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Shirer, Woodrow Wilson, Working class, Working time, World War I, World War I reparations, World War II, X-ray, Young Christian Workers, 16 May 1877 crisis, 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, 6 February 1934 crisis. Expand index (273 more) » « Shrink index
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
Action française (AF; French Action) is a French right-wing political movement.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers (15 April 17973 September 1877) was a French statesman and historian.
L'Affaire des Fiches de délation (“affair of the cards of denunciation”) was a political scandal in France in 1904–1905 in which it was discovered that the militantly anticlerical War Minister under Emile Combes, General Louis André, was determining promotions based on religious behavior.
The Agadir Crisis or Second Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Panthersprung in German) was a brief international crisis sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of Morocco in April 1911.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agricultural History is a quarterly peer reviewed academic journal published by the American Agricultural History Society.
Albert François Lebrun (29 August 1871 – 6 March 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940.
Jacques-Victor-Albert, 4th duc de Broglie (13 June 182119 January 1901) was a French monarchist politician, diplomat and writer (of historical works and translations).
Alfred Dreyfus (9 October 1859 – 12 July 1935) was a French Jewish artillery officer whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason became one of the most tense political dramas in modern French history with a wide echo in all Europe.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Anatole-Amédée-Prosper Courbet (26 June 1827 – 11 June 1885) was a French admiral who won a series of important land and naval victories during the Tonkin campaign (1883–86) and the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
italic (born italic,; 16 April 1844 – 12 October 1924) was a French poet, journalist, and successful novelist with several best-sellers.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
André Géraud (18 October 1882 - 11 December 1974) was a French journalist who wrote under the pseudonym Pertinax.
André Pierre Gabriel Amédée Tardieu (22 September 1876 – 15 September 1945) was three times Prime Minister of France (3 November 1929 – 17 February 1930; 2 March – 4 December 1930; 20 February – 10 May 1932) and a dominant figure of French political life in 1929–1932.
The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 or the Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
Anti-English sentiment or Anglophobia (from Latin Anglus "English" and Greek φόβος, phobos, "fear") means opposition to, dislike of, fear of, or hatred towards England or the English people.
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
The Appeal of 18 June (L'Appel du 18 juin) was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940.
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
Aristide Briand (28 March 18627 March 1932) was a French statesman who served eleven terms as Prime Minister of France during the French Third Republic and was a co-laureate of the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
Army Group A (Heeresgruppe A) was the name of several German Army Groups during World War II.
Army Group B (German: Heeresgruppe B) was the title of three German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.
Army Group C (in German, Heeresgruppe C or HGr C) was an army group of the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War.
The Augustinians of the Assumption (A.A.) constitute a worldwide congregation of Catholic priests and brothers.
Auguste Vaillant (27 December 1861 – 5 February 1894) was a French anarchist, most famous for his bomb attack on the French Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1893.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
Édouard Adolphe Drumont (3 May 1844 – 5 February 1917) was a French journalist and writer.
Édouard Marie Herriot (5 July 1872 – 26 March 1957) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic who served three times as Prime Minister and for many years as President of the Chamber of Deputies.
Émile Justin Louis Combes (6 September 1835 – 25 May 1921) was a French statesman and freemason who led the Bloc des gauches's cabinet from June 1902 – January 1905.
Émile François Loubet (30 December 1838 – 20 December 1929) was the 45th Prime Minister of France and later President of France.
Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France; it is linked to the European Central Bank (ECB).
The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Fuzhou, or Battle of Foochow, also known as the Battle of the Pagoda Anchorage (French: Combat naval de Fou-Tchéou, Chinese:, 馬江之役 or 馬尾海戰, literally Battle of Mawei), was the opening engagement of the 16-month Sino-French War (December 1883 – April 1885).
The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870.
