390 relations: Action of 16 May 1797, Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine, Alessandria, Alexander Korsakov, Alexander Suvorov, Alexandria, Alps, André Masséna, Andrew Roberts (historian), Anglo-Corsican Kingdom, Archduchy of Austria, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen, Archduke John of Austria, Arish, Armée des Émigrés, Army of Condé, Army of Italy (France), Army of the Danube order of battle, Arthur Bryant, Artillery, Atlantic Ocean, Austrian Netherlands, Émigré, Baltic Sea, Barthélemy Catherine Joubert, Basel, Batavian Republic, Batavian Revolution, Battle of Abukir (1799), Battle of Ampfing (1800), Battle of Arcole, Battle of Ballinamuck, Battle of Bassano, Battle of Biberach (1800), Battle of Borghetto, Battle of Caldiero (1796), Battle of Calliano, Battle of Cape St Vincent (1797), Battle of Cassano (1799), Battle of Castiglione, Battle of Castlebar, Battle of Ceva, Battle of Copenhagen (1801), Battle of Fishguard, Battle of Fleurus (1794), Battle of Fombio, Battle of Höchstädt (1800), Battle of Hohenlinden, Battle of Jemappes, Battle of Loano, ..., Battle of Lodi, Battle of Lonato, Battle of Magnano, Battle of Marengo, Battle of Millesimo, Battle of Mondovì, Battle of Montenotte, Battle of Mount Tabor (1799), Battle of Neerwinden (1793), Battle of Novi (1799), Battle of Ostrach, Battle of Rivoli, Battle of Rovereto, Battle of Sant Llorenç de la Muga, Battle of Stockach (1799), Battle of Stockach (1800), Battle of the Black Mountain, Battle of the Nile, Battle of the Pyramids, Battle of the Vosges, Battle of Tory Island, Battle of Tourcoing, Battle of Valmy, Battle of Winterthur, Bavaria, Bayonne, Bilbao, Black Forest, Brabant Revolution, Brenta (river), Brian Lavery, Brunswick Manifesto, Cairo, Canton of Ticino, Capture of the Dutch fleet at Den Helder, Caribbean, Carl von Clausewitz, Castile (historical region), Catalonia, Catholic and Royal Army, Ceva, Charles François Dumouriez, Charles IV of Spain, Charles O'Hara, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand Linois, Cherasco, Christian VII of Denmark, Claude Lecourbe, Coalition Wars, Committee of Public Safety, Convention of 1800, Convoy, Coronation of Napoleon I, County Donegal, County Mayo, County of Tyrol, Coup of 18 Brumaire, Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser, Dalmatia, Declaration of Pillnitz, Demi-brigade, Denmark–Norway, Divisional general, Dublin, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Württemberg, Dutch Republic, East India Company, Egypt Eyalet, Electorate of Bavaria, Electorate of Mainz, Engen, Germany, Europe, European History Online, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, First Battle of Algeciras, First Battle of Zurich, Flanders, Flanders Campaign, Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, François Étienne de Kellermann, François Christophe de Kellermann, François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frankfurt, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Frederick William II of Prussia, Freiburg im Breisgau, French campaign in Egypt and Syria, French Consulate, French Directory, French expedition to Ireland (1796), French First Republic, French invasion of Switzerland, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Army, Freudenstadt, Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze, General of the branch, Geneva, Genoa, Georges Lefebvre, Glorious First of June, Gotthard Pass, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Great Britain, Great St Bernard Pass, Guadeloupe, Guillaume Brune, Habsburg Monarchy, Haitian Revolution, Hüfingen, Heliopolis (ancient Egypt), Helvetic Republic, Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, House of Bourbon, House of Habsburg, House of Valois, Huningue, Indian Ocean, Insurrection of 10 August 1792, Invasion of France (1795), Investment (military), Irish Rebellion of 1798, Irish Republic (1798), Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars, Italian Peninsula, Italian Republic (Napoleonic), Jacobin, Jacques François Dugommier, Jacques MacDonald, Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jaffa, James Saumarez, 1st Baron de Saumarez, James Wallace (Royal Navy officer), Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, Jazzar Pasha, József Alvinczi, Jean Augustin Ernouf, Jean Victor Marie Moreau, Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, Jean-Baptiste Kléber, Jean-Charles Pichegru, Johann Peter Beaulieu, John A. Lynn, John Adams, John Campbell, 1st Baron Cawdor, John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, Julian Alps, Kehl, Kingdom of Etruria, Kingdom of France (1791–92), Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Klagenfurt, Knights Hospitaller, Koblenz, Lake Constance, Lake Garda, Landrecies, Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel, Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, Lazare Carnot, Lazare Hoche, Légion Noire, Löffingen, Lech (river), Leibniz Institute of European History, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Levée en masse, Liberalism, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, Ligurian Republic, Longwy, Louis Desaix, Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé, Louis XVI of France, Louisiana (New France), Louisiana Territory, Low Countries, Maastricht, Mainz, Malta, Mannheim, Mantua, Maria I of Portugal, Marie Antoinette, Martial law, Martinique, Maubeuge, Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour, Maximilien Robespierre, Meßkirch, Mediterranean Sea, Menorca, Michael von Melas, Michelangelo Alessandro Colli-Marchi, Middle East, Milan, Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte, Military reserve force, Militia, Mons, Montenotte Campaign, Munich, Murad Bey, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, National Convention, National Legislative Assembly (France), Neuburg an der Donau, Newfoundland Colony, Nice, North Brabant, Oberkirch (Baden), Olfert Fischer, On War, Ottoman Empire, Owen Connelly, Paddy Griffith, Pandemic, Papal States, Partitions of Poland, Pasquale Paoli, Paul Barras, Paul Davidovich, Paul I of Russia, Paul Kray, Paul W. Schroeder, Peace of Basel, Peasants' War (1798), Perpignan, Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pierre Augereau, Po (river), Polish Legions (Napoleonic period), Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pope Pius VI, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy, Prussia, Pyrenees, Quasi-War, R. J. B. 