speech and pamphlet delivered by Richard Price in England in 1789, in support of the French Revolution, equating it with the Glorious Revolution a century earlier in England.
A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke; Occasioned by His Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) is a political pamphlet, written by the 18th-century British liberal feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, which attacks aristocracy and advocates republicanism.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
Abbé (from Latin abbas, in turn from Greek ἀββᾶς, abbas, from Aramaic abba, a title of honour, literally meaning "the father, my father", emphatic state of abh, "father") is the French word for abbot.
One of the central events of the French Revolution was to abolish feudalism, and the old rules, taxes and privileges left over from the age of feudalism.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adrien Duport (6 February 17596 July 1798) was a French politician, and lawyer.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aimé Fernand David Césaire (26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and French poet, author and politician from Martinique.
Albert Marius Soboul (April 27, 1914 – September 11, 1982) was a historian of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods.
Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth (20 October 176018 March 1829) was a French soldier and politician.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de l'Aulne (10 May 172718 March 1781), commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman.
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave (22 October 176129 November 1793) was a French politician, and, together with Honoré Mirabeau, one of the most influential orators of the early part of the French Revolution.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
L'armoire de fer (French: 'iron chest') refers to a hiding place at the apartments of Louis XVI of France at the Tuileries Palace where some secret documents were kept.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
An Assembly of Notables (French: Assemblée des notables) was a group of high-ranking nobles, ecclesiastics, and state functionaries convened by the King of France on extraordinary occasions to consult on matters of state.
An assignat was a type of a monetary instrument used during the time of the French Revolution, and the French Revolutionary Wars.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The August Decrees were nineteen decrees made in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
The Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, was an engagement between the army of the First French Republic, under General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and the Coalition Army (Britain, Hanover, Dutch Republic, and Habsburg Monarchy), commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, in the most significant battle of the Flanders Campaign in the Low Countries during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Jemappes (6 November 1792) took place near the town of Jemappes in Hainaut, Belgium, near Mons during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Le Mans was a combat in the Virée de Galerne, an operation during the War in the Vendée.
The Second Battle of Neerwinden (18 March 1793) saw a Republican French army led by Charles François Dumouriez attack a Coalition army commanded by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
The Battle of the Nile (also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay; Bataille d'Aboukir) was a major naval battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the Navy of the French Republic at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt from 1 to 3 August 1798.
The battle of Torfou-Tiffauges was a battle on 19 September 1793 during the War in the Vendée.
The Battle of Valmy was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bernard René Jourdan, marquis de Launay (1740–1789) was the French governor of the Bastille, the son of a previous governor, and commander of its garrison when the prison-fortress in Paris was stormed on 14 July 1789 (see Storming of the Bastille).
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Brabant Revolution or Brabantine Revolution (Révolution brabançonne, Brabantse Omwenteling), sometimes referred to as the Belgian Revolution of 1789–90 in older writing, was an armed insurrection that occurred in the Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) between October 1789 and December 1790.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
The Brunswick Manifesto was a proclamation issued by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, commander of the Allied Army (principally Austrian and Prussian), on 25 July 1792 to the population of Paris, France during the War of the First Coalition.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Lucie-Simplice-Camille-Benoît Desmoulins (2 March 17605 April 1794) was a journalist and politician who played an important role in the French Revolution.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Carlton Joseph Huntley Hayes (May 16, 1882 – September 2, 1964) was an American historian, educator, diplomat, devout Catholic and academic.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The causes of the French Revolution can be attributed to several intertwining factors.
The Champ de Mars (Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris, France, located in the seventh ''arrondissement'', between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast.
Charles Alexandre de Calonne (20 January 173430 October 1802), titled Count of Hannonville in 1759, was a French statesman, best known for his involvement in the French Revolution.
Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez (26 January 1739 – 14 March 1823) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg und Fürst von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) (9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806), was ruler of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and a military leader.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the French Revolution.
A château (plural châteaux; in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.
Cholet (locally, probably from Latin cauletum, "cabbage") is a commune of western France in the Maine-et-Loire department.
The Chouannerie was a royalist uprising or counter-revolution in 12 of the western départements of France, particularly in the provinces of Brittany and Maine, against the French First Republic during the French Revolution.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Wyvill (1740–1822) was an English cleric and landowner, a political reformer who inspired the formation of the Yorkshire Association movement in 1779.