The Battle of Sedan or Second Battle of Sedan (12–15 May 1940)Frieser 2005, p. 196.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
A Bonapartiste was a person who either actively participated in or advocated conservative, monarchist and imperial political faction in nineteenth century France.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Lefts Cartel (Cartel des gauches) was the name of the governmental alliance between the Radical-Socialist Party and the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) after World War I (1914–18), which lasted until the end of the Popular Front (1936–38).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in France is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome.
The causes of World War I remain controversial.
France has a long history of governmental censorship, particularly in the 16th to 18th centuries, but today freedom of press is guaranteed by the French Constitution and instances of governmental censorship are limited.
Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing, but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
Chamber of Deputies (la Chambre des députés) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles-Marie-Photius Maurras (20 April 1868 – 16 November 1952) was a French author, politician, poet, and critic.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 15th - 20 th centuries.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
The Communards were members and supporters of the short-lived 1871 Paris Commune formed in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War and France's defeat.
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris.
France was the first modern nation state to introduce universal military conscription as a condition of citizenship.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Croix-de-Feu (Cross of Fire) was a nationalist French league of the Interwar period, led by Colonel François de la Rocque (1885–1946).
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The word decadence, which at first meant simply "decline" in an abstract sense, is now most often used to refer to a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state.
The Democratic Alliance (Alliance démocratique, AD), originally called Democratic Republican Alliance (Alliance républicaine démocratique, ARD), was a French political party (1901–1978) created in 1901 by followers of Léon Gambetta, such as Raymond Poincaré who would be president of the Council in the 1920s.
In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket.
The penal colony of Cayenne (French: Bagne de Cayenne), commonly known as Devil's Island (Île du Diable), was a French penal colony that operated in the 19th and 20th century in the Salvation's Islands of French Guiana.
The Dreyfus Affair (l'affaire Dreyfus) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Republic which saw a significant improvement in Anglo-French relations.
Eugen Joseph Weber (April 24, 1925 in Bucharest, Romania – May 17, 2007 in Brentwood, Los Angeles, California) was a Romanian-born American historian with a special focus on Western Civilization.
European History Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles in the field of history.
The far-right leagues (ligues d'extrême droite) were several French far-right movements opposed to parliamentarism, which mainly dedicated themselves to military parades, street brawls, demonstrations and riots.
The Fashoda Incident or Crisis was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa, occurring in 1898.
In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine.
Charles Marie Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy (16 December 1847 – 21 May 1923) was an officer in the French Army from 1870 to 1898.
The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west.
The First Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Tangier Crisis) was an international crisis between March 1905 and May 1906 over the status of Morocco.
The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.
The history of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes.
The History of France from 1914 to the present includes.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Franco-Russian Alliance, or Russo-French Rapprochement, was an alliance formed by the agreements of 1891–93; it lasted until 1917.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
The Constitutional Laws of 1875 were the laws passed in France by the National Assembly between February and July 1875 which established the Third French Republic.
The French Crown Jewels (Joyaux de la Couronne de France) comprise the crowns, orb, sceptres, diadems and jewels that were symbols of Royal power between 752 and 1825.
French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
French Historical Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering French history.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
Legislative elections were held in France on 8 February 1871 to elect the first legislature of the French Third Republic, the unicameral National Assembly.
The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
The 1872–1880 French Military Mission to Japan was the second French military mission to that country.
The 1884 French Military Mission to Japan was the third French military mission to that country and consisted of five men.
The French Aeronautical Mission to Japan (1918-1919) was the first foreign military mission to Japan since the 1890s.
French nationalism promotes the cultural unity of the French nation.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
French presidential elections under the Third Republic involved the election of the President of France by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Social Party (Parti Social Français, PSF) was a French nationalist political party founded in 1936 by François de La Rocque, following the dissolution of his Croix-de-Feu league by the Popular Front government.
The Dyle Plan or Plan D was the plan of the Commander-in-Chief of the French Army, Général d'armée Maurice Gamelin to defeat a German attempt to invade France through Belgium.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs' authority or the State's authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Pope's.
Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.