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Blanning, Tagliamento, Tallinn, Théobald Dillon, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, Tipu Sultan, Titisee, Tolentino, Toulon, Toussaint Louverture, Treaty of Amiens, Treaty of Campo Formio, Treaty of Florence, Treaty of Leoben, Treaty of Lunéville, Treaty of Paris (1796), Trento, Trevor N. Dupuy, Trinidad, Tuileries Palace, Tyrol (state), Unconditional surrender, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Var (river), Venice, Verdun, Verona, Veronese Easter, Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia, Victor Hugues, Vienna, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Vorarlberg, War in the Vendée, War of the First Coalition, War of the Second Coalition, War of the Third Coalition, William Pitt the Younger, William Tate (soldier), William V, Prince of Orange, Wolfe Tone, 13 Vendémiaire. Expand index (340 more) » « Shrink index
The action of 16 May 1797 was a naval battle that took place near Tripoli in Ottoman Tripolitania (present-day Libya).
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine (4 February 174028 August 1793) was a French general.
Alessandria (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.
Alexander Mikhailovich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков) (August 24, 1753May 25, 1840) was a Russian general remembered as an unlucky assistant to Alexander Suvorov during his Swiss expedition of 1799–1800.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; or 1730 –) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
André Masséna, 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling (born Andrea Massena; 16 May 1758 – 4 April 1817) was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Andrew Roberts (born 13 January 1963) is a British historian and journalist.
The Anglo-Corsican Kingdom was a client state of the Kingdom of Great Britain that existed on the island of Corsica between 1794 and 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.
Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (German: Erzherzog Carl Ludwig Johann Joseph Laurentius von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen; 5 September 177130 April 1847) was an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife, Maria Luisa of Spain.
Archduke John of Austria (Erzherzog Johann Baptist Joseph Fabian Sebastian von Österreich; 20 January 1782 – 11 May 1859), a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, was an Austrian field marshal and imperial regent (Reichsverweser) of the short-lived German Empire during the Revolutions of 1848.
Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
The Armée des Émigrés (English: Army of the Émigrés), were counter-revolutionary armies raised outside France by and out of Royalist Émigrés, with the aim of overthrowing the French Revolution, reconquering France and restoring the monarchy.
The Army of Condé (Armée de Condé) was a French field army during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Army of Italy (Armée d'Italie) was a field army of the French Army stationed on the Italian border and used for operations in Italy itself.
The Army of the Danube was a field army of the French First Republic.
Sir Arthur Wynne Morgan Bryant (18 February 1899 – 22 January 1985), was an English historian, columnist for The Illustrated London News and man of affairs.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.
An émigré is a person who has emigrated, often with a connotation of political or social self-exile.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Barthélemy Catherine Joubert (14 April 1769 – 15 August 1799) was a French general.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
The Batavian Revolution (De Bataafse Revolutie) was a political, social and cultural turmoil at the end of the 18th century that marked the end of the Dutch Republic and saw the proclamation of the Batavian Republic.
The Battle of Abukir (or Aboukir or Abu Qir) was a battle in which Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Seid Mustafa Pasha's Ottoman army on July 25, 1799, during the French campaign in Egypt.
At the Battle of Ampfing on 1 December 1800, Paul Grenier's two divisions of the First French Republic opposed against the Austrian army southwest of the town of Ampfing during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Arcole or Battle of Arcola (15–17 November 1796) was a battle fought between French and Austrian forces southeast of Verona during the War of the First Coalition, a part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Ballinamuck (8 September 1798) marked the defeat of the main force of the French incursion during the 1798 Rebellion in Ireland.
The Battle of Bassano was fought on 8 September 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars, in the territory of the Republic of Venice, between a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces led by Count Dagobert von Wurmser.