The Cisalpine Republic (Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.
Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution is a book by the historian Simon Schama, published in 1989, the bicentenary of the French Revolution.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy ("Constitution civile du clergé") was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France to the French government.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, sometimes spelled de l'Isle or de Lile (10 May 1760 – 26 June 1836), was a French army officer of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
A cockade is a knot of ribbons, or other circular- or oval-shaped symbol of distinctive colors which is usually worn on a hat.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public)—created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793—formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–94), a stage of the French Revolution.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A comptroller is a management level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization.
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
The Constitution of the Year III is the constitution that founded the Directory.
In political science, a constitutional crisis is a problem or conflict in the function of a government that the political constitution or other fundamental governing law is perceived to be unable to resolve.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Société des Amis des droits de l’homme et du citoyen), mainly known as Cordeliers Club (Club des Cordeliers), was a populist club during the French Revolution.
The Council of Ancients or Council of Elders (Conseil des Anciens) was the upper house of French legislature under the Constitution of the Year III, during the period commonly known as the Directory (French: Directoire), from 22 August 1795 until 9 November 1799, roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution.
The Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cents), or simply the Five Hundred, was the lower house of the legislature of France under the Constitution of the Year III.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.
The Coup of 18 Fructidor, Year V, was a seizure of power by members of the French Directory on 4 September 1797 when their opponents, the Royalists, were gaining strength.
The Cult of Reason (Culte de la Raison) was France's first established state-sponsored atheistic religion, intended as a replacement for Roman Catholicism during the French Revolution.
The Cult of the Supreme Being (Culte de l'Être suprême) was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution.
Kamer Daron Acemoğlu (born September 3, 1967) is a Turkish-born American economist who has taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) since 1993.
The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical laïcité policies.
The Declaration of Pilnite, more commonly referred to as the Declaration of Pillnitz, was a statement issued on 27 August 1791 at Pillnitz Castle near Dresden (Saxony) by Frederick William II of Prussia and the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II who was Marie Antoinette's brother.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
The Drownings at Nantes (Noyades de Nantes) were a series of mass executions by drowning during the Reign of Terror in Nantes, France, that occurred between November 1793 and February 1794.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Elysée Loustallot (December 25, 1761 – September 19, 1790) was a French lawyer, journalist, and editor of the Revolutions of Paris during the French Revolution.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Enraged Ones (Les Enragés) were a small number of firebrands known for defending the lower class and expressing the demands of the radical sans-culottes during the French Revolution.
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.
The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research in economics.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution ("Revolution Square", formerly Place Louis XV, and renamed Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris.
The term "fédérés" (sometimes translated to English as "federates") most commonly refers to the troops who volunteered for the French National Guard in the summer of 1792 during the French Revolution.
The Fête de la Fédération (Festival of the Federation) was a massive holiday festival held throughout France in honour of the French Revolution.
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des Amis de la Constitution), better known as Feuillants Club (Club des Feuillants), was a political grouping that emerged during the French Revolution.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824.
The White Terror was a period during the French Revolution in 1795, when a wave of violent attacks swept across much of France.
The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.
François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé (19 November 1739 – 14 November 1800) was a French general.
François Furet (27 March 1927, Paris – 12 July 1997, Figeac) was a French historian, and president of the Saint-Simon Foundation, well known for his books on the French Revolution.
François Victor Alphonse Aulard (19 July 1849 – 23 October 1928) was the first professional French historian of the French Revolution and of Napoleon.
François-Noël Babeuf (23 November 1760 – 27 May 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Godolphin Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, (29 January 1751 – 31 January 1799), styled Marquess of Carmarthen until 1789, was a British politician.
Frederick William II (Friedrich Wilhelm II.; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was King of Prussia from 1786 until his death.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).
The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.
The Constitution of 1793 (Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), also known as the Constitution of the Year I or The Montagnard Constitution, was the second constitution ratified for use during the French Revolution under the First Republic.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.
In Northern European historiography, the term French period (Période française, Franzosenzeit, Franse tijd) refers to the period between 1794 and 1815 during which most of Northern Europe was controlled by Republican or Napoleonic France.