Georges-Étienne Bonnet (22/23 July 1889 – 18 June 1973) was a French politician and leading figure in the Radical Party.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
Georges Dufayel (1 January 1855 – 28 December 1916) was a Parisian retailer and businessman who popularized and expanded the practice of buying merchandise on credit (installment plans) and purchasing from catalogues.
Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger (29 April 1837 – 30 September 1891), nicknamed Général Revanche, was a French general and politician.
The German colonial empire (Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
The German occupation of north-east France refers to the period in which French territory, mostly along the Belgian and Luxembourgish border, was held under military occupation by the German Empire during World War I. Owing to the speed of the German invasion of Belgium in 1914, fighting reached French soil early in the war.
A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Government of National Defense (Gouvernement de la Défense nationale) was the first government of the Third Republic of France from 4 September 1870 to 13 February 1871 during the Franco-Prussian War.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Gringoire was a political and literary weekly newspaper in France, founded in 1928 by Horace de Carbuccia (son-in-law of Jean Chiappe, the prefect of police involved in the Stavisky Affair), Georges Suarez and Joseph Kessel.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.
Henri, Count of Chambord (Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné d'Artois, duc de Bordeaux, comte de Chambord); 29 September 1820 – 24 August 1883) was disputedly King of France from 2 to 9 August 1830 as Henry V, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. Afterwards, he was the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. He was nearly received as King in 1871 and 1873. Henri was the posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of Charles X of France, by his wife, Princess Carolina of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies. As the grandson of the King Charles X of France, Henri was a Petit-Fils de France. He also was the last legitimate descendant in the male line of Louis XV of France (His grandfather Charles X was a grandson of Louis XV).
Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British statesman who served successively as the fifth Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
Historical Reflections (fr: Réflexions Historiques) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of history published by Berghahn Books.
History Compass is a peer-reviewed online-only academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell.
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The history of the Jews in Alsace is one of the oldest in Europe.
History Today is an illustrated history magazine.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) was an imperial and royal European dynasty founded in 1804 by Italian noble Carlo Buonaparte and his son Napoleon I, a French military leader of Italian heritage who had risen to notability out of the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his ''coup d'état'' of November 1799.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The International Review of Social History (IRSH) is a scholarly journal founded, in its current format, in 1956, by the International Institute of Social History (IISH).
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
"J'accuse...!" ("I accuse...!") was an open letter published on 13 January 1898 in the newspaper L'Aurore by the influential writer Émile Zola.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.
Jean Adrien Antoine Jules Jusserand (18 February 185518 July 1932) was a French author and diplomat.
Jean-Baptiste Duroselle (17 November 1917, Paris – 12 September 1994, Arradon) was a French historian and professor.
Jean-Louis Crémieux-Brilhac (22 January 1917 – 8 April 2015) was a member of the Free French Forces in World War II and the France Libre organization based in London.
Jean-Pierre Azéma (born 1937) is a French historian.
John Gunther (August 30, 1901 – May 29, 1970) was an American journalist and author.
Joseph Leo Cardijn (13 November 1882 – 24 July 1967) was a Belgian Roman Catholic cardinal and the founder of the Young Christian Workers.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Journal of European Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of European studies especially the cultural history of Europe since the Renaissance.
Journal of Family History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the fields of History and Anthropology.
The Journal of Social History, was founded in 1967 and has been edited since then by Peter Stearns.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.
The Jules Ferry Laws are a set of French Laws which established free education (1881), then mandatory and laic (secular) education (1882).
François Paul Jules Grévy (15 August 1807 – 9 September 1891) was a President of the French Third Republic and one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republican faction.
Jules François Simon (31 December 1814 – 8 June 1896) was a French statesman and philosopher, and one of the leaders of the Moderate Republicans in the Third French Republic.
German Cameroon (Kamerun) was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon.
The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.
La Croix (English: The Cross) is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009.
La Libre Parole or La Libre Parole illustrée (French; The Free Word) was a French antisemitic political newspaper (1892, in Paris – June 1924) founded in 1892 by the journalist and polemicist Édouard Drumont.