The Battle of Biberach on 9 May 1800 saw a French First Republic corps under Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr engage part of a Habsburg Austrian army led by Pál Kray.
The Battle of Borghetto, near Valeggio sul Mincio in the Veneto of northern Italy, took place during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
In the Battle of Caldiero on 12 November 1796, a Habsburg Austrian army led by Jozsef Alvinczi fought a First French Republic army commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Battle of Calliano on 6 and 7 November 1796 saw an Austrian corps commanded by Paul Davidovich rout a French division directed by Claude Belgrand de Vaubois.
The Battle of Cape St Vincent (14 February 1797) was one of the opening battles of the Anglo-Spanish War (1796–1808), as part of the French Revolutionary Wars, where a British fleet under Admiral Sir John Jervis defeated a larger Spanish fleet under Admiral Don José de Córdoba y Ramos near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal.
The Battle of Cassano d'Adda was fought on 27 April 1799 near Cassano d'Adda, about ENE of Milan.
The Battle of Castiglione saw the French Army of Italy under General Napoleon Bonaparte attack an army of Habsburg Austria led by Feldmarschall Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser on 5 August 1796.
The Battle of Castlebar occurred on 27 August 1798 near the town of Castlebar, County Mayo, during the Irish Rising of that year.
In the Battle of Ceva on 16 April 1796, troops of the First French Republic under Pierre Augereau fought against part of the army of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont led by General Giuseppe Felice, Count Vital.
The Battle of Copenhagen of 1801 (Danish: Slaget på Reden) was a naval battle in which a British fleet fought a large force of the Dano-Norwegian Navy anchored near Copenhagen on 2 April 1801.
The Battle of Fishguard was a military invasion of Great Britain by Revolutionary France during the War of the First Coalition.
The Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, was an engagement between the army of the First French Republic, under General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and the Coalition Army (Britain, Hanover, Dutch Republic, and Habsburg Monarchy), commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, in the most significant battle of the Flanders Campaign in the Low Countries during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Fombio was fought between the French Army of Italy led by Napoleon Bonaparte and the Austrian army under Feldzeugmeister Johann Peter Beaulieu between 7 and 9 May 1796.
The Battle of Höchstädt was fought on 19 June 1800 on the north bank of the Danube near Höchstädt, and resulted in a French victory under General Jean Victor Marie Moreau against the Austrians under Baron Pál Kray.
The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Jemappes (6 November 1792) took place near the town of Jemappes in Hainaut, Belgium, near Mons during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Loano occurred on 23–24 November 1795 during the War of the First Coalition.
The Battle of Lodi was fought on 10 May 1796 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and an Austrian rear guard led by Karl Philipp Sebottendorf at Lodi, Lombardy.
The Battle of Lonato was fought on 3 and 4 August 1796 between the French Army of Italy under General Napoleon Bonaparte and a corps-sized Austrian column led by Lieutenant General Peter Quasdanovich.
In the Battle of Magnano on 5 April 1799, an Austrian army commanded by Pál Kray defeated a French army led by Barthélemy Schérer.
The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy.
The Battle of Millesimo, fought on 13 and 14 April 1796, was the name that Napoleon Bonaparte gave in his correspondence to one of a series of small battles that were fought in Liguria, Northern Italy between the armies of France and the allied armies of Austria and of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont.
The Battle of Mondovì was fought on 21 April 1796 between the French army of Napoleon Bonaparte and the army of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont led by Michelangelo Alessandro Colli-Marchi.
The Battle of Montenotte was fought on 12 April 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars, between the French army under General Napoleon Bonaparte and an Austrian corps under Count Eugène-Guillaume Argenteau.
In the Battle of Mount Tabor, or Skirmish of Mount Tabor, French forces under Jean Baptiste Kléber opposed an Ottoman force led by Abdullah Pasha al-Azm of Damascus on 16 April 1799.
The Second Battle of Neerwinden (18 March 1793) saw a Republican French army led by Charles François Dumouriez attack a Coalition army commanded by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
The Battle of Novi (15 August 1799) saw a combined army of Habsburg Austrians and Imperial Russians under Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov attack a Republican French army under General Barthélemy Catherine Joubert.
The Battle of Ostrach, also called the Battle by Ostrach, occurred on 20–21 March 1799.
The Battle of Rivoli (14–15 January 1797) was a key victory in the French campaign in Italy against Austria.
In the Battle of Rovereto (also Battle of Roveredo) on 4 September 1796 a French army commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte defeated an Austrian corps led by Paul Davidovich during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Sant Llorenç de la Muga (in Catalan, in San Lorenzo de la Muga) was fought on 13 August 1794 between an attacking Spanish–Portuguese army led by the Conde de la Unión and a French army commanded by Jacques François Dugommier.
The Battle of Stockach occurred on 25 March 1799, when French and Austrian armies fought for control of the geographically strategic Hegau region in present-day Baden-Württemberg.