The French Republican Calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The French Guards (Régiment des Gardes françaises) were an infantry regiment of the Military Household of the King of France (Maison militaire du roi de France) under the Ancien Régime.
Trophime-Gérard, marquis de Lally-Tollendal (5 March 1751 – 11 March 1830) was a French politician.
The General Maximum, or Law of the Maximum, was a law during the French Revolution, as an extension of the Law of Suspects on 29 September 1793.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georges Auguste Couthon (22 December 1755 – 28 July 1794) was a French politician and lawyer known for his service as a deputy in the Legislative Assembly during the French Revolution.
Georges Jacques Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution, in particular as the first president of the Committee of Public Safety.
Georges Lefebvre (6 August 1874 – 28 August 1959) was a French historian, best known for his work on the French Revolution and peasant life.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
Germinal was the seventh month in the French Republican Calendar.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Gironde (in Occitan Gironda) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France.
The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.
This is a glossary of the French Revolution.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Great Fear (la Grande Peur) was a general panic that took place between 17 July and 3 August 1789, at the start of the French Revolution.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France, is the building housing the city's local administration.
In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The history of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, from the First Treaty of San Ildefonso and the beginning of the reign of Queen Maria I in 1777, to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834, spans a complex historical period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installation of a constitutional monarchy in the country.
The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazalès (February 1, 1758 – November 24, 1805) was a French orator and politician.
Jacques de Flesselles (11 November 173014 July 1789) was a French official and one of the early victims of the French Revolution.
Jacques René Hébert (15 November 1757 – 24 March 1794) was a French journalist, and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution.
Jacques Necker (30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a banker of Genevan origin who became a French statesman and finance minister for Louis XVI.
Jacques Pierre Brissot (15 January 1754 – 31 October 1793), who assumed the name of de Warville (an English version of "d'Ouarville", a hamlet in the village of Lèves where his father owned property), was a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution and founder of the abolitionist Société des Amis des Noirs.
Jacques Roux (21 August 1752 – 10 February 1794) was a radical Roman Catholic priest who took an active role in politics during the French Revolution.
Jacques-Alexis Thuriot, known as Thuriot de la Rosière, and later as chevalier Thuriot de la Rosière, chevalier de l'Empire (1 May 1753 - 20 June 1829) was an important French statesman of the French Revolution, and a minor figure under the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte.
James Alan Robinson (born 1960) is a British economist and political scientist who serves as University Professor at the Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago since 2015 and prior to that taught at Harvard University between 2004 and 2015.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.
Jean Joseph Mounier (12 November 1758 – 28 January 1806) was a French politician and judge.
Jean Sylvain Bailly (15 September 1736 – 12 November 1793) was a French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution.
Jean-Baptiste Carrier (1756 – 16 December 1794) was a French Revolutionary.
Jean-François Reubell or Rewbell (6 October 1747 – 24 November 1807) was a French lawyer, diplomat, and politician of the Revolution.
Jean-Paul Marat (24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist who became best known for his role as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution.
Jean-Sifrein Maury (26 June 1746 – 10 May 1817) was a French cardinal, archbishop, and bishop of Montefiascone.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John "Jack" McManners CBE FBA (25 December 1916 – 4 November 2006) was a British clergyman and historian of religion who specialized in the history of the Church and other aspects of religious life in 18th century France.
John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset, KG (24 March 1745 – 19 July 1799) was the only son of Lord John Philip Sackville, second son of Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset.
The Journal of Interdisciplinary History is a peer-reviewed academic journal published four times a year by the MIT Press.
Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Regnum Croatiae Horvát Királyság Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
L'Ami du peuple (The Friend of the People) was a newspaper written by Jean-Paul Marat during the French Revolution.
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.
The Law of 22 Prairial, also known as the loi de la Grande Terreur, the law of the Great Terror, was enacted on 10 June 1794 (22 Prairial of the Year II under the French Revolutionary Calendar).
The Law of Suspects (Loi des suspects) was a decree passed by the French National Convention on 17 September 1793, during the French Revolution.
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot (13 May 1753 – 2 August 1823) was a French mathematician, physicist and politician.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
The Liège Revolution, sometimes known as the Happy Revolution (Heureuse Révolution, Binamêye revolucion), started on 18 August 1789 and lasted until the destruction of the Republic of Liège and re-establishment of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège by Austrian forces in 1791.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.