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
La Samaritaine (French pronunciation: la samaʁitɛn) was a large department store in Paris, France, located in the first arrondissement.
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Latin Quarter of Paris (Quartier latin) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris.
The Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 (Loi sur la liberté de la presse du 29 juillet 1881), often called the Press Law of 1881 or the Lisbonne Law after its rapporteur, Eugène Lisbonne, is a law that defines the freedoms and responsibilities of the media and publishers in France.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
Léon Gambetta (2 April 1838 – 31 December 1882) was a French statesman, prominent during and after the Franco-Prussian War.
Le Bon Marché (lit. "the good market", or "the good deal" in French) is a department store in Paris.
Le Canard enchaîné (English: The Chained Duck or The Chained Paper, as "canard" is French slang meaning "newspaper"), is a satirical weekly newspaper in France.
Le Petit Journal was a conservative daily Parisian newspaper founded by Moïse Polydore Millaud; published from 1863 to 1944.
Le Petit Parisien was a prominent French newspaper during the French Third Republic.
Le Petit Provençal (The Little Provincial) was a French provincial daily newspaper founded in Marseille in 1880.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
The Legitimists (Légitimistes) are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution.
Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, equality, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.
The League of Patriots (Ligue des Patriotes) was a French far right league, founded in 1882 by the nationalist poet Paul Déroulède, historian Henri Martin, and Félix Faure.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire; it extended over of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s.
The Prime Minister of France is the head of the Government of France.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis-Jules Trochu (12 March 18157 October 1896) was a French military leader and politician.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
The Manstein Plan is one of the names used to describe the war plan of the German Army during the Battle of France in 1940.
Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (6 July 1886 – 16 June 1944) was a French historian who cofounded the highly influential Annales School of French social history.
Marie Claire is an international monthly magazine first published in France in 1937, followed by the UK in 1941.
Marie François Sadi Carnot (11 August 1837 – 25 June 1894) was a French statesman, who served as the President of France from 1887 until his assassination in 1894.
Martin Thomas (born 1964) is a British Historian.
A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.
Maurice Gustave Gamelin (20 September 1872 – 18 April 1958) was a senior French Army general.
Maurice Paléologue (13 January 1859 – 18 November 1944) was a French diplomat, historian, and essayist.
Maurice Rouvier (17 April 1842 – 7 June 1911) was a French statesman of the "Opportunist" faction, who served as the Prime Minister of France.
Maxime Weygand (21 January 1867 – 28 January 1965) was a French military commander in World War I and World War II.
Maximilian Friedrich Wilhelm August Leopold von Schwartzkoppen (24 February 1850 – 8 January 1917) was a Prussian military officer.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
The military history of France during World War II covers three periods.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The National Bloc (Bloc national) was a Centre-right political coalition in France which was in power from 1919 to 1924.
The National Guard (la Garde nationale) is a French gendarmerie that existed from 1789 to 1872, including a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, re-founded in 2016.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to meet its second reparation payment of the £6.6 billion that was dictated in the Treaty of Versailles by the Triple Entente(1919) in the aftermath of World War I.
The Moderates or Moderate Republicans (Républicains modérés), pejoratively labeled Opportunist Republicans (Républicains opportunistes), were a French political group active in the late 19th century, during the Third French Republic.
The Orléanists were a French right-wing (except for 1814–1830) faction which arose out of the French Revolution as opposed to Legitimists.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
The Panama Canal Zone (Zona del Canal de Panamá) was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama.
The Panama scandals (also known as the Panama Canal Scandal or Panama Affair) was a corruption affair that broke out in the French Third Republic in 1892, linked to the building of the Panama Canal.
The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Paris-Soir was a large-circulation daily newspaper in Paris, France from 1923 to 1944.
A parochial school is a private primary or secondary school affiliated with a religious organization, and whose curriculum includes general religious education in addition to secular subjects, such as science, mathematics and language arts.
Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, 6th Marquess of MacMahon, 1st Duke of Magenta (born Marie Edme Patrice Maurice; 13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893), was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France.
Pierre Paul Cambon (20 January 1843 in Paris – 29 May 1924 in Paris) was a French diplomat and brother to Jules Cambon.
Paul Déroulède (2 September 1846 – 30 January 1914) was a French author and politician, one of the founders of the nationalist League of Patriots.
Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel (13 February 1855 in Schaerbeek28 April 1922) was a French statesman.
Paul Reynaud (15 October 1878 – 21 September 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany.
Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus; 1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was a Roman military leader and Roman Emperor for the first three months of 193, succeeding Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
Pierre Jean-Marie Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician.
Pierre Renouvin (January 9, 1893 – December 7, 1974) was a French historian of international relations.
Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau (2 December 1846 – 10 August 1904) was a French Republican politician.
Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922), was head of the Catholic Church from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922.
Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.
Pope Saint Pius X (Pio), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, usually made up of leftists and centrists.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Prince Philippe of Orléans, Count of Paris (Louis Philippe Albert; 24 August 1838 – 8 September 1894), was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
The Quai d’Orsay is a quay in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, part of the left bank of the Seine, and the name of the street along it.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
The Radical Party (Parti radical, also Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad.) was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France.
James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920.
In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.
Jean Raphaël Adrien René Viviani (8 November 18637 September 1925) was a French politician of the Third Republic, who served as Prime Minister for the first year of World War I. He was born in Sidi Bel Abbès, in French Algeria.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Review of Economic Dynamics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the Society for Economic Dynamics.
Reviews in American History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1973 and published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
The Revue des deux Mondes (Review of the Two Worlds) is a French language monthly literary and cultural affairs magazine that has been published in Paris since 1829.
The Riom Trial (Procès de Riom; 19 February 1942 – 21 May 1943) was an attempt by the Vichy France regime, headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain, to prove that the leaders of the French Third Republic (1870–1940) had been responsible for France's defeat by Germany in 1940.
Robert J. Young (born 1942) is a Canadian historian and former professor of history at the University of Winnipeg (1968–2008).
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
The Siege of Paris, lasting from 19 September 1870 to 28 January 1871, and the consequent capture of the city by Prussian forces, led to French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of the German Empire as well as the Paris Commune.
The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Territory of the Saar Basin (Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium; Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.
Théophile Delcassé (1 March 1852 – 22 February 1923) was a French statesman and foreign minister 1898-1905.
The Big Four or The Four Nations refer to the four top Allied powers of the World War I and their leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919.
The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 by William L. Shirer (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969) deals with the collapse of the French Third Republic as a result of Hitler's invasion during World War II.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
The Treaty of Frankfurt (Traité de Francfort; Friede von Frankfurt) was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
The union sacrée (sacred union) was a political truce in France in which the left-wing agreed, during World War I, not to oppose the government or call any strikes.
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Vichy (Vichèi in Occitan) is a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
A war economy is the set of contingencies undertaken by a modern state to mobilize its economy for war production.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
The Western Society for French History (WSFH) is, along with the Society for French Historical Studies, one of the two primary historical societies devoted to the study of French history headquartered in the United States.
William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
Working time is the period of time that a person spends at paid labor.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The Young Christian Workers (YCW; Jeunesse ouvrière chrétienne) is an international organization founded by Rev.
The 16 May 1877 crisis (Crise du seize mai) was a constitutional crisis in the French Third Republic concerning the distribution of power between the President and the legislature.
The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (French) was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1905.
The 6 February 1934 crisis was an anti-parliamentarist street demonstration in Paris organized by multiple far-right leagues that culminated in a riot on the Place de la Concorde, near the seat of the French National Assembly.
France under the Third Republic, French 3rd republic, French Republic (1870-1940), French Republic (1870–1940), IIIrd Republic, La IIIe République, La Troisième République, The Third Republic, Third French Republic, Third Republic (France), Third Republic of France.