The Battle of Stockach and Engen was fought on 3 May 1800 between the army of the First French Republic under Jean Victor Marie Moreau and the army of Habsburg Austria led by Pál Kray.
The Battle of the Black Mountain (also Capmany or Sierra Negra or Del Roure or Montroig) was fought from 17 to 20 November 1794 between the army of the First French Republic and the allied armies of the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal.
The Battle of the Nile (also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay; Bataille d'Aboukir) was a major naval battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the Navy of the French Republic at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt from 1 to 3 August 1798.
The Battle of the Pyramids, also known as the Battle of Embabeh, was a major engagement fought on July 21, 1798 during the French Invasion of Egypt.
The Battle of the Vosges also known as the Battle of Trippstadt was fought on 13 July 1794 in eastern France in the Vosges Mountains from which it derives its name.
The Battle of Tory Island (sometimes called the Battle of Donegal, Battle of Lough Swilly or Warren's Action) was a naval action of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought on 12 October 1798 between French and British squadrons off the northwest coast of County Donegal, then in the Kingdom of Ireland.
The Battle of Tourcoing (18 May 1794) saw a Republican French army directed by General Joseph Souham defend against an attack by an Austrian, British, and Hanoverian Coalition army under Austrian Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.
The Battle of Valmy was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution.
The Battle of Winterthur (27 May 1799) was an important action between elements of the Army of the Danube and elements of the Habsburg army, commanded by Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze, during the War of the Second Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
The Black Forest (Schwarzwald) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.
The Brabant Revolution or Brabantine Revolution (Révolution brabançonne, Brabantse Omwenteling), sometimes referred to as the Belgian Revolution of 1789–90 in older writing, was an armed insurrection that occurred in the Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) between October 1789 and December 1790.
The Brenta is an Italian river that runs from Trentino to the Adriatic Sea just south of the Venetian lagoon in the Veneto region, in the north-east of Italy.
Brian Lavery MA, (born 18 July 1945) is a British naval historian, author, and Curator Emeritus at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
The Brunswick Manifesto was a proclamation issued by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, commander of the Allied Army (principally Austrian and Prussian), on 25 July 1792 to the population of Paris, France during the War of the First Coalition.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The Capture of the Dutch fleet at Den Helder or the Battle of Texel occurred in the night of the 23 January 1795, and presents a rare occurrence of a "naval" battle between warships and cavalry, in which a French Hussar regiment surprised a Dutch fleet frozen at anchor between the port of Den Helder and the island of Texel.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic and Royal Armies (in French: Armées catholique et royale) is the name given to the royalist armies in western France composed of insurgents during the war in the Vendée and the Chouannerie, who opposed the French revolution, hence they were counterrevolutionary by definition.
Ceva, the ancient Ceba, is a small Italian town in the province of Cuneo, region of Piedmont, east of Cuneo.
Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez (26 January 1739 – 14 March 1823) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Charles IV (Spanish: Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
General Charles O'Hara (1740 – 25 February 1802) was a British military officer who served in the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence, and French Revolutionary War, and later served as Governor of Gibraltar.
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg und Fürst von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) (9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806), was ruler of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and a military leader.
Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand, Comte de Linois (27 January 1761 – 2 December 1848) was a French admiral during the time of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Cherasco is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southeast of Turin and about northeast of Cuneo.
Christian VII (29 January 1749 13 March 1808) was a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who was King of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death.
Claude Jacques Lecourbe (22 February 1759 – 22 October 1815), born in Besançon, was a French general during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
The Coalition Wars (French: Guerres de Coalitions, German: Koalitionskriege, Dutch: Coalitieoorlogen etc.) were a series of seven wars waged by various military alliances, known as the Coalitions, between great European powers against Revolutionary France, and from 1799 onwards General and later Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public)—created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793—formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–94), a stage of the French Revolution.
The Convention of 1800,, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine, was a treaty between the United States of America and France to settle the hostilities that had erupted during the Quasi-War.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French took place on Sunday December 2, 1804 (11 Frimaire, Year XIII according to the French Republican Calendar) at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.
County Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo, meaning "Plain of the yew trees") is a county in Ireland.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.
Dagobert Sigismund, Count von Wurmser (7 May 1724 – 22 August 1797) was an Austrian field marshal during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Declaration of Pilnite, more commonly referred to as the Declaration of Pillnitz, was a statement issued on 27 August 1791 at Pillnitz Castle near Dresden (Saxony) by Frederick William II of Prussia and the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II who was Marie Antoinette's brother.
A demi-brigade (Half-brigade) is a military formation used by the French Army since the French Revolutionary Wars.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
Divisional general is a rank of general in command of a division.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
The Duchy of Württemberg (Herzogtum Württemberg) was a duchy located in the south-western part of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.
The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.
The Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz, Electoratus Moguntinus), also known in English by its French name, Mayence, was among most prestigious and the most influential states of the Holy Roman Empire from its creation to the dissolution of the HRE in the early years of the 19th century.
Engen is a town in the district of Konstanz, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
Ferdinand I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825), was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars.
Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, O.S.I. (9 November 1744 – 12 May 1805) was the 71st Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, formally the Order of St.
The First Battle of Algeciras was a naval battle fought on 6 July 1801 (17 messidor an IX of the French Republican Calendar) between a squadron of British Royal Navy ships of the line and a smaller French Navy squadron at anchor in the fortified Spanish port of Algeciras in the Strait of Gibraltar.
In the First Battle of Zurich on 4 – 7 June 1799, French general André Masséna was forced to yield the city to the Austrians under Archduke Charles and retreat beyond the Limmat, where he managed to fortify his positions, resulting in a stalemate.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The Flanders Campaign (or Campaign in the Low Countries) was conducted from 6 November 1792 to 7 June 1795 during the first years of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.
François Étienne de Kellermann, 2nd Duc de Valmy (4 August 1770 – 2 June 1835) was a French cavalry general noted for his daring and skillful exploits during the Napoleonic Wars.
François Christophe Kellermann or de Kellermann, 1st Duc de Valmy (28 May 1735 – 23 September 1820) was a French military commander, later the Général d'Armée, a Marshal of France and a freemason.
François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt (14 October 1733 – 21 July 1798), a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years' War.
Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers, Comte de Brueys (February 12, 1753 – August 1, 1798) was the French commander in the Battle of the Nile, in which the French Revolutionary Navy was defeated by Royal Navy forces under Admiral Horatio Nelson.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (Friedrich Ludwig Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen) (31 January 1746 – 15 February 1818) was a Prussian general.
Frederick William II (Friedrich Wilhelm II.; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was King of Prussia from 1786 until his death.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
The French expedition to Ireland, known in French as the Expédition d'Irlande ("Expedition to Ireland"), was an unsuccessful attempt by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars to assist the outlawed Society of United Irishmen, a popular rebel Irish republican group, in their planned rebellion against British rule.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French invasion of Switzerland (French: Campagne d'Helvétie, German: Franzoseneinfall) occurred from January until May 1798 as part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802.
Freudenstadt is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
Friedrich Freiherr (Baron) von Hotze (20 April 1739 – 25 September 1799), was a Swiss-born general in the Austrian army during the French Revolutionary Wars, campaigned in the Rhineland during the War of the First Coalition and in Switzerland in the War of the Second Coalition, notably at Battle of Winterthur in late May 1799, and the First Battle of Zurich in early June 1799.
A "general of the branch" or "general of the branch of service" is a rank equivalent to a three-star lieutenant general or four-star general.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Georges Lefebvre (6 August 1874 – 28 August 1959) was a French historian, best known for his work on the French Revolution and peasant life.
The Glorious First of June (also known in France as the Bataille du 13 prairial an 2 or Combat de Prairial)Note A of 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Gotthard Pass or St.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Great St Bernard Pass (Col du Grand St-Bernard, Colle del Gran San Bernardo, Grosser Sankt Bernhard) is the third highest road pass in Switzerland.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Guillaume Marie-Anne Brune, 1st Comte Brune (13 March 1763 – 2 August 1815) was a French soldier and political figure who rose to Marshal of France.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Hüfingen is a town in the district of Schwarzwald-Baar, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Heliopolis was a major city of ancient Egypt.
In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).
Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, (30 May 1757 – 15 February 1844) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister from 1801 to 1804.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Huningue (Alsatian: Hinige) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department of Alsace in north-eastern France.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution.
The invasion of France in 1795 or the Battle of Quiberon was a major landing on the Quiberon peninsula by émigré, counter-revolutionary troops in support of the Chouannerie and Vendée Revolt, beginning on 23 June and finally definitively repulsed on 21 July.
Investment is the military process of surrounding an enemy fort (or town) with armed forces to prevent entry or escape.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) sometimes called the Republic of Connacht was a short lived puppet state proclaimed as the successor to the Kingdom of Ireland during the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana) was a short-lived (1802–1805) republic located in Northern Italy.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jacques François Coquille named Dugommier (1 August 1738, Trois-Rivières, Guadeloupe – 18 November 1794, at the Battle of the Black Mountain) was a French general.
Étienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald, 1st Duke of Taranto (17 November 1765 – 25 September 1840) was a Marshal of the Empire and military leader during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Jacques Pierre Brissot (15 January 1754 – 31 October 1793), who assumed the name of de Warville (an English version of "d'Ouarville", a hamlet in the village of Lèves where his father owned property), was a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution and founder of the abolitionist Société des Amis des Noirs.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Admiral James Saumarez, 1st Baron de Saumarez (or Sausmarez), GCB (11 March 1757 – 9 October 1836) was an admiral of the British Royal Navy, notable for his victory at the Battle of Algeciras.
Sir James Wallace (1731 – 6 March 1803) was an officer of the Royal Navy.
Jan Henryk Dąbrowski (also known as Johann Heinrich Dąbrowski (Dombrowski) in German and Jean Henri Dombrowski in French; 29 August 1755 – 6 June 1818) was a Polish general and statesman, widely respected after his death for his patriotic attitude, and described as a national hero.
Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar (أحمد الجزار; Cezzar Ahmet Paşa; ca. 1720–30s7 May 1804) was the Acre-based Ottoman governor of Sidon from 1776 until his death in 1804.
Freiherr Joseph Alvinczi von Borberek a.k.a. Baron József Alvinczi de Borberek (Joseph Alvinczy, Freiherr von Berberek; 1 February 1735 – 25 September 1810) was a soldier in the Habsburg Army and a Field Marshal of the Austrian Empire.
Jean Augustin Ernouf (Manuel Louis Jean Augustin or Auguste Ernouf) (29 August 1753 – 12 September 1827) was a French general and colonial administrator of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
Jean Victor Marie Moreau (14 February 1763 – 2 September 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, 1st Comte Jourdan (29 April 1762 – 23 November 1833), enlisted as a private in the French royal army and rose to command armies during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jean-Baptiste Kléber (9 March 1753 – 14 June 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jean-Charles Pichegru (16 February 1761 – 5 April 1804) was a distinguished French general of the Revolutionary Wars.
Johann Peter de Beaulieu, also Jean Pierre de Beaulieu (born 26 October 1725 in Lathuy, Brabant, Belgium– died 22 December 1819), was a Walloon military officer.
John Albert Lynn (born March 18, 1943) is a military historian who has written on a wide variety of topics in his field, with an emphasis on early modern Europe.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Campbell, 1st Baron Cawdor, FRS FSA (ca. 1753 – 1 June 1821), was a British art-collector and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1777 to 1796.
Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent (9 January 1735 – 14 March 1823) was an admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
The Julian Alps (Julijske Alpe, Alpi Giulie) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretch from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia and of the former Yugoslavia.
Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg.
The Kingdom of Etruria (Regno di Etruria) was a kingdom between 1801 and 1807 which made up a large part of modern Tuscany.
The Kingdom of France as remnant of the preceding absolute Kingdom of France, was a constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792, when this constitutional monarchy was succeeded by the First Republic.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
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The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
Lake Constance (Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance, and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.
Lake Garda (Lago di Garda or Lago Benàco, Benacus; Lach de Garda; Łago de Garda) is the largest lake in Italy.
Landrecies is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel (19 January 1736 in Middelburg – 7 May 1800 in Lingen) was Grand Pensionary of Zeeland and, from 9 November 1787 to 4 February 1795, of Holland.
Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, 1st Marquis of Gouvion-Saint-Cyr (13 April 1764 – 17 March 1830) was a French commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars who rose to Marshal of France and Marquis.
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot (13 May 1753 – 2 August 1823) was a French mathematician, physicist and politician.
Louis Lazare Hoche (24 June 1768 – 19 September 1797) was a French soldier who rose to be general of the Revolutionary army.
La Légion noire (The Black Legion) was a military unit of the French Revolutionary Army.
Löffingen is a town in the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Lech (Licca) is a river in Austria and Germany.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.
The Ligurian Republic (Repubblica Ligure) was a short-lived French client republic formed by Napoleon on 14 June 1797.
Longwy (Langich, Longkech) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in northeastern France.
Louis Charles Antoine Desaix (17 August 176814 June 1800) was a French general and military leader.
Louis Joseph de Bourbon (9 August 1736 – 13 May 1818) was Prince of Condé from 1740 to his death.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Dona Maria I (English: Mary I; 17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Maubeuge (historical Mabuse or Malbode) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Count Maximilian Anton Karl Baillet de Latour (Maximilien-Antoine-Charles-Joseph Comte de Baillet de Latour) (14 December 173722 July 1806) was an Austrian general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
Meßkirch is a town in the district of Sigmaringen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
Michael Friedrich Benedikt Baron von Melas (12 May 1729 – 31 May 1806) was a Transylvanian-born field marshal of Saxon descent for the Austrian Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
Michelangelo Alessandro Colli-Marchi, or Michele Angelo Alessandro Colli-Marchei or Michael Colli, (Vigevano 1738 – Florence 22 December 1808) joined the Austrian army, became a general officer, and led the army of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont for three years, including its unsuccessful campaign against Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The military career of Napoleon Bonaparte spanned over 20 years.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
The Montenotte Campaign began on 10 April 1796 with an action at Voltri and ended with the Armistice of Cherasco on 28 April.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Murad Bey Mohammed (1750 – 22 April 1801) was an Egyptian Mamluk chieftain (Bey), cavalry commander and joint ruler of Egypt with Ibrahim Bey.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
The Legislative Assembly (Assemblée législative) was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution.