The Ligurian Republic (Repubblica Ligure) was a short-lived French client republic formed by Napoleon on 14 June 1797.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This is a partial '''list''' of people associated with the French Revolution, including supporters and opponents.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
Longwy (Langich, Longkech) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in northeastern France.
The Lord's Day in Christianity is generally Sunday, the principal day of communal worship.
Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 176728 July 1794) was a military and political leader during the French Revolution.
Louis Emile Marie Madelin (8 May 1871 – 18 August 1956) was a French historian (specialising in the French Revolution and First French Empire) and a Republican Federation deputy for Vosges from 1924 to 1928.
Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans (13 April 17476 November 1793), most commonly known as Philippe, was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church in France perforce underwent radical restructuring.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Lynn Avery Hunt (born November 16, 1945) is the Eugen Weber Professor of Modern European History at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Madame Roland née Marie-Jeanne Phlippon, also known as Jeanne Manon Roland (17 March 1754 – 8 November 1793), was, together with her husband Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière, a supporter of the French Revolution and influential member of the Girondist faction.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The military history of France encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern France, the European continent, and a variety of regions throughout the world.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Montmédy is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale), which existed from 13 June 1789 to 9 July 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General; thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on 30 Sept 1791) it was known as the National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante), though popularly the shorter form persisted.
The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.
The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
The National Guard (la Garde nationale) is a French gendarmerie that existed from 1789 to 1872, including a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, re-founded in 2016.
The Legislative Assembly (Assemblée législative) was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Olympe de Gouges (7 May 1748 – 3 November 1793), born Marie Gouze, was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
Pamphlet wars refer to any protracted argument or discussion through printed medium, especially between the time the printing press became common, and when state intervention like copyright laws made such public discourse more difficult.
The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1792 until 1795.
Paris in the 18th century was the second-largest city in Europe, after London, with a population of about 600,000 persons.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.
The Parthenopean Republic (Repubblica Partenopea) was a French First Republic-supported republic in the territory of the Kingdom of Naples, formed during the French Revolutionary Wars after King Ferdinand IV fled before advancing French troops.
The Patriottentijd (English: Patriot Period) was a period of political instability in the Dutch Republic between approximately 1780 and 1787.
Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (30 June 1755 – 29 January 1829), commonly known as Paul Barras, was a French politician of the French Revolution, and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799.
Pauline Léon (28 September 1768 – 5 October 1838), was a radical organizer and feminist during the French Revolution.
The Peace of Basel of 1795 consists of three peace treaties involving France during the French Revolution (represented by François de Barthélemy).
The Phrygian cap or liberty cap is a soft conical cap with the top pulled forward, associated in antiquity with several peoples in Eastern Europe and Anatolia, including Phrygia, Dacia, and the Balkans.
Pierre Victor, baron Malouet (11 February 1740 – 7 September 1814), was a French colonial administrator, planter, conservative publicist and monarchist politician, who signed as an "Émigré" the Whitehall Accord.
The pileus (– pilos, also pilleus or pilleum in Latin) was a brimless, felt cap worn in Ancient Greece and surrounding regions, later also introduced in Ancient Rome.
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France.
Pluto Press is a British independent book publisher based in London.
The term political radicalism (in political science known as radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.
Pope Pius VI (25 December 1717 – 29 August 1799), born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
The Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, situated for the most part in present Belgium, which was ruled by the Bishop of Liège.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
During the French Revolution, the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy (French: Proclamation de l'abolition de la royauté) was a proclamation by the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792.
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department (French: département) system superseded provinces.
A provost (introduced into Scots from French) is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities, and under the name prévôt was a governmental position of varying importance in Ancien Régime France.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
The Quasi-War (Quasi-guerre) was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800.
The ("Quarrel of the Comic Actors"), also known as the ("War of the Comic Actors") and the ("War of the Corners"), was the name given to a battle of rival musical philosophies which took place in Paris between 1752 and 1754.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Reflections on the Revolution in France is a political pamphlet written by the Irish statesman Edmund Burke and published in November 1790.
During the French Revolution, the National Assembly abolished the traditional structure of the French Catholic Church and reorganized it as an institution within the structure of the new French government.
A regressive tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.