Neuburg an der Donau, literally Newcastle on the river Danube, is a town which is the capital of the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district in the state of Bavaria in Germany.
Newfoundland Colony was the name for an English and later British colony established in 1610 on the island of the same name off the Atlantic coast of Canada, in what is now the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
North Brabant (Noord-Brabant), also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands.
Oberkirch is a town in Western Baden-Württemberg, Germany about 12 km North-East of Offenburg and belongs to the Ortenaukreis district.
Johan Olfert Fischer (4 August 1747 – 18 February 1829) was a Danish officer in the Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy.
Vom Kriege is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife Marie von Brühl in 1832.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Owen Sergeson "Mike" Connelly Jr. (29 January 1924 – 12 July 2011), who published as Owen Connelly, was an American historian who specialized in military history, especially the Napoleonic wars.
Paddy Griffith (4 February 1947, Liverpool, England – 25 June 2010) was a British military theorist and historian, who authored numerous books in the field of War Studies.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Filippo Antonio Pasquale di Paoli FRS (Pascal Paoli; 6 April 1725 – 5 February 1807) was a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica.
Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (30 June 1755 – 29 January 1829), commonly known as Paul Barras, was a French politician of the French Revolution, and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799.
Baron Paul Davidovich or Pavle Davidović (Павле Давидовић) (1737, Buda – 18 February 1814, Komárom) became a general of the Austrian Empire and a Knight of the Military Order of Maria Theresa.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
Baron Paul Kray of Krajova and Topolya (Topola; Krajovai és Topolyai báró Kray Pál; 5 February 1735 – 19 January 1804), was a soldier, and general in Habsburg service during the Seven Years' War, the War of Bavarian Succession, the Austro–Turkish War (1787–1791), and the French Revolutionary Wars.
Paul W. Schroeder (born February 23, 1927)International Who's Who 2000, Vol.
The Peace of Basel of 1795 consists of three peace treaties involving France during the French Revolution (represented by François de Barthélemy).
The Peasants' War (Guerre des Paysans, Boerenkrijg, Klöppelkrieg, Klëppelkrich) was a peasant revolt in 1798 against the French occupiers of the Southern Netherlands, a region which now includes Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of Germany.
Perpignan (Perpinyà) is a city, a commune, and the capital of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Peter Vitus Freiherr von Quosdanovich (Croatian: Petar Vid Gvozdanović; 12 June 1738 – 13 August 1802) was a Croatian nobleman and general of the Habsburg Monarchy.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Charles Pierre François Augereau, 1st Duc de Castiglione (21 October 1757 – 12 June 1816) was a soldier and general and Marshal of France.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
The Polish Legions (Legiony Polskie we Włoszech; also known as the Dąbrowski Legions) in the Napoleonic period, were several Polish military units that served with the French Army, mainly from 1797 to 1803, although some units continued to serve until 1815.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pope Pius VI (25 December 1717 – 29 August 1799), born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (German Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld) (26 December 1737 – 26 February 1815) was a general in the Austrian service.
During the French Revolution, the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy (French: Proclamation de l'abolition de la royauté) was a proclamation by the National Convention of France announcing that it had abolished the French monarchy on 21 September 1792.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
The Quasi-War (Quasi-guerre) was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800.
For the English cricketer, administrator, and schoolmaster, see Roger Knight Roger John Beckett Knight (born 11 April 1944) is a British naval historian of the 18th century, a former Deputy Director of the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, and author of a biography of Admiral Lord Nelson.
Sir Ralph Abercromby (sometimes spelt Abercrombie) (7 October 173428 March 1801) was a Scottish soldier and politician.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February.
Roussillon (or;; Rosselló, Occitan: Rosselhon) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees).
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood (12 December 1724 – 27 January 1816) was a Royal Navy officer.
San Michele Mondovì is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about south of Turin and about east of Cuneo.
Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.
Sauldorf is a municipality in the district of Sigmaringen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Schaffhausen (Schafuuse; Schaffhouse; Sciaffusa; Schaffusa; Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality in northern Switzerland, and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 36,000.
The Second Battle of Algeciras (also known as the Battle of the Gut of Gibraltar) was a naval battle fought on the night of 12 July 1801 (23 messidor an IX of the French Republican Calendar) between a squadron of British Royal Navy ships of the line and a larger squadron of ships from the Spanish Navy and French Navy in the Gut of Gibraltar.
The Second Battle of Bassano on 6 November 1796, saw a Habsburg Austrian army commanded by Jozsef Alvinczi fight Napoleon Bonaparte's French Army of Italy.
The Second Battle of Dego was fought on 14 and 15 April 1796 during the French Revolutionary Wars between French forces and Austro-Sardinian forces.
The Second Battle of Zurich (25–26 September 1799) was a key victory by the Republican French army in Switzerland led by André Masséna over an Austrian and Russian force commanded by Alexander Korsakov near Zürich.
The Second Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 19 August 1796 between Spain and the First French Republic.
Selim III (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) (24 December 1761 – 28 July 1808) was the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, GCB, GCTE, KmstkSO, FRS (21 June 1764 – 26 May 1840) was a British naval officer.
The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, walled city of Acre (now Akko in modern Israel) and was the turning point of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Syria.
The Siege of Bastia was a combined British and Corsican military operation during the early stages of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Siege of Calvi was a combined British and Corsican military operation during the Invasion of Corsica in the early stages of the French Revolutionary Wars.
During the Siege of Mantua, which lasted from 4 July 1796 to 2 February 1797 with a short break, French forces under the overall command of Napoleon Bonaparte besieged and blockaded a large Austrian garrison at Mantua for many months until it surrendered.
The Siege of San Fiorenzo (or Siege of Saint-Florent) was a British military operation, supported by Corsican partisans early in the French Revolutionary Wars against the French-held town of San Fiorenzo on the Mediterranean island of Corsica.
The Siege of Toulon (29 August – 19 December 1793) was a military operation by Republican forces against a Royalist rebellion in the southern French city of Toulon.
Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Simplon Pass (Col du Simplon; Simplonpass; Passo del Sempione) is a high mountain pass between the Pennine Alps and the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland.
A sister republic (république sœur) was a republic established by the French army that was catalyzed by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Spithead and Nore mutinies were two major mutinies by sailors of the Royal Navy in 1797.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Steen Andersen Bille (1751–1833) was a successful Danish naval officer and a member of the Bille family.
Stockach is a town in the district of Konstanz, in southern Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (Schweizer Mittelland; plateau suisse; altopiano svizzero) is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps.
Timothy Blanning is a Professor of history and politics at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
The Tagliamento is a braided river in north-east Italy, flowing from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea at a point between Trieste and Venice.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Théobald Dillon (1745, Dublin – 1792, near Lille) was count of Dillon and an Irish-born general in the French army.
Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (also known as Alexandre Dumas; 25 March 1762 – 26 February 1806) was a general in Revolutionary France and the highest-ranking man of mixed African descent ever in a European army.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
The Titisee is a lake in the southern Black Forest in Baden-Württemberg.
Tolentino is a town and comune of about 20,000 inhabitants, in the province of Macerata in the Marche region of central Italy.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (9 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido) was signed on 18 October 1797 (27 Vendémiaire VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively.
The Treaty of Florence (28 March 1801), which followed the Armistice of Foligno (9 February 1801), brought to an end the war between the French Republic and the Kingdom of Naples, one of the Wars of the French Revolution.
The Treaty of Leoben was a general armistice and preliminary peace agreement between the Holy Roman Empire and the First French Republic that ended the War of the First Coalition.
The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801.
The Treaty of Paris of May 15, 1796 was a treaty between the French Republic and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia during the War of the First Coalition.
Trento (anglicized as Trent; local dialects: Trènt; Trient) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy.
Trevor Nevitt Dupuy (May 3, 1916 – June 5, 1995) was a colonel, United States Army, retired, soldier and noted military historian.
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Tuileries Palace (Palais des Tuileries) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine.
Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.
An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Var (Var, Varo, Varus) is a river located in the southeast of France.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Verdun (official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
The Veronese Easter (Italian: Pasque Veronesi, or singular Pasqua Veronese; Pâques véronaises) was a rebellion during the Italian campaign of 1797, in which inhabitants of Verona and the surrounding areas revolted against the French occupying forces under Antoine Balland, while Napoleon Bonaparte (the French supreme commander in the Italian campaign) was fighting in Austria.
Victor Amadeus III (Vittorio Amadeo Maria; 26 June 1726 – 16 October 1796) was King of Sardinia from 1773 to his death.
Jean-Baptiste Victor Hugues sometimes spelled Hughes (born in Marseille July 20, 1762 and died in Cayenne August 12, 1826) was a French politician and colonial administrator during the French Revolution, who governed Guadeloupe from 1794 to 1798, emancipating the island's slaves under orders from the National Convention.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Chef de brigade (colonel) William Tate was the Irish-American commander of a French military force known as ''La Légion Noire'' ("The Black Legion") which invaded Britain in 1797, resulting in the Battle of Fishguard.
William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.
Theobald Wolfe Tone, posthumously known as Wolfe Tone (20 June 1763 – 19 November 1798), was a leading Irish revolutionary figure and one of the founding members of the United Irishmen, and is regarded as the father of Irish republicanism and leader of the 1798 Irish Rebellion.
13 Vendémiaire Year 4 (5 October 1795 in the French Republican Calendar) is the name given to a battle between the French Revolutionary troops and Royalist forces in the streets of Paris.
Anglo-French War (1793-1802), Anglo-French War (1793–1802), French Revolutionary War, French Revolutionary wars, French revolutionary wars, Great French War, Revolutionary Wars of France, War of the French Revolution, Wars of the French Revolution.