During the French Revolution, a représentant en mission (English: representative on mission) was an extraordinary envoy of the Legislative Assembly (1791–92) and its successor the National Convention (1792–95).
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Liège (République liégeoise) was a short-lived state centred on the town of Liège in modern-day Belgium.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795.
The Revolutionary Tribunal (Tribunal révolutionnaire; unofficially Popular Tribunal) was a court instituted by the National Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders.
A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time span.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Richard Price (23 February 1723 – 19 April 1791) was a British moral philosopher, nonconformist preacher and mathematician.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Rights of Man (1791), a book by Thomas Paine, including 31 articles, posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people.
The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February.
A roundel is a circular disc used as a symbol.
The air forces of the United Kingdom – the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm, the Army's Army Air Corps and the Royal Air Force use a roundel, a circular identification mark, painted on aircraft to identify them to other aircraft and ground forces.
A rump legislature is a legislature formed of part, usually a minority, of the legislators originally elected or appointed to office.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The indoor riding academy called the Salle du Manège was the seat of deliberations during most of the French Revolution, from 1789 to 1798.
The sans-culottes (literally "without breeches") were the common people of the lower classes in late 18th century France, a great many of whom became radical and militant partisans of the French Revolution in response to their poor quality of life under the Ancien Régime.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
The September Massacres were a wave of killings in Paris and other cities from 2–7 September 1792, during the French Revolution.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Simon H. Johnson (born January 16, 1963) is a British American economist.
Sir Simon Michael Schama, CBE, FRSL, FBA (born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women (Société des Citoyennes Républicaines Révolutionnaires, Société des républicaines révolutionnaires) were two most famous political clubs during the French Revolution formed May 10, 1793, lasting less than five months.
The Society of the Friends of Truth (Amis de la Verité), also known as the Social Club (French: Cercle social), was a French revolutionary organization founded in 1790.
The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Stanislas Marie Adélaïde, comte de Clermont-Tonnerre (October 10, 1747 – August 10, 1792) was a French nobleman, military officer, and politician during the French Revolution.
The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Suzanne Desan is an American historian.
Swiss Guards (Gardes Suisses; Schweizergarde) are the Swiss soldiers who have served as guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century.
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
On 20 June 1789, the members of the French Estates-General or the Third Estate, who had begun to call themselves the National Assembly, took the Tennis Court Oath (Serment du Jeu de Paume), vowing "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established".
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.
The Mountain (La Montagne) was a political group during the French Revolution, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the National Assembly.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Plain (La Plaine), better known as The Marsh (Le Marais), was a political group in the French National Convention during the French Revolution.
On 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.
Anne-Josèphe Théroigne de Méricourt (born Anne-Josèphe Terwagne; 13 August 1762–9 June 1817) was a singer, orator and organizer in the French Revolution.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
The following is a timeline of the French Revolution.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
Tricoteuse is French for a knitting woman.
The Tuileries Palace (Palais des Tuileries) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine.
A tumbrel (alternatively tumbril) is a two-wheeled cart or wagon typically designed to be hauled by a single horse or ox.
The United Belgian States or United Netherlandish States (Verenigde Nederlandse Staten or Verenigde Belgische Staten, États-Belgiques-Unis, Foederati belgii), also known as the United States of Belgium, was a confederation in the Southern Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) which was established after the Brabant Revolution.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
Varennes-en-Argonne or simply Varennes is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Vendée is a department in the Pays-de-la-Loire region in west-central France, on the Atlantic Ocean.
The Ventôse Decrees were decrees proposed on February 26 and March 3, 1794 (8 and 13 Ventôse, An II in the French Republican Calendar) by the French revolutionary leader Louis de Saint-Just.
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden.
A week is a time unit equal to seven days.
What Is the Third Estate? (Qu'est-ce que le tiers-état?) is a political pamphlet written in January 1789, shortly before the outbreak of the French Revolution, by the French thinker and clergyman Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836).
Theobald Wolfe Tone, posthumously known as Wolfe Tone (20 June 1763 – 19 November 1798), was a leading Irish revolutionary figure and one of the founding members of the United Irishmen, and is regarded as the father of Irish republicanism and leader of the 1798 Irish Rebellion.
The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution.
The term "Year One" in political history usually refers to the institution of radical, revolutionary change.